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1.
Haematologica ; 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440924

RESUMO

Pediatric-onset Evans syndrome (pES) is defined by both immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) before the age of 18 years. There have been no comprehensive long-term studies of this rare disease, which can be associated to various immunopathological manifestations (IMs). We report outcomes of the 151 patients with pES and more than 5 years of follow-up from the nationwide French prospective OBS'CEREVANCE cohort. Median age at final follow-up was 18.5 (6.8-50.0) years and the median follow-up period was 11.3 (5.1-38.0) years. At 10 years, ITP and AIHA were in sustained complete remission in 54.5% and 78.4% of patients, respectively. The frequency and number of clinical and biological IMs increased with age: at 20 years old, 74% had at least one clinical cIM. A wide range of cIMs occurred, mainly lymphoproliferation, dermatological, gastrointestinal/hepatic and pneumological IMs. The number of cIMs was associated with a subsequent increase in the number of second-line treatments received (other than steroids and immunoglobulins; hazard ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-1.60; p = 0.0002, Cox proportional hazards method). Survival at 15 years after diagnosis was 84%. Death occurred at a median age of 18 (1.7-31.5) years, and the most frequent cause was infection. The number of second-line treatments and severe/recurrent infections were independently associated with mortality. In conclusion, longterm outcomes of pES showed remission of cytopenias but frequent IMs linked to high secondline treatment burden. Mortality was associated to drugs and/or underlying immunodeficiencies, and adolescents-young adults are a high-risk subgroup.

2.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 68(1): e28706, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034135

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is rare in the first two decades of life comprising only 3% of newly diagnosed pediatric and adolescent leukemias. We studied the epidemiologic and clinical features of patients with CML diagnosed at younger than 3 years of age and evaluated treatment and long-term outcome. METHOD: Data from the International Pediatric I-BFM/CML Registry were retrospectively analyzed using the European LeukemiaNet criteria of the year 2006. Characteristics and treatment outcome of patients <3 years old at diagnosis were evaluated from standardized forms. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients (n = 22/479; 4.6%, male/female:14/8) were enrolled with a median age of 22 months (range, 10-34 m). Major symptoms comprised asthenia (30%), fever (30%), abdominal pain (20%), extramedullary signs (14%), hemorrhage (5%), and weight loss (5%). The extramedullary signs were specified in eight children: blueberry muffin (n = 1), sudden swollen abdomen (n = 1), sustained vomiting (n = 1), and cervical and inguinal lymph nodes (n = 5). Two of five children with cervical and inguinal lymph nodes were categorized as accelerated phase. Overall, 19 of 22 (86%) children were diagnosed in chronic phase, while the remaining three patients were in advanced phase. Median follow-up was 78 months (range, 7-196 m). Twenty-one out of 22 patients initially received imatinib, while one child received IFN + ARA-C. Imatinib was changed to second-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in 29% of cases. During follow-up, 41% patients underwent stem cell transplantation (SCT). While on TKI, major molecular response (MMR) was achieved in 48% of children. Among the remaining patients, 21% are alive on TKI without MMR and 22% achieved complete molecular response following SCT. Twenty-one of 22 (95%) children are alive, while one patient died of posttransplant complications. CONCLUSION: This report demonstrates for the first time the efficacy and long-term effects of upfront imatinib in the so far largest cohort of children with CML diagnosed at very young age.

3.
World J Clin Oncol ; 11(6): 308-319, 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874947

RESUMO

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in minors is a rare disease which can be effectively treated by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) since the year 2000. A majority of pediatricians will encounter one or two CML patients in the course of their careers and will typically have to rely on written information along with their own intuition to provide care. Knowledge of response to TKIs and of age-specific side effects has an impact on the design of pediatric CML trials in many ways aiming to contribute toward greater predictability of clinical improvements. Information from a registry on a rare disease like CML offers the enormous benefit of enabling treating physicians to interact and share their collective experience. The International Registry on Pediatric CML (IR-PCML) was founded at Poitiers/France almost 10 years ago. Since then, the number of collaboration centers and in parallel of registered patients continuously increased (> 550 patients as of December 2019). Ideally, from a given treatment center in a country data are transferred to a national coordinator who interacts with the IR-PCML. In the sense of quality assurance, the registry can offer dissemination of knowledge on state-of-the-art diagnostics (including reference appraisal), optimal treatment approaches, and follow-up procedures within a network that is exerting its strength via participation. With continuous growth during the recent years, very rare subgroups of patients could be identified (e.g., CML diagnosed at age < 3 years, children presenting with specific problems at diagnosis or during course of treatment) which had not been described before. Publications coming from the IR-PCML disseminated this useful information derived from patients who robustly participate and share information about their disease, among themselves and with their caregivers and clinicians. Patient input driving the collection of data on this rare leukemia is the basis for the considerable success of bringing new therapeutics into clinical use.

4.
Eur J Cancer ; 137: 224-234, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is a rare disease in children. The frequency and outcome of children evolving to accelerated phase (AP) or blastic phase (BP) under treatment with imatinib is unknown. The aim of the current study is to assess the incidence of progression from CML in chronic phase with imatinib frontline in a paediatric setting and describe the management and outcome of these patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the I-CML-Ped Study database (www.clinicaltrials.gov, #NCT01281735), 19 of 339 paediatric patients in chronic phase treated with imatinib in the frontline evolved to CML-AP or CML-BP. RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 38 months (range: 2-190 months), the cumulative incidence of progression at 1 and 3 years was 3% (confidence interval [CI] 95%: 1-5%) and 7% (CI 95%: 4-11%), respectively. We observed a large predominance of lymphoid-BP (70%) over myeloid-BP (30%) with imatinib in frontline therapy. Sixteen patients underwent haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and eight were treated with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor after transplant. Only the transplanted patients are alive. The 5-year overall survival rate of children with CML-AP/BP is 44%, with no statistical difference between the lymphoid-BP and myeloid-BP outcome. CONCLUSION: Children evolving to AP or BP under treatment with imatinib have a very poor prognosis with an overall survival under 50%, much worse than children with advanced phase at diagnosis.

5.
Neurooncol Adv ; 2(1): vdaa075, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666050

RESUMO

Background: New rescue regimens are needed for pediatric refractory/recurrent low-grade glioma. Nilotinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has potential synergistic effects with vinblastine on angiogenesis, tumor cell growth, and immunomodulation. Methods: This phase I trial aimed to determine the recommended doses of this combination for phase II trials (RP2D) using the dual-agent Bayesian continual reassessment method. Nilotinib was given orally twice daily (BID) in combination with once-weekly vinblastine injections for a maximum of 12 cycles of 28 days (clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01884922). Results: Thirty-five pediatric patients were enrolled across 4 dose levels. The median age was 7 years and 10 had neurofibromatosis type 1. Patients had received a median of 3 prior treatment lines and 25% had received more than 4 previous treatment lines. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) during cycle 1 was hematologic, dermatologic, and cardiovascular. The RP2D was identified at 3 mg/m2 weekly for vinblastine with 230 mg/m2 BID for nilotinib (estimated probability of DLT = 18%; 95% credibility interval, 7-29%). Fifteen patients completed the 12 cycles; 2 stopped therapy prematurely due to toxicity and 18 due to disease progression. Three patients achieved a partial response leading to an objective response rate of 8.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9-23.7), and the disease control rate was 85.3% (95% CI, 68.9-95.1). The 12-month progression-free survival was 37.1% (95% CI, 23.2-53.67). Conclusions: Vinblastine and nilotinib combination was mostly limited by myelosuppression and dermatologic toxicity. The efficacy of the combination at the RP2D is currently evaluated in a randomized phase II trial comparing this regimen to vinblastine alone.

6.
Br J Haematol ; 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700439

RESUMO

The nucleoside analogue, 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (2CDA), was reported to be an active treatment for childhood Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) without risk organ (RO-) involvement. However, we lack data on long-term effects of 2CDA treatment, including the disease reactivation rate, permanent sequelae and long-term tolerance. This study included 44 children from the French LCH registry, treated for a RO- LCH with 2CDA monotherapy (median number of six courses). The median age at the beginning of 2CDA was 3·6 years (range, 0·3-19·7 years) and the median follow-up after was 5·4 years (range, 0·6-15·1 years). Objective response to 2CDA was observed in 25 patients (56·8%), while six patients (13·6%) had stable disease and 13 patients (29·5%) exhibited progressive disease. Among patients without progression, only two experienced disease reactivation after 2CDA discontinuation. The five-year cumulative incidence of disease progression or reactivation after 2CDA therapy initiation was 34·3%. The lymphopenia reported in all cases [72% below absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) of 0·5 G/l], was addressed with appropriate prophylactic measures. Other toxicities above grade 2 were uncommon, and no second malignant neoplasm or neuropathy was reported. The five-year overall survival was 97·7%. In conclusion, we could confirm that 2CDA monotherapy was a beneficial long-term therapy for treating patients with RO- LCH. Appropriate management of induced immune deficiency is mandatory.

7.
Eur J Cancer ; 136: 107-112, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ponatinib is effective in adults with Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) leukaemias, but scant data are available regarding the use of this tyrosine kinase inhibitor in children. AIMS: The aim of this study isto describe the tolerance and efficacy of compassionate use of ponatinib in a paediatric cohort of patients with Ph+ leukaemias. METHODS: Data from 11 children with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) registered to the international registry of childhood chronic myeloid leukaemia and from 3 children with Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (Ph+ ALL) treated with ponatinib were collected retrospectively. RESULTS: In 11 girls and 3 boys (median age 14 years), ponatinib was used as a second- to eighth-line treatment. Ponatinib was administered as single therapy (9 patients) or in combination with chemotherapy (8 patients). The status of the disease when ponatinib was started was as follows: CML in advanced phases (n = 8), CML in chronic phase without achievement of molecular response (n = 2) or presence of T315I mutation (n = 1) and Ph + ALL in molecular (n = 1) or marrow (n = 2) relapses. The median dose administered was 21.4 mg/m2 and median duration of ponatinib was 2.5 months. Ponatinib alone or in combination with chemotherapy administered on 16 occasions led to achievement of major molecular response in 50% of cases. Ponatinib was used as a bridge to transplant in 4 cases. Among the 9 patients treated with ponatinib alone, toxicity grade III-IV (2 patients) was exclusively haematologic. No vascular events related to ponatinib were observed. CONCLUSION: Ponatinib may be a reasonable additional treatment option for children with Ph+ leukaemias who have failed several lines of therapy.

8.
Environ Int ; 138: 105622, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The exposome is defined as encompassing all environmental exposures one undergoes from conception onwards. Challenges of the application of this concept to environmental-health association studies include a possibly high false-positive rate. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to reduce the dimension of the exposome using information from DNA methylation as a way to more efficiently characterize the relation between exposome and child body mass index (BMI). METHODS: Among 1,173 mother-child pairs from HELIX cohort, 216 exposures ("whole exposome") were characterized. BMI and DNA methylation from immune cells of peripheral blood were assessed in children at age 6-10 years. A priori reduction of the methylome to preselect BMI-relevant CpGs was performed using biological pathways. We then implemented a tailored Meet-in-the-Middle approach to identify from these CpGs candidate mediators in the exposome-BMI association, using univariate linear regression models corrected for multiple testing: this allowed to point out exposures most likely to be associated with BMI ("reduced exposome"). Associations of this reduced exposome with BMI were finally tested. The approach was compared to an agnostic exposome-wide association study (ExWAS) ignoring the methylome. RESULTS: Among the 2284 preselected CpGs (0.6% of the assessed CpGs), 62 were associated with BMI. Four factors (3 postnatal and 1 prenatal) of the exposome were associated with at least one of these CpGs, among which postnatal blood level of copper and PFOS were directly associated with BMI, with respectively positive and negative estimated effects. The agnostic ExWAS identified 18 additional postnatal exposures, including many persistent pollutants, generally unexpectedly associated with decreased BMI. DISCUSSION: Our approach incorporating a priori information identified fewer significant associations than an agnostic approach. We hypothesize that this smaller number corresponds to a higher specificity (and possibly lower sensitivity), compared to the agnostic approach. Indeed, the latter cannot distinguish causal relations from reverse causation, e.g. for persistent compounds stored in fat, whose circulating level is influenced by BMI.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Expossoma , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Epigenoma , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
9.
Bull Cancer ; 107(1): 113-128, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353136

RESUMO

In the context of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) resistant to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) mutations still remain the sole biological marker that directly condition therapeutic decision. These recommendations aim at updating the use of BCR-ABL1 mutation testing with respect to new available therapeutic options and at repositioning different testing methods at the era of next generation sequencing (NGS). They have been written by a panel of experts from the French Study Group on CML (Fi-LMC), after a critical review of relevant publications. TKD mutation testing is recommended in case of treatment failure but not in case of optimal response. For patients in warning situation, mutation testing must be discussed depending on the type of TKI used, lasting of the treatment, kinetic evolution of BCR-ABL1 transcripts along time and necessity for switching treatment. The kind and the frequency of TKD mutations occasioning resistance mainly depend on the TKI in use and disease phase. Because of its better sensitivity, NGS methods are recommended for mutation testing rather than Sanger's. Facing a given TKD mutation, therapeutic decision should be taken based on in vitro sensitivity and clinical efficacy data. Identification by sequencing of a TKD mutation known to induce resistance must lead to a therapeutic change. The clinical value of testing methods more sensitive than NGS remains to be assessed.


Assuntos
Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/genética , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Mutação Puntual , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Domínio Catalítico , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , DNA de Neoplasias/análise , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Substituição de Medicamentos , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/antagonistas & inibidores , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/enzimologia , Biologia Molecular , Domínios Proteicos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Papel (figurativo)
10.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(4): 812-820, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676669

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated nilotinib exposure in pediatric patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) or Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) resistant to, relapsed on, refractory to, or intolerant of previous treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients (aged 1-<18 years) with CML resistant to or intolerant of imatinib and/or dasatinib (n = 11) or Ph+ ALL relapsed on or refractory to standard therapy (n = 4) enrolled in this phase I study. Nilotinib (230 mg/m2 twice daily; equivalent to the adult 400-mg twice-daily dose) was administered orally in 12 or 24 cycles of 28 days. The primary objective was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of nilotinib in pediatric patients. RESULTS: The area under the concentration-time curve at steady state was slightly lower in pediatric patients versus adults (14,751.4 vs. 17,102.9 ng/h/mL); the geometric mean ratio (GMR; pediatric:adult) was 0.86 [90% confidence interval (CI), 0.70-1.06]. Body surface area-adjusted systemic clearance was slightly higher in pediatric versus adult patients (GMR, 1.30; 90% CI, 1.04-1.62). Nilotinib was generally well tolerated. The most common adverse events were headache, vomiting, increased blood bilirubin, and rash. Three patients with CML achieved major molecular response, and three with Ph+ ALL achieved complete remission. CONCLUSIONS: Nilotinib 230 mg/m2 twice daily in pediatric patients provided a pharmacokinetics and safety profile comparable with the adult reference dose; clinical activity was demonstrated in both CML and Ph+ ALL. This dose is recommended for further evaluation in pediatric patients. The safety profile was consistent with that in adults.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/metabolismo , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Esquema de Medicação , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/genética , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/metabolismo , Humanos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/patologia , Masculino , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Distribuição Tecidual
11.
Blood ; 134(23): 2036-2045, 2019 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511239

RESUMO

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is rare in children and accounts for ≤15% of all myeloid leukemia cases. When we initiated this study with nilotinib, imatinib was the only tyrosine kinase inhibitor indicated for pediatric patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) CML in chronic phase (CP); alternative treatment options were needed, particularly for patients who developed resistance or intolerance (R/I) to imatinib. This phase 2 study enrolled pediatric patients with either Ph+ CML-CP R/I to imatinib or dasatinib or newly diagnosed Ph+ CML-CP. Data presented are from analyses with minimum follow-up of up to 24 cycles (1 cycle is 28 days). Fifty-nine patients with Ph+ CML-CP were enrolled, and 58 were treated (R/I, n = 33; newly diagnosed, n = 25). Major molecular response (MMR) rate at cycle 6 in the R/I cohort was 39.4% (primary end point); 57.6% of patients achieved or maintained MMR and 81.8% achieved or maintained complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) by 24 cycles. In patients with newly diagnosed disease, rates of MMR by cycle 12 and CCyR at cycle 12 were 64.0% each (primary end points); by cycle 24, cumulative MMR and CCyR rates were 68.0% and 84.0%, respectively. The safety profile of nilotinib in pediatric patients was generally comparable with the known safety profile in adults, although cardiovascular events were not observed in this study, and hepatic laboratory abnormalities were more frequent; no new safety signals were identified. In summary, nilotinib demonstrated efficacy and a manageable safety profile in pediatric patients with Ph+ CML-CP. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01844765.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Cromossomo Filadélfia , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/sangue , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos
12.
Br J Haematol ; 186(5): 741-753, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124581

RESUMO

Outcomes in childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) are steadily improving due to intensive therapy. Between 1989 and 2008, 599 children with newly diagnosed T-ALL were enrolled in two successive European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer - Children's Leukaemia Group trials (58881 and 58951), both based on the Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster protocol and without cranial irradiation. In the latter trial induction chemotherapy was intensified. The most important randomizations were Medac Escherichia coli asparaginase versus Erwinia asparaginase in trial 58881, and dexamethasone (6 mg/m2 /day) versus prednisolone (60 mg/m2 /day) and prolonged versus conventional asparaginase duration in trial 58951. 8-year event-free survival (EFS) increased from 65·1% to 74·0% in trial 58951. Improvement was most profound for patients with white blood cell (WBC) counts <100 × 109 /l and "good responders" to prephase. Medac E. coli asparaginase was associated with longer EFS [hazard ratio (HR) 0·54, P = 0·0015] and overall survival (HR 0·51, P = 0·0018). Induction therapy with dexamethasone did not improve EFS compared to prednisolone. Remarkably, intensification of central nervous system (CNS)-directed therapy in trial 58951 resulted in fewer bone marrow relapses, while the incidence of CNS relapses remained low. In summary, we showed that adequate asparaginase therapy, intensified induction treatment and intensification of CNS-directed chemotherapy can result in an improvement of outcome in T-ALL patients with good prephase response and initial WBC counts <100 × 109 /l, representing approximately 50% of T-ALL patients.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Eur J Cancer ; 115: 17-23, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is very rare in children. The aim of the study is to report the experience within the I-CML-Ped study in children and adolescents presenting at diagnosis with advanced phase disease and to describe their characteristics and outcomes. METHODS: Of 479 children and adolescents enrolled in the international registry for childhood chronic myeloid leukaemia (I-CML-Ped Study; www.clinicaltrials.govNCT01281735), 36 children (7.5%) presented at initial diagnosis with CML in advanced phase according to the European LeukemiaNet criteria. RESULTS: Nineteen (4%) patients were diagnosed in accelerated phase (CML-AP), and among the 17 patients (3.5%) diagnosed in blastic phase (CML-BP), 70% presented with lymphoid immunophenotype. Initial treatment of CML-AP/CML-BP consisted of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) with or without chemotherapy, leading to complete haematologic response in 33 of 36 (92%) patients. Seventeen patients proceeded to haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. At the last follow-up, 18 of 19 patients with de novo CML-AP are alive in at least major molecular response (MMR) (n = 16), in progression (n = 1) or in molecular relapse (n = 1) and 13 of 17 patients with de novo CML-BP are alive in at least MMR. Five-year overall survival rates are 94% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 66%-99%) and 74% (95% CI: 44%-89%) for patients diagnosed in CML-AP and CML-BP, respectively. CONCLUSION: Children with advanced phase at diagnosis of CML seem to have a better survival rate than that reported for advanced phases evolving under TKI treatment.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/terapia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/mortalidade , Humanos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/mortalidade , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/patologia , Masculino , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Blood ; 134(1): 9-21, 2019 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940614

RESUMO

Evans syndrome (ES) is a rare severe autoimmune disorder characterized by the combination of autoimmune hemolytic anemia and immune thrombocytopenia. In most cases, the underlying cause is unknown. We sought to identify genetic defects in pediatric ES (pES), based on a hypothesis of strong genetic determinism. In a national, prospective cohort of 203 patients with early-onset ES (median [range] age at last follow-up: 16.3 years ([1.2-41.0 years]) initiated in 2004, 80 nonselected consecutive individuals underwent genetic testing. The clinical data were analyzed as a function of the genetic findings. Fifty-two patients (65%) received a genetic diagnosis (the M+ group): 49 carried germline mutations and 3 carried somatic variants. Thirty-two (40%) had pathogenic mutations in 1 of 9 genes known to be involved in primary immunodeficiencies (TNFRSF6, CTLA4, STAT3, PIK3CD, CBL, ADAR1, LRBA, RAG1, and KRAS), whereas 20 patients (25%) carried probable pathogenic variants in 16 genes that had not previously been reported in the context of autoimmune disease. Lastly, no genetic abnormalities were found in the remaining 28 patients (35%, the M- group). The M+ group displayed more severe disease than the M- group, with a greater frequency of additional immunopathologic manifestations and a greater median number of lines of treatment. Six patients (all from the M+ group) died during the study. In conclusion, pES was potentially genetically determined in at least 65% of cases. Systematic, wide-ranging genetic screening should be offered in pES; the genetic findings have prognostic significance and may guide the choice of a targeted treatment.


Assuntos
Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/genética , Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/imunologia , Trombocitopenia/genética , Trombocitopenia/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Adulto Jovem
15.
Br J Haematol ; 185(4): 718-724, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843196

RESUMO

This international study aimed to assess the effect of imatinib discontinuation in paediatric patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) after deep molecular remission (DMR) had been achieved and maintained for at least 2 years. The primary endpoint of this analysis was the molecular relapse-free survival, estimated by the non-parametric Kaplan-Meier method. Major endpoint was the estimated rate of patients without molecular relapse at 6 months. Fourteen patients were enrolled; 4 patients maintained DMR with a follow-up of 24 (two patients), 34 and 66 months, respectively, whereas 10 patients relapsed. All molecular relapses occurred within 6 months (median 3 months, range 1-6) after imatinib discontinuation. The overall probability of maintaining DMR at 6 months was 28·6%. No parameters associated with molecular relapse could be identified. Keeping in mind the rarity of paediatric CML, which contributed to the small size of the cohort, our findings illustrate that imatinib cessation after sustained DMR is successful in only limited numbers of patients, whereas much higher rates are reported in adult patients. Further research is needed to extend the cohort of paediatric CML patients who might achieve treatment-free remission with an ideal prerequisite of predicting the occurrence of molecular relapse l after imatinib cessation.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Criança , Substituição de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Indução de Remissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 3(5): 322-331, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wilms tumour is the most common childhood renal cancer and is genetically heterogeneous. While several Wilms tumour predisposition genes have been identified, there is strong evidence that further predisposition genes are likely to exist. Our study aim was to identify new predisposition genes for Wilms tumour. METHODS: In this exome sequencing study, we analysed lymphocyte DNA from 890 individuals with Wilms tumour, including 91 affected individuals from 49 familial Wilms tumour pedigrees. We used the protein-truncating variant prioritisation method to prioritise potential disease-associated genes for further assessment. We evaluated new predisposition genes in exome sequencing data that we generated in 334 individuals with 27 other childhood cancers and in exome data from The Cancer Genome Atlas obtained from 7632 individuals with 28 adult cancers. FINDINGS: We identified constitutional cancer-predisposing mutations in 33 individuals with childhood cancer. The three identified genes with the strongest signal in the protein-truncating variant prioritisation analyses were TRIM28, FBXW7, and NYNRIN. 21 of 33 individuals had a mutation in TRIM28; there was a strong parent-of-origin effect, with all ten inherited mutations being maternally transmitted (p=0·00098). We also found a strong association with the rare epithelial subtype of Wilms tumour, with 14 of 16 tumours being epithelial or epithelial predominant. There were no TRIM28 mutations in individuals with other childhood or adult cancers. We identified truncating FBXW7 mutations in four individuals with Wilms tumour and a de-novo non-synonymous FBXW7 mutation in a child with a rhabdoid tumour. Biallelic truncating mutations in NYNRIN were identified in three individuals with Wilms tumour, which is highly unlikely to have occurred by chance (p<0·0001). Finally, we identified two de-novo KDM3B mutations, supporting the role of KDM3B as a childhood cancer predisposition gene. INTERPRETATION: The four new Wilms tumour predisposition genes identified-TRIM28, FBXW7, NYNRIN, and KDM3B-are involved in diverse biological processes and, together with the other 17 known Wilms tumour predisposition genes, account for about 10% of Wilms tumour cases. The overlap between these 21 constitutionally mutated predisposition genes and 20 genes somatically mutated in Wilms tumour is limited, consisting of only four genes. We recommend that all individuals with Wilms tumour should be offered genetic testing and particularly, those with epithelial Wilms tumour should be offered TRIM28 genetic testing. Only a third of the familial Wilms tumour clusters we analysed were attributable to known genes, indicating that further Wilms tumour predisposition factors await discovery. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Genes do Tumor de Wilms , Tumor de Wilms/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Proteína 7 com Repetições F-Box-WD/genética , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Prognóstico , Proteína 28 com Motivo Tripartido/genética , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Tumor de Wilms/diagnóstico , Tumor de Wilms/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
17.
Bull Cancer ; 106(3): 206-215, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638898

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children has a pejorative prognosis and justifies to be treated by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). A minimal residual disease (MRD) before transplantation is a major part of prognosis. Blinatumomab, a bispecific antibody CD19+/CD3+, allowed to achieve a cytologic and molecular complete remission in adults with refractory B-precursor ALL. This retrospective study analyses results from a pediatric cohort treated by blinatumomab thanks to an interregional structuring consortium. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients between 0 and 23 years old, from the 7 centers of the french "Grand Ouest" interregional network, treated by blinatumomab for a relapsed or refractory ALL, from January 2015 to January 2018, were included. The efficiency of blinatumomab was assessed in terms of complete remission, minimal residual disease, overall survival, and tolerability of treatment. RESULTS: Thirteen of 18 patients achieved a complete remission, with negative minimal residual disease for ten of them. Fourteen patients proceeded to stem cell transplantation,. Eight out of 14 patients obtained long term remission after HSCT. As far as tolerance is concerned, no serious adverse event, neurological or psychiatric disorder, was observed. CONCLUSION: Thanks to an interregional network collaboration, all children with high risk ALL coming from the western french interregion could be treated by blinatumomab. Blinatumomab offered good hematological conditions to undergo HSCT with a good tolerability.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Biespecíficos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , França , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Neoplasia Residual , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/mortalidade , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Indução de Remissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(2): 171-181, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30671780

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) are associated in the definition of Evans syndrome (ES). The occurrence of neurological involvement in this population is poorly described and suggests an underlying primary immunodeficiency (PID). We aimed to describe the clinical manifestations, evolution, and PID profiles of these patients. METHODS: OBS'CEREVANCE is a French, nationwide prospective cohort that includes children with chronic ITP, AIHA, and ES. Patients with a neurological involvement were described. Centralized radiological and pathological reviews and genetic analyses were performed. RESULTS: On October 2016, eight patients (7/181 ES, 1/371 AIHA, and 0/615 ITP) were identified, all male, with a median age (range) at cytopenia onset of 11.5 years (1.6-15.8). Neurological symptoms appeared with a median delay of 6 years (2.5-18) after cytopenia and were polymorphic: seizures (n = 4), cranial nerve palsy (n = 2), Brown-Sequard syndrome (n = 2), intracranial pressure (n = 2), vertigo (n = 1), and/or sensory neuropathy (n = 1). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed inflammatory lesions, confirmed by pathology for five patients with macrophagic or lymphoplasmocytic infiltrates. All patients had other relevant immunopathological manifestations: pulmonary nodules (n = 6), lymphoproliferation (n = 4), abnormal immunophenotype (n = 8), and hypogammaglobulinemia (n = 7). Treatment consisted of steroids that improved symptomatology and MRI. Five patients relapsed and three had an asymptomatic radiological progression. A PID was identified in 3/8 patients: 22q11.2 microdeletion (n = 1) and CTLA deficiency (n = 2). CONCLUSION: Neurological involvement is a rare and severe late event in the course of childhood ES, which can reveal an underlying PID. Imaging and pathology examination highlight a causative immune dysregulation that may guide targeted therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática , Trombocitopenia , Adolescente , Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/diagnóstico , Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Masculino , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/diagnóstico , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/tratamento farmacológico , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/diagnóstico , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/tratamento farmacológico , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Trombocitopenia/diagnóstico , Trombocitopenia/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Br J Haematol ; 183(4): 608-617, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30421536

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative (ND) complications in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) are a late-onset but dramatic sequelae for which incidence and risk factors are not well defined. Based on a national prospective registry of paediatric LCH patients, we determined the incidence rate of clinical ND LCH (cND-LCH) and analysed risk factors, taking into account disease extent and molecular characteristics. Among 1897 LCH patients, 36 (1·9%) were diagnosed with a cND-LCH. The 10-year cumulative incidence of cND-LCH was 4·1%. cND-LCH typically affected patients previously treated for a multisystem, risk organ-negative LCH, represented in 69·4% of cND-LCH cases. Pituitary gland, skin and base skull/orbit bone lesions were more frequent (P < 0·001) in cND-LCH patients compared to those without cND-LCH (respectively 86·1% vs. 12·2%, 75·0% vs. 34·2%, and 63·9% vs. 28·4%). The 'cND susceptible patients' (n = 671) i.e., children who had experienced LCH disease with pituitary or skull base or orbit bone involvement, had a 10-year cND risk of 7·8% vs. 0% for patients who did not meet these criteria. Finally, BRAFV 600E status added important information among these cND susceptible patients, with the 10-year cND risk of 33·1% if a BRAFV 600E mutation was present compared to 2·9% if it was absent (P = 0·002).


Assuntos
Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/epidemiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/metabolismo , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/patologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Fatores de Risco
20.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 65(12): e27431, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30160364

RESUMO

Since the patent for imatinib has expired, the role of generic imatinib (GI) in the management of Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) leukemia in pediatric patients has had ongoing discussion. Some studies in adults demonstrated that equivalent doses of GI and branded imatinib (BI) result in comparable plasma concentrations and clinical efficacy. However, other studies found that GI users are more likely to stop imatinib, with intolerance and decreased persistence as the main causes. Economic factors also heavily influence GI selection. This article aims to review the present knowledge to support further discussion on the role of GI in the management of pediatric Ph+ leukemia.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos Genéricos/uso terapêutico , Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico
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