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1.
Prev Vet Med ; 175: 104859, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812849

RESUMO

Claw lesions have a multifactorial origin and may affect sow welfare and farm profitability. However, estimating the precise impact is hampered by several factors that interfere with the accuracy of claw lesion assessment. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of observer, scoring condition and claw cleanliness on claw lesion scoring in sows. The first experiment evaluated the impact of observer by calculating the inter- and intra-observer reliability during three test sessions using photographs. The second experiment evaluated the impact of observer, scoring condition (Feet First© chute of Zinpro Corp., "sow chute" vs. Mobile Claw Scoring Device, "MCSD"), and claw cleanliness (clean or soiled claws) on claw lesion scoring. For this experiment, 20 hybrid mid-gestating sows were hoisted up using the sow chute in which the MCSD was positioned. Lateral and medial claw digits of both hind claws were scored for heel horn erosion and separations along the heel/sole junction and white line. Scores were given by drawing a vertical bar on a 160 mm tagged visual analogue scale (tVAS); the severity of a claw lesion type was determined by measuring the distance from 0 mm. Four scores per sow were collected and analysed: clean claws × MCSD video recordings, soiled claws × MCSD video recordings, clean claws × visual scoring in a sow chute, and soiled claws × visual scoring in a sow chute. In both experiments, observer had an impact on the claw lesion scores. The inter-observer reliability was highest for overgrown dewclaws and lowest for the horizontal wall cracks (0.84 and 0.35, resp.). The highest intra-observer reliability was found for overgrown dewclaws and heel horn erosion (0.89) and lowest for vertical wall cracks (0.64). Furthermore, scoring condition and claw cleanliness influenced the scores in the second experiment and the limits of agreements were high (23.5-58.9 mm). The improved concordance correlation coefficient (iCCC) was highest for the heel horn erosion scores. In conclusion, the impact of observer seemed less relevant for claw lesion scoring; however, claw cleanliness and scoring condition were important and cannot be used interchangeably.

2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(6)2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917567

RESUMO

Claw lesions and lameness in sows are important problems in the industry as they impair sow welfare and result in economic losses. Available scoring techniques to detect claw lesions are all limited in terms of collecting data during all reproductive phases and recording all claws. The Mobile Claw Scoring Device (MCSD) was designed to address these limitations. After considering different practical situations and a design phase, two prototypes were constructed and tested. Improvements were incorporated into a final aluminium apparatus, consisting of two cameras with light-emitting diode (LED) lights mounted in a two-segment aluminium box and covered with laminated tempered glass plates. The operating system slides underneath the claws and takes video images. This final prototype was optimised and validated in an experiment with 20 hybrid sows, comparing scores for soiled claws using the MCSD against scores for clean claws using the Feet First© sow chute (as gold standard). Fifty percent of the scores differed between both scoring tools, with mainly medial claw digits deviating, but this seemed biologically irrelevant. The MCSD seems to be an appropriate alternative for on-farm claw scoring and is distinguishable from other claw scoring techniques; however, it needs further optimisation to improve the similarity between the two techniques.


Assuntos
Casco e Garras/fisiologia , Animais , Desenho de Equipamento , Fazendas , Feminino , Doenças do Pé/patologia , Casco e Garras/patologia , Coxeadura Animal , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia
3.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 103(3): 858-867, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900324

RESUMO

DNA methylation is an important epigenetic strategy for embryo development and survival. The one-carbon metabolism can be disturbed by inadequate provision of dietary methyl donors. Because of the continuous selection for larger litters, it is relevant to explore if highly prolific sows might encounter periods of methyl donor deficiency throughout their reproductive cycles. This study, therefore, assesses the fluctuation(s) in methylation potential (MP) and aims to link possible methyl donor deficiencies to nutrient metabolism. In total, 15 hybrid sows were followed from weaning of the previous reproductive cycle (d-5) to weaning of the present cycle. Blood samples were taken at d-5, 0, 21, 42, 63, 84 and d108 of gestation, the day of parturition (d115), two weeks of lactation (d129) and at weaning (d143). Blood plasma samples were analysed for S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), free methionine, free glycine, acetylcarnitine and 3-hydroxybutyrylcarnitine. Serum samples were analysed for urea and creatinine. Generally, MP (i.e. ratio SAM:SAH) increased throughout gestation (p = 0.009), but strongly fluctuated in the period around parturition and weaning. From d108 to parturition, absolute plasma levels of SAM (p < 0.001), SAH (p = 0.031) and methionine (p = 0.001) increased. The first two weeks of lactation were characterised by an increase in MP (p = 0.039) due to a remaining high value of SAM and a distinct decrease in SAH (p = 0.008). During the last two weeks of lactation, MP decreased (p = 0.038) due to a decrease in SAM (p < 0.001) and a stable value for SAH. The methylation reactions seem to continue after weaning, a period crucial for the follicular and embryonic development of the subsequent litter. This study thus demonstrates that the methylation status fluctuates substantially throughout a sow's reproductive cycle, and further research is needed to identify the factors affecting methylation status.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Suínos/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Composição Corporal , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Nutrientes/sangue , Gravidez , Suínos/sangue , Suínos/embriologia
4.
J Anim Sci ; 96(9): 3824-3836, 2018 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29939350

RESUMO

Lowering the CP level in piglet diets reduces the risk of postweaning diarrhea and N excretion to the environment. The question remains at what point CP becomes limiting. An experiment was designed with 2 standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys levels (10 and 11 g) and 6 CP levels (140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190 g/kg) in a 2 × 6 factorial design (with 6 pens of 6 animals each per treatment). Linear and quadratic (QP) mixed models of performance in function of CP were fitted to study the effect of SID Lys and CP and their interaction. To determine optima, QP models and broken line models with linear (BLL) or quadratic (BLQ) ascending portions were fitted through the data. It was hypothesized 1) that the response to a decreasing digestible CP level could be described with broken line models and 2) that the break point of these models is dependent on the dietary SID Lys level. Decreasing the CP level decreased ADG (P < 0.001). For G:F, the effect of decreasing CP level depended on the SID Lys level (P of the interaction = 0.028 in the linear model and P = 0.002 in the QP model). According to the BLL model, with 11 g SID Lys in the diet, G:F started to decline with CP levels < 176 g CP [SID Lys:CP = 0.062, SID Lys:apparent total tract digestible (ATTD) CP = 0.077], and with 10 g SID Lys, CP levels < 165 g/kg (SID Lys:CP = 0.061, SID Lys:ATTD CP = 0.075) depressed performance. Serum creatinine levels showed a linear decrease with increasing SID Lys:CP levels (P < 0.001). Across both SID Lys levels, when fitting a BLL model, minimal serum urea levels were reached at an SID Lys:CP ratio of 0.064. This seems to be the point where CP and not Lys limits muscle deposition. The small difference in break point between serum urea level and performance suggests that the composition of nonessential AA may also be at stake. The effect of decreasing CP level depends on SID Lys, and using a maximal SID Lys:CP ratio may be useful for optimizing the AA profile of dietary CP. When the SID Lys:CP ratio exceeds 0.064 (SID Lys:ATTD CP > 0.079), protein and not individual AA limits growth in most piglets between 4 and 9 wk of age.

5.
PLoS One ; 11(9): e0163625, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27680675

RESUMO

Lameness and lesions to the skin and claws of sows in group housing are commonly occurring indicators of reduced welfare. Typically, these problems are more common in group housing than in individual housing systems. Group management type (dynamic versus static) and stage of gestation influence the behavior of the animals, which in turn influences the occurrence of these problems. The present study compared prevalence, incidence and mean scores of lameness and skin and claw lesions in static versus dynamic group housed sows at different stages of gestation during three consecutive reproductive cycles. A total of 10 Belgian sow herds were monitored; 5 in which dynamic groups and 5 in which static groups were utilized. All sows were visually assessed for lameness and skin lesions three times per cycle and the claws of the hind limbs were assessed once per cycle. Lameness and claw lesions were assessed using visual analogue scales. Static groups, in comparison with dynamic groups, demonstrated lower lameness scores (P<0.05) and decreased skin lesion prevalence (24.9 vs. 47.3%, P<0.05) at the end of gestation. There was no difference between treatment group regarding claw lesion prevalence with 75.5% of sows demonstrating claw lesions regardless of group management. Prevalences of lameness (22.4 vs. 8.9%, P<0.05) and skin lesions (46.6 vs. 4.4%, P<0.05) were highest during the group-housed phase compared to the individually housed phases. Although the prevalence of lameness and skin lesions did not differ three days after grouping versus at the end of the group-housing phase, their incidence peaked during the first three days after moving from the insemination stalls to the group. In conclusion, the first three days after grouping was the most risky period for lameness incidence, but there was no significant difference between static or dynamic group management.

6.
Vet J ; 209: 98-107, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26852946

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to explore whether marginal dietary zinc (Zn) concentrations affect claw quality measurements in weaned pigs. Twenty-four weaned pigs were randomly assigned to two dietary treatment groups: (1) 42 mg Zn/kg diet from ingredients only (unsupplemented, marginal dietary Zn concentration below Zn requirements of 80 mg Zn/kg feed); and (2) 106 mg Zn/kg diet, where Zn was added as ZnO (common commercial dietary Zn concentration). Claw conformation characteristics were measured at the start (day 0, 4 weeks of age) and at the end (day 36) of the study, and the histological claw characteristics of horn wall and heel horn were examined on samples collected at 9 weeks of age. Non-supplemented pigs had narrower claw widths (P= 0.028) and lower toe heights (P= 0.010) at 9 weeks. The length of the dorsal border tended to be lower for the non-supplemented piglets (P= 0.092). Claw volume and claw horn size were lower (P= 0.003 and P < 0.001, respectively) for the non-supplemented pigs at 9 weeks of age. Horn growth and wear were lower for the non-supplemented pigs (P= 0.044 and P < 0.001, respectively), but net horn growth (horn growth minus wear) was not different (P= 0.406). No changes in the histological claw characteristics were observed. Differences in claw quality measurements were found between lateral and medial claw digits and between fore and hind claws. It was concluded that marginal dietary Zn concentration affected various claw quality measurements. Marginal dietary Zn concentrations may not be sufficient to maintain claw quality in pigs.


Assuntos
Casco e Garras/fisiologia , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Zinco/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Casco e Garras/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Sus scrofa/anatomia & histologia , Desmame , Zinco/administração & dosagem
7.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 43(3): 343-55, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26466760

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe anatomical and methodological factors influencing mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MNTs) and intra-site variability in healthy sows. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized validation. ANIMALS: Eight pregnant, healthy, mixed-parity sows (176-269 kg). METHODS: Repeated MNT measurements were taken: 1) with a hand-held probe and a limb-mounted actuator connected to a digital algometer; 2) at nine landmarks on the limbs and tail; and 3) at 1 and 3 minute intervals. Data were analysed using linear mixed regression models. RESULTS: The MNTs (±SEM) of the limbs were lower with the probe (14.7 ± 1.2 N) than with the actuator (21.3 ± 1.2 N; p < 0.001), in the pelvic versus the thoracic limbs (16.7 ± 1.2 versus 19.2 ± 1.2 N; p < 0.001), and in the lateral versus the dorsal metatarsi and metacarpi (17.6 ± 1.2 versus 18.4 ± 1.2 N; p = 0.002). MNTs were higher in all subsequent measurements compared with the first (p < 0.001) and in the morning compared with the afternoon (p = 0.04). We found no evidence of MNT differences based on interval between consecutive measurements (1 versus 3 minutes). Variability was lower in the thoracic limbs [mean back-transformed log10 coefficient of variation (CV) ± SE = 25.5 ± 1.5% versus 30.6 ± 1.5% in the pelvic limbs; p < 0.001], with the actuator (22.7 ± 1.5% versus 33.4 ± 1.5% with the probe; p < 0.001), and on the left (CV = 26.9 ± 1.5% versus 29.3 ± 1.5% on the right; p = 0.01). Tail data (probe only) were analysed separately: mean MNT (± SE) was 11.7 (±1.8); MNT increased in days 3-6 of testing compared with day 1 (p < 0.001). The mean CV (±SE) was 38.9% (±1.1%). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: MNTs and intra-site variability in healthy sows were affected by several factors, indicating that this methodology requires considerable attention to detail.


Assuntos
Limiar da Dor , Suínos , Animais , Feminino , Estimulação Física , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Br J Nutr ; 114(4): 544-52, 2015 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26198294

RESUMO

Fluctuations in Zn metabolism throughout gestation and lactation might affect Zn requirements. However, scientific data on Zn requirements for breeding sows are limited. The objective of the present study was to assess the Zn status of primiparous and multiparous sows using different Zn status biomarkers, to identify periods of critical Zn status throughout the reproductive cycle at different parities. Blood samples were taken after overnight fasting before feeding in the morning from five primiparous and ten multiparous sows at fixed time intervals during gestation (days - 5, 0 (insemination), 21, 42, 63 and 84), around parturition (days 108, 112, 115 (parturition) and 118) and during lactation (days 122, 129 and 143 (weaning)). At parturition, blood samples were collected from two randomly selected piglets per sow before colostrum intake. Plasma was analysed for Zn and Cu contents, whereas serum was analysed for alkaline phosphatase, metallothionein and albumin concentrations. Independently of parity, all biomarkers fluctuated differently during gestation and lactation (P< 0·050). This reflects their different roles in Zn metabolism, and suggests that the choice of a Zn status biomarker necessitates careful consideration. Low average plasma Zn concentration at the end of gestation and throughout lactation seem to be replenished towards weaning.


Assuntos
Lactação/sangue , Prenhez/sangue , Reprodução , Desmame , Zinco/sangue , Albuminas/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Colostro , Feminino , Metalotioneína/sangue , Paridade , Parto , Gravidez , Fenômenos Reprodutivos Fisiológicos , Suínos , Zinco/metabolismo
9.
Vet J ; 200(2): 287-93, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24680671

RESUMO

This study investigated whether the immunocompetence of piglets at weaning was modulated by including different sources of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the maternal diet. From day 73 of gestation until weaning at 4 weeks, 32 pregnant sows were fed a palm oil-based diet (control group) or a diet including 1% linseed oil (C18:3n-3), 1% echium oil (C18:3n-3, C18:4n-3, C18:3n-6) or 1% fish oil (C20:5n-3, C22:6n-3). It was hypothesized that each diet would differently affect immune function through effects such as specific eicosanoid production. Piglets were fed a conventional diet without added n-3 PUFA from weaning until day 35 post-weaning. At weaning and 21 days post-weaning, four piglets per litter were immunized with bovine thyroglobulin. Blood samples were taken from weaning until day 35 post-weaning to determine thyroglobulin-specific antibodies, serum amyloid A (SAA) concentration and fatty acid composition. The fatty acid composition of the maternal diets was reflected in the plasma and red blood cells of the weaned piglets. The onset of the thyroglobulin-specific IgM response differed between dietary groups, with a delay in response for piglets from sows fed the fish oil diet. No significant dietary effects were observed on the thyroglobulin-specific IgG and IgA titres or on SAA concentrations in the piglet serum. Including n-3 PUFA in the maternal diet at the concentrations used in the present study had no major effects on the adaptive and innate immunity of the piglets after weaning.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais Recém-Nascidos/imunologia , Animais Recém-Nascidos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Sus scrofa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sus scrofa/imunologia , Desmame
10.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 68(1): 16-28, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24444364

RESUMO

Because research indicates that responses on dietary restrictions may depend on the gender of pigs, we examined the interaction between the lysine level in different feeding periods and the performance and carcass quality of barrows in a 2 × 2 factorial trial. In total 192 barrows were divided over 32 pens of six animals, and each pen was assigned to one of four dietary treatments: (1) high lysine levels in the growing (25-42 kg body weight [BW]), early finishing (42-73 kg BW) and in the late finishing period (73-110 kg BW) (Group HH); (2) high lysine levels in the growing and early finishing period, and low lysine level in the late finishing period (Group HL); (3) low lysine levels in the growing and early finishing period, and high lysine level in the late finishing period (Group LH); and (4) low lysine levels in all periods (Group LL). To obtain the high lysine diets, L-lysine, as well as L-threonine, DL-methionine and L-tryptophan, were added to the low-lysine diets. The low-lysine diets contained 20% (in growing) or 30% (in finishing) lysine less than the high-lysine diets. Feeding Diet LH increased the daily gain and decreased the feed-to-gain ratio in the subsequent late finishing phase (p < 0.05). Between start and slaughter, Group LL showed lower daily gain and a higher feed-to-gain ratio than the three other groups (p < 0.05). Carcass yield and lean meat percentage depended on sufficient amino acid (AA) provision in the late finishing feed (p < 0.05). Lowering the AA concentrations in the diet decreased the amount of lysine needed per kg gain and per kg lean gain (p < 0.05). An interaction between AA levels in the different phases and lean gain was observed, with Group LL showing lower lean gain than the other three groups (p < 0.05). This study shows that strategic provision of a sufficient amount of AAs either in the growing and early finishing period or in the late finishing period largely counteracts the negative effects of AA restriction in other feeding phases. Barrows can show compensatory growth after a period of AA restriction. The results of the present study show that a sufficient level of lysine in the late finishing feed rather than in the growing and early finishing feed is important for obtaining good carcass quality.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/veterinária , Lisina/farmacologia , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Lisina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Suínos/fisiologia
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 110(29): 11809-14, 2013 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23801763

RESUMO

Oral feed-based passive immunization can be a promising strategy to prolong maternal lactogenic immunity against postweaning infections. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)-caused postweaning diarrhea in piglets is one such infection that may be prevented by oral passive immunization and might avert recurrent economic losses to the pig farming industry. As a proof of principle, we designed anti-ETEC antibodies by fusing variable domains of llama heavy chain-only antibodies (VHHs) against ETEC to the Fc part of a porcine immunoglobulin (IgG or IgA) and expressed them in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds. In this way, four VHH-IgG and four VHH-IgA antibodies were produced to levels of about 3% and 0.2% of seed weight, respectively. Cotransformation of VHH-IgA with the porcine joining chain and secretory component led to the production of light-chain devoid, assembled multivalent dimeric, and secretory IgA-like antibodies. In vitro analysis of all of the antibody-producing seed extracts showed inhibition of bacterial binding to porcine gut villous enterocytes. However, in the piglet feed-challenge experiment, only the piglets receiving feed containing the VHH-IgA-based antibodies (dose 20 mg/d per pig) were protected. Piglets receiving the VHH-IgA-based antibodies in the feed showed a progressive decline in shedding of bacteria, significantly lower immune responses corroborating reduced exposure to the ETEC pathogen, and a significantly higher weight gain compared with the piglets receiving VHH-IgG producing (dose 80 mg/d per pig) or wild-type seeds. These results stress the importance of the antibody format in oral passive immunization and encourage future expression of these antibodies in crop seeds.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Imunização Passiva/veterinária , Sementes/metabolismo , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Arabidopsis , Sequência de Bases , Enterócitos/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/prevenção & controle , Imunoglobulina A/química , Imunoglobulina A/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/química , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Suínos
13.
Vet Microbiol ; 160(3-4): 449-54, 2012 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22776514

RESUMO

Helicobacter suis is a zoonotically important bacterium, that has been associated with gastritis and ulcerative lesions of the pars oesophagea of the stomach in pigs. Its exact role in these pathologies, however, still remains controversial. Therefore, a total of 29 medicated early weaned piglets were inoculated intragastrically or orally, with a total of 2 × 10(9) viable H. suis bacteria and the effect on gastric pathology and weight gain was determined. Twenty-three medicated early weaned piglets were inoculated with a sterile culture medium and used as sham-inoculated controls. The animals were euthanized between 28 and 42 days after inoculation. Infected animals showed a more severe gastritis compared to the control group. There was also a significant reduction of approximately 60 g per day (10%) in weight gain in H. suis inoculated animals compared to the sham-inoculated control animals. In conclusion, this study demonstrates for the first time that a pure in vitro culture of H. suis not only causes gastritis but also a marked decrease of the daily weight gain in experimentally infected pigs.


Assuntos
Gastrite/veterinária , Infecções por Helicobacter/veterinária , Helicobacter heilmannii/fisiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia , Ganho de Peso , Animais , Gastrite/patologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/patologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estômago/microbiologia , Estômago/patologia , Suínos , Urease/metabolismo
14.
Animals (Basel) ; 2(1): 76-84, 2012 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26486778

RESUMO

Four experimental diets for newly weaned pigs were formulated: (1) low valine and low tryptophan; (2) low valine and high tryptophan; (3) high valine and low tryptophan and (4) high valine and high tryptophan. Dietary standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine content was 1.06 g/kg. The SID valine to SID lysine ratio was 0.58 and 0.67 for the low and high valine diets, respectively, and SID tryptophan to SID lysine ratios were 0.19 and 0.22 for the low and high tryptophan diets, respectively. In total, 64 pens of 6 pigs (3 barrows and 3 gilts) were divided over the four experimental treatments. No interaction between dietary supply of valine and tryptophan was observed (P > 0.1 for all parameters). Increasing the dietary valine content increased the daily feed intake, daily gain and gain:feed (P < 0.001 for all three parameters). Increasing the dietary tryptophan content improved gain:feed during the first 2 weeks (P < 0.05) and overall (P < 0.05). Valine supply had a greater effect on performance results than tryptophan supply. It may thus be beneficial to provide a diet with an optimal dietary concentration of valine even if other amino acids are at suboptimal dietary levels.

15.
Res Vet Sci ; 91(2): 327-32, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21300388

RESUMO

Pork consumers know little about boar taint and the methods used to avoid it. As such, relevant information is necessary to assist consumers to judge the acceptability of different strategies to avoid boar taint. The effect of basic (T1) or extensive (T2) written information or T2 with supplementary audio-visual information (AV) on the opinion concerning immunocastration (IC), raising entire male pigs (EM) and surgical castration with anaesthesia (SA) as compared to castration without anaesthesia (SC) was investigated in a student population. Overall, IC was significantly preferred over SC. The information condition influenced the preference for IC and EM as compared to SC. Participants exposed to AV were more positive to IC than participants exposed to T1 and T2, and more positive to EM than participants exposed to T2. The impact of information condition was not affected by gender, farming experience, knowledge about the boar taint issue or personal relevance of pig welfare. Potential effects of providing background information and media campaigns on public surveys ought to be considered. Supplementary audio-visual information increased the impact of information provisioning.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Carne/normas , Orquiectomia/veterinária , Criação de Animais Domésticos/ética , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Bem-Estar do Animal/ética , Animais , Bélgica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Orquiectomia/ética , Orquiectomia/métodos , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sus scrofa , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Sci Food Agric ; 91(7): 1254-8, 2011 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21328365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This experiment examined the influence of different amino acid levels during the growing and early finishing diet and the late finishing diet on growth performance and carcass quality of a lean meat type gilt. In a two by two factorial trial, 96 gilts were divided over four treatments. The two factors were (1) amino acid level in growing and early finishing and (2) amino acid level in late finishing. For the low amino acid diets we lowered the lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan levels by 20% and 30% in the growing and two finishing phases, respectively. RESULTS: Restricting amino acid levels in growing and early finishing led to a decreased growth rate but improved efficiency of amino acid use, which lasted into the subsequent phase. Pigs on a high amino acid diet in late finishing pigs were able to compensate to a large extent for amino acid restriction in growing and early finishing. Amino acid content in late finishing determined carcass quality. CONCLUSION: In the lean meat type gilts used in this experiment, restricting amino acid concentrations by 20% in the growing and 30% in the early finishing phase increased the growth rate and efficiency of growth in the subsequent late finishing phase. In order to obtain good carcass quality, it is crucial to provide the animals with a balanced diet during the late finishing phase.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Ração Animal , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Carne/análise , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Feminino , Carne/normas
18.
Animal ; 5(7): 1119-23, 2011 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22440107

RESUMO

With the ongoing social pressure on surgical castration of pigs, an increase in the population of pigs that are either not castrated or immunocastrated (IC) can be expected. In both cases, their nutrient requirements and performance will differ from surgically castrated pigs and will require changes in their management. Immunocastration is performed by giving two injections of a modified gonadotrophin-releasing hormone component along with an adjuvant, at least 4 weeks apart. This paper describes the reported differences in growth performance and carcass quality of IC male pigs in comparison with boars (BO) and barrows (BA). Theoretically, IC pigs remain physiologically boar until the second vaccination and therefore, growth may be comparable with BO until this second vaccination. From then on, IC male pigs consume more feed than BO and grow faster when fed ad libitum. IC showed a faster growth and better feed conversion ratio than BA. When fed restrictedly, BO grow faster and more efficiently than BA and IC. IC have a lower carcass yield than BA and BO, whereas meat percentage is intermediate.

19.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 64(1): 1-11, 2010 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20496857

RESUMO

This study examined the effect of decreasing ideal protein concentrations on performance and nutrient efficiency. The experimental diets contained 100%, 90%, 80% or 70% of the ideal dietary protein level (Diet 100%, 90%, 80% and 70%, respectively) estimated in previous experiments with pigs of the same genetic background. The four different treatments were divided among 16 pens of six pigs each. The average initial and final body weight were 20.8 +/- 1.1 and 107 +/- 3 kg, respectively. Three-phase feeding was applied (BW 20-40 kg, 40-70 kg and 70-110 kg). The dietary ileal digestible (ID) methionine + cystine, threonine, tryptophan, isoleucine, valine, and leucine contents expressed as percent of ID lysine were 63, 72, 22, 60, 68, and > 100%, respectively. The lysine to protein ratio was kept constant at 6.8%. Between 21 and 106 kg BW the best performance was achieved on Diet 90%. Diet 70% led to significantly worse results. Although lean meat percentage did not differ, protein content of the carcass was lower on Diet 70% than on Diets 90% and 100%. Decreased protein concentrations increased crude protein efficiency and consequently decreased nitrogen excretion most at the 80% level. If protein varies together with digestible amino acid content, it can be concluded that Diet 80% may be the best choice for the environment and for profitability. If protein content stays at a fixed level, Diet 90% may be the safest choice.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 62(2): 127-40, 2008 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18459537

RESUMO

In Belgium, crossing a hybrid dam with a Piétrain sire leads to a rather lean and meaty fattening pig type. A digestibility trial and a performance trial were carried out to determine protein needs of this pig type. Six experimental diets with increasing protein content were formulated with 0.65-1.25% apparent ileal digestible lysine. The feeds were formulated to the ideal protein composition, with lysine as the reference amino acid. Standardised and apparent digestible amino acid values of the extreme diets were measured in a digestibility trial with four gilts cannulated at the end of the ileum, with an average initial and final BW of 39.1 kg and 55.3 kg, respectively, using a protein-free feed to estimate the basal endogenous N-losses. A performance trial at 13-18 weeks of age (40-70 kg BW) was performed with barrows and gilts separately at six protein levels, balanced in lysine, threonine, methionine and tryptophan. The experiment consisted of 11 pens (of 5 animals) per treatment and per sex. Average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) reached maximal performance within the experimental lysine range for both sexes. Based on the ADG-data for barrows and on the ADG- and FCR-data for gilts, a protein level for optimal performance corresponded with a standardised ileal digestible lysine concentration of 0.89% for barrows and of 1.07-1.09% for gilts.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Digestão , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal , Animais , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Feminino , Lisina/administração & dosagem , Lisina/metabolismo , Masculino , Necessidades Nutricionais , Distribuição Aleatória , Ganho de Peso
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