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1.
Bull Cancer ; 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353136

RESUMO

In the context of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) resistant to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) mutations still remain the sole biological marker that directly condition therapeutic decision. These recommendations aim at updating the use of BCR-ABL1 mutation testing with respect to new available therapeutic options and at repositioning different testing methods at the era of next generation sequencing (NGS). They have been written by a panel of experts from the French Study Group on CML (Fi-LMC), after a critical review of relevant publications. TKD mutation testing is recommended in case of treatment failure but not in case of optimal response. For patients in warning situation, mutation testing must be discussed depending on the type of TKI used, lasting of the treatment, kinetic evolution of BCR-ABL1 transcripts along time and necessity for switching treatment. The kind and the frequency of TKD mutations occasioning resistance mainly depend on the TKI in use and disease phase. Because of its better sensitivity, NGS methods are recommended for mutation testing rather than Sanger's. Facing a given TKD mutation, therapeutic decision should be taken based on in vitro sensitivity and clinical efficacy data. Identification by sequencing of a TKD mutation known to induce resistance must lead to a therapeutic change. The clinical value of testing methods more sensitive than NGS remains to be assessed.

2.
Eur J Cancer ; 115: 17-23, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is very rare in children. The aim of the study is to report the experience within the I-CML-Ped study in children and adolescents presenting at diagnosis with advanced phase disease and to describe their characteristics and outcomes. METHODS: Of 479 children and adolescents enrolled in the international registry for childhood chronic myeloid leukaemia (I-CML-Ped Study; www.clinicaltrials.govNCT01281735), 36 children (7.5%) presented at initial diagnosis with CML in advanced phase according to the European LeukemiaNet criteria. RESULTS: Nineteen (4%) patients were diagnosed in accelerated phase (CML-AP), and among the 17 patients (3.5%) diagnosed in blastic phase (CML-BP), 70% presented with lymphoid immunophenotype. Initial treatment of CML-AP/CML-BP consisted of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) with or without chemotherapy, leading to complete haematologic response in 33 of 36 (92%) patients. Seventeen patients proceeded to haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. At the last follow-up, 18 of 19 patients with de novo CML-AP are alive in at least major molecular response (MMR) (n = 16), in progression (n = 1) or in molecular relapse (n = 1) and 13 of 17 patients with de novo CML-BP are alive in at least MMR. Five-year overall survival rates are 94% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 66%-99%) and 74% (95% CI: 44%-89%) for patients diagnosed in CML-AP and CML-BP, respectively. CONCLUSION: Children with advanced phase at diagnosis of CML seem to have a better survival rate than that reported for advanced phases evolving under TKI treatment.

3.
Br J Haematol ; 186(5): 741-753, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124581

RESUMO

Outcomes in childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) are steadily improving due to intensive therapy. Between 1989 and 2008, 599 children with newly diagnosed T-ALL were enrolled in two successive European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer - Children's Leukaemia Group trials (58881 and 58951), both based on the Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster protocol and without cranial irradiation. In the latter trial induction chemotherapy was intensified. The most important randomizations were Medac Escherichia coli asparaginase versus Erwinia asparaginase in trial 58881, and dexamethasone (6 mg/m2 /day) versus prednisolone (60 mg/m2 /day) and prolonged versus conventional asparaginase duration in trial 58951. 8-year event-free survival (EFS) increased from 65·1% to 74·0% in trial 58951. Improvement was most profound for patients with white blood cell (WBC) counts <100 × 109 /l and "good responders" to prephase. Medac E. coli asparaginase was associated with longer EFS [hazard ratio (HR) 0·54, P = 0·0015] and overall survival (HR 0·51, P = 0·0018). Induction therapy with dexamethasone did not improve EFS compared to prednisolone. Remarkably, intensification of central nervous system (CNS)-directed therapy in trial 58951 resulted in fewer bone marrow relapses, while the incidence of CNS relapses remained low. In summary, we showed that adequate asparaginase therapy, intensified induction treatment and intensification of CNS-directed chemotherapy can result in an improvement of outcome in T-ALL patients with good prephase response and initial WBC counts <100 × 109 /l, representing approximately 50% of T-ALL patients.

4.
Blood ; 134(1): 9-21, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940614

RESUMO

Evans syndrome (ES) is a rare severe autoimmune disorder characterized by the combination of autoimmune hemolytic anemia and immune thrombocytopenia. In most cases, the underlying cause is unknown. We sought to identify genetic defects in pediatric ES (pES), based on a hypothesis of strong genetic determinism. In a national, prospective cohort of 203 patients with early-onset ES (median [range] age at last follow-up: 16.3 years ([1.2-41.0 years]) initiated in 2004, 80 nonselected consecutive individuals underwent genetic testing. The clinical data were analyzed as a function of the genetic findings. Fifty-two patients (65%) received a genetic diagnosis (the M+ group): 49 carried germline mutations and 3 carried somatic variants. Thirty-two (40%) had pathogenic mutations in 1 of 9 genes known to be involved in primary immunodeficiencies (TNFRSF6, CTLA4, STAT3, PIK3CD, CBL, ADAR1, LRBA, RAG1, and KRAS), whereas 20 patients (25%) carried probable pathogenic variants in 16 genes that had not previously been reported in the context of autoimmune disease. Lastly, no genetic abnormalities were found in the remaining 28 patients (35%, the M- group). The M+ group displayed more severe disease than the M- group, with a greater frequency of additional immunopathologic manifestations and a greater median number of lines of treatment. Six patients (all from the M+ group) died during the study. In conclusion, pES was potentially genetically determined in at least 65% of cases. Systematic, wide-ranging genetic screening should be offered in pES; the genetic findings have prognostic significance and may guide the choice of a targeted treatment.

5.
Br J Haematol ; 185(4): 718-724, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843196

RESUMO

This international study aimed to assess the effect of imatinib discontinuation in paediatric patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) after deep molecular remission (DMR) had been achieved and maintained for at least 2 years. The primary endpoint of this analysis was the molecular relapse-free survival, estimated by the non-parametric Kaplan-Meier method. Major endpoint was the estimated rate of patients without molecular relapse at 6 months. Fourteen patients were enrolled; 4 patients maintained DMR with a follow-up of 24 (two patients), 34 and 66 months, respectively, whereas 10 patients relapsed. All molecular relapses occurred within 6 months (median 3 months, range 1-6) after imatinib discontinuation. The overall probability of maintaining DMR at 6 months was 28·6%. No parameters associated with molecular relapse could be identified. Keeping in mind the rarity of paediatric CML, which contributed to the small size of the cohort, our findings illustrate that imatinib cessation after sustained DMR is successful in only limited numbers of patients, whereas much higher rates are reported in adult patients. Further research is needed to extend the cohort of paediatric CML patients who might achieve treatment-free remission with an ideal prerequisite of predicting the occurrence of molecular relapse l after imatinib cessation.

6.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 3(5): 322-331, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wilms tumour is the most common childhood renal cancer and is genetically heterogeneous. While several Wilms tumour predisposition genes have been identified, there is strong evidence that further predisposition genes are likely to exist. Our study aim was to identify new predisposition genes for Wilms tumour. METHODS: In this exome sequencing study, we analysed lymphocyte DNA from 890 individuals with Wilms tumour, including 91 affected individuals from 49 familial Wilms tumour pedigrees. We used the protein-truncating variant prioritisation method to prioritise potential disease-associated genes for further assessment. We evaluated new predisposition genes in exome sequencing data that we generated in 334 individuals with 27 other childhood cancers and in exome data from The Cancer Genome Atlas obtained from 7632 individuals with 28 adult cancers. FINDINGS: We identified constitutional cancer-predisposing mutations in 33 individuals with childhood cancer. The three identified genes with the strongest signal in the protein-truncating variant prioritisation analyses were TRIM28, FBXW7, and NYNRIN. 21 of 33 individuals had a mutation in TRIM28; there was a strong parent-of-origin effect, with all ten inherited mutations being maternally transmitted (p=0·00098). We also found a strong association with the rare epithelial subtype of Wilms tumour, with 14 of 16 tumours being epithelial or epithelial predominant. There were no TRIM28 mutations in individuals with other childhood or adult cancers. We identified truncating FBXW7 mutations in four individuals with Wilms tumour and a de-novo non-synonymous FBXW7 mutation in a child with a rhabdoid tumour. Biallelic truncating mutations in NYNRIN were identified in three individuals with Wilms tumour, which is highly unlikely to have occurred by chance (p<0·0001). Finally, we identified two de-novo KDM3B mutations, supporting the role of KDM3B as a childhood cancer predisposition gene. INTERPRETATION: The four new Wilms tumour predisposition genes identified-TRIM28, FBXW7, NYNRIN, and KDM3B-are involved in diverse biological processes and, together with the other 17 known Wilms tumour predisposition genes, account for about 10% of Wilms tumour cases. The overlap between these 21 constitutionally mutated predisposition genes and 20 genes somatically mutated in Wilms tumour is limited, consisting of only four genes. We recommend that all individuals with Wilms tumour should be offered genetic testing and particularly, those with epithelial Wilms tumour should be offered TRIM28 genetic testing. Only a third of the familial Wilms tumour clusters we analysed were attributable to known genes, indicating that further Wilms tumour predisposition factors await discovery. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust.

7.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(2): 171-181, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30671780

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) are associated in the definition of Evans syndrome (ES). The occurrence of neurological involvement in this population is poorly described and suggests an underlying primary immunodeficiency (PID). We aimed to describe the clinical manifestations, evolution, and PID profiles of these patients. METHODS: OBS'CEREVANCE is a French, nationwide prospective cohort that includes children with chronic ITP, AIHA, and ES. Patients with a neurological involvement were described. Centralized radiological and pathological reviews and genetic analyses were performed. RESULTS: On October 2016, eight patients (7/181 ES, 1/371 AIHA, and 0/615 ITP) were identified, all male, with a median age (range) at cytopenia onset of 11.5 years (1.6-15.8). Neurological symptoms appeared with a median delay of 6 years (2.5-18) after cytopenia and were polymorphic: seizures (n = 4), cranial nerve palsy (n = 2), Brown-Sequard syndrome (n = 2), intracranial pressure (n = 2), vertigo (n = 1), and/or sensory neuropathy (n = 1). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed inflammatory lesions, confirmed by pathology for five patients with macrophagic or lymphoplasmocytic infiltrates. All patients had other relevant immunopathological manifestations: pulmonary nodules (n = 6), lymphoproliferation (n = 4), abnormal immunophenotype (n = 8), and hypogammaglobulinemia (n = 7). Treatment consisted of steroids that improved symptomatology and MRI. Five patients relapsed and three had an asymptomatic radiological progression. A PID was identified in 3/8 patients: 22q11.2 microdeletion (n = 1) and CTLA deficiency (n = 2). CONCLUSION: Neurological involvement is a rare and severe late event in the course of childhood ES, which can reveal an underlying PID. Imaging and pathology examination highlight a causative immune dysregulation that may guide targeted therapeutic strategies.

8.
Bull Cancer ; 106(3): 206-215, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638898

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children has a pejorative prognosis and justifies to be treated by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). A minimal residual disease (MRD) before transplantation is a major part of prognosis. Blinatumomab, a bispecific antibody CD19+/CD3+, allowed to achieve a cytologic and molecular complete remission in adults with refractory B-precursor ALL. This retrospective study analyses results from a pediatric cohort treated by blinatumomab thanks to an interregional structuring consortium. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients between 0 and 23 years old, from the 7 centers of the french "Grand Ouest" interregional network, treated by blinatumomab for a relapsed or refractory ALL, from January 2015 to January 2018, were included. The efficiency of blinatumomab was assessed in terms of complete remission, minimal residual disease, overall survival, and tolerability of treatment. RESULTS: Thirteen of 18 patients achieved a complete remission, with negative minimal residual disease for ten of them. Fourteen patients proceeded to stem cell transplantation,. Eight out of 14 patients obtained long term remission after HSCT. As far as tolerance is concerned, no serious adverse event, neurological or psychiatric disorder, was observed. CONCLUSION: Thanks to an interregional network collaboration, all children with high risk ALL coming from the western french interregion could be treated by blinatumomab. Blinatumomab offered good hematological conditions to undergo HSCT with a good tolerability.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Biespecíficos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , França , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Neoplasia Residual , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/mortalidade , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Indução de Remissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Br J Haematol ; 183(4): 608-617, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30421536

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative (ND) complications in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) are a late-onset but dramatic sequelae for which incidence and risk factors are not well defined. Based on a national prospective registry of paediatric LCH patients, we determined the incidence rate of clinical ND LCH (cND-LCH) and analysed risk factors, taking into account disease extent and molecular characteristics. Among 1897 LCH patients, 36 (1·9%) were diagnosed with a cND-LCH. The 10-year cumulative incidence of cND-LCH was 4·1%. cND-LCH typically affected patients previously treated for a multisystem, risk organ-negative LCH, represented in 69·4% of cND-LCH cases. Pituitary gland, skin and base skull/orbit bone lesions were more frequent (P < 0·001) in cND-LCH patients compared to those without cND-LCH (respectively 86·1% vs. 12·2%, 75·0% vs. 34·2%, and 63·9% vs. 28·4%). The 'cND susceptible patients' (n = 671) i.e., children who had experienced LCH disease with pituitary or skull base or orbit bone involvement, had a 10-year cND risk of 7·8% vs. 0% for patients who did not meet these criteria. Finally, BRAFV 600E status added important information among these cND susceptible patients, with the 10-year cND risk of 33·1% if a BRAFV 600E mutation was present compared to 2·9% if it was absent (P = 0·002).

10.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 65(12): e27431, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30160364

RESUMO

Since the patent for imatinib has expired, the role of generic imatinib (GI) in the management of Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) leukemia in pediatric patients has had ongoing discussion. Some studies in adults demonstrated that equivalent doses of GI and branded imatinib (BI) result in comparable plasma concentrations and clinical efficacy. However, other studies found that GI users are more likely to stop imatinib, with intolerance and decreased persistence as the main causes. Economic factors also heavily influence GI selection. This article aims to review the present knowledge to support further discussion on the role of GI in the management of pediatric Ph+ leukemia.

11.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 58(12): 1541-1549, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29791011

RESUMO

Growing evidence suggests that polymorphisms of genes coding for transporters or enzymes may partially explain the large between subject variability reported for methotrexate (MTX) pharmacokinetics (PK). This prospective study aimed to develop a population PK-pharmacogenetic model to evaluate the part of between-subject variability due to single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in transporters and enzyme genes implicated in MTX distribution and elimination. MTX concentrations and 54 SNPs (located in ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCC3, ABCC4, ABCG2, SLC19A1, SLCO1B1, and UGT1A1 genes) were analyzed in patients treated with MTX included in the OS2006/sarcoma-09 trial (a multicenter, open-label, phase III trial, ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT00470223). PK data were analyzed using the nonlinear mixed-effect modeling software program Monolix. The influence of each SNP was evaluated using a stepwise procedure under additive, recessive, or dominant genetic model. The likelihood ratio test was used to test the effect of each SNP on PK parameters. Overall, 187 patients with 7898 MTX blood concentrations were included in the PK-pharmacogenetic analysis. A 2-compartment model adequately described the data. Although high-dose MTX dosing recommendations in pediatric patients are currently based on body surface area, body weight was more predictive of clearance between-subject variability than body surface area. The most significant polymorphism associated with MTX clearance was rs13120400 (on the ABCG2 gene) under the recessive genetic model (P < .0001). GG genotype carriers for rs13120400 appeared to have a moderate decrease in MTX exposure compared to AA or GA carriers.

12.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 11(3): 219-231, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29076384

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) imatinib was rationally designed to target BCR-ABL1 which is constitutively activated in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Following the tremendous success in adults, imatinib also became licensed for treatment of CML in minors. The rarity of pediatric CML hampers the conduction of formal trials. Thus, imatinib is still the single TKI approved for CML treatment in childhood. Areas covered: This review attempts to provide an overview of the literature on pharmacology, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacogenetic of imatinib concerning pediatric CML treatment. Articles were identified through a PubMed search and by reviewing abstracts from relevant hematology congresses. Additional information was provided from the authors' libraries and expertise and from our own measurements of imatinib trough plasma levels in children. Pharmacokinetic variables (e.g. alpha 1-acid glycoprotein binding, drug-drug/food-drug interactions via cytochrome P450 3A4/5, cellular uptake mediated via OCT-1-influx variations and P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux) still await to be addressed in pediatric patients systematically. Expert commentary: TKI response rates vary among different individuals and pharmacokinetic variables all can influence CML treatment success. Adherence to imatinib intake may be the most prominent factor influencing treatment outcome in teenagers thus pointing towards the potential benefits of regular drug monitoring.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Criança , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Interações Alimento-Droga , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/farmacocinética , Mesilato de Imatinib/farmacologia , Adesão à Medicação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico
13.
Haematologica ; 102(10): 1704-1708, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28838993

RESUMO

The EUTOS Long-Term Survival score was tested in 350 children with chronic myeloid leukemia in first chronic phase treated with imatinib and registered in the International Registry for Childhood Chronic Myeloid Leukemia. With a median follow up of 3 years (range, 1 month to 6 years) progression and/or death (whichever came first) occurred in 23 patients. For the entire cohort of patients the 5-year progression-free survival rate was 92% (95% CI: 87%-94%) and the 5-year survival accounting for chronic myeloid leukemia deaths was 97% (95% CI: 94%-99%). Of the 309 patients allocated to low (n=199), intermediate (n=68) and high (n=42) risk groups by the EUTOS Long-Term Survival score, events (progression and/or death) occurred in 6.0%, 8.8% and 26.2%, respectively. Estimates of the 5-year progression-free survival rates according to these three risk groups were 96% (95% CI: 92%-98%), 88% (95% CI: 76%-95%) and 67% (95% CI: 48%-81%), respectively. Differences in progression-free survival according to these risk groups were highly significant (P<0.0001, overall). The EUTOS Long-Term Survival score showed better differentiation of progression-free survival than the Sokal (<45 years), Euro and EUTOS scores in children and adolescents with chronic myeloid leukemia and should be considered in therapeutic algorithms. (Trial registered at: www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01281735).


Assuntos
Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/mortalidade , Masculino , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Haematologica ; 102(10): 1727-1738, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28751566

RESUMO

Asparaginase is an essential component of combination chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The value of asparaginase was further addressed in a group of non-very high-risk patients by comparing prolonged (long-asparaginase) versus standard (short-asparaginase) native E. coli asparaginase treatment in a randomized part of the phase III 58951 trial of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Children's Leukemia Group. The main endpoint was disease-free survival. Overall, 1,552 patients were randomly assigned to long-asparaginase (775 patients) or short-asparaginase (777 patients). Patients with grade ≥2 allergy to native E. coli asparaginase were switched to equivalent doses of Erwinia or pegylated E. coli asparaginase. The 8-year disease-free survival rate (±standard error) was 87.0±1.3% in the long-asparaginase group and 84.4±1.4% in the short-asparaginase group (hazard ratio: 0.87; P=0.33) and the 8-year overall survival rate was 92.6±1.0% and 91.3±1.2% respectively (hazard ratio: 0.89; P=0.53). An exploratory analysis suggested that the impact of long-asparaginase was beneficial in the National Cancer Institute standard-risk group with regards to disease-free survival (hazard ratio: 0.70; P=0.057), but far less so with regards to overall survival (hazard ratio: 0.89). The incidences of grade 3-4 infection during consolidation (25.2% versus 14.4%) and late intensification (22.6% versus 15.9%) and the incidence of grade 2-4 allergy were higher in the long-asparaginase arm (30% versus 21%). Prolonged native E. coli asparaginase therapy in consolidation and late intensification for our non-very high-risk patients did not improve overall outcome but led to an increase in infections and allergy. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00003728.


Assuntos
Asparaginase/uso terapêutico , Linfoma não Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Asparaginase/administração & dosagem , Asparaginase/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Quimioterapia de Consolidação , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/efeitos adversos , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução , Lactente , Linfoma não Hodgkin/diagnóstico , Linfoma não Hodgkin/mortalidade , Masculino , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 64(12)2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28643357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nuclear protein of the testis (NUT) carcinoma (formerly NUT midline carcinoma) is an aggressive tumor defined by the presence of NUT rearrangement with a poor prognosis. This rare cancer is underdiagnosed and poorly treated. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to describe the clinical, radiologic, and biological features of NUT carcinoma. The secondary objective was to describe the various treatments and assess their efficacy. METHODS: This retrospective multicenter study was based on review of the medical records of children and adults with NUT carcinoma with specific rearrangement or positive anti-NUT nuclear staining (>50%). RESULTS: This series of 12 patients had a median age of 18.1 years (ranges: 12.3-49.7 years). The primary tumor was located in the chest in eight patients, the head and neck in three patients, and one patient had a multifocal tumor. Nine patients presented regional lymph node involvement and eight distant metastases. One-half of patients were initially misdiagnosed. Specific NUT antibody was positive in all cases tested. A transient response to chemotherapy was observed in four of 11 patients. Only two patients were treated by surgery and five received radiotherapy with curative intent. At the end of follow-up, only one patient was still in remission more than 12 years after the diagnosis. Median overall survival was 4.7 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.1-17.7). CONCLUSION: NUT carcinoma is an aggressive disease refractory to conventional therapy. Early diagnosis by NUT-specific antibody immunostaining in cases of undifferentiated or poorly differentiated carcinoma to identify the specific rearrangement of NUT gene is useful to propose the optimal therapeutic strategy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/terapia , Proteínas Nucleares/análise , Proteínas Oncogênicas/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Carcinoma/química , Carcinoma/mortalidade , Criança , Feminino , Rearranjo Gênico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/química , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Oncogênicas/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Torácicas/química , Neoplasias Torácicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Torácicas/terapia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Cancer ; 123(18): 3609-3616, 2017 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28497898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the adult population with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), variant translocations are usually not considered to be impairing the prognosis, whereas some additional cytogenetic abnormalities (ACAs) are associated with a negative impact on survival. Because of the rarity of CML in the pediatric population, such abnormalities have not been investigated in a large group of children with CML. METHODS: The prognostic relevance of variant t(9;22) and ACAs at diagnosis was assessed in 301 children with CML in the chronic phase who were enrolled in the International Registry for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Children and Adolescents. RESULTS: Overall, 19 children (6.3%) presented with additional cytogenetic findings at diagnosis: 5 children (1.7%) had a variant t(9;22) translocation, 13 children (4.3%) had ACAs, and 1 had both. At 3 years, for children with a classic translocation, children with ACAs, and children with a variant t(9;22) translocation who were treated with imatinib as frontline therapy, the probability of progression-free survival (PFS) was 95% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91%-97%), 100%, and 75% (95% CI, 13%-96%), respectively, and the probability of overall survival (OS) was 98% (95% CI, 95%-100%), 100% (95% CI, 43%-98%), and 75% (95% CI, 13%-96%), respectively. No statistical difference was observed between the patients with classic cytogenetic findings and those with additional chromosomal abnormalities in terms of PFS and OS. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to adults with CML, additional chromosomal abnormalities observed at diagnosis do not seem to have a significant prognostic impact. Cancer 2017;123:3609-16. © 2017 American Cancer Society.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Aberrações Cromossômicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Seguimentos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Clin Oncol ; 34(25): 3023-30, 2016 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27382093

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is an inflammatory myeloid neoplasia with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations and outcomes in children. The somatic BRAF(V600E) mutation occurs frequently, but clinical significance remains to be determined. PATIENTS AND METHODS: BRAF(V600E) mutation was investigated in a French LCH cohort. We analyzed associations between mutation status and clinical presentation, extent of disease, reactivation rate, response to therapy, and long-term permanent sequelae. RESULTS: Among 315 patients with successfully determined BRAF status, 173 (54.6%) carried a BRAF(V600E) mutation. Patients with BRAF(V600E) manifested more severe disease than did those with wild-type BRAF. Patients with BRAF(V600E) comprised 87.8% of patients (43 of 49) with multisystem LCH with risk organ involvement (liver, spleen, hematology), 68.6% of patients (35 of 51) with multisystem LCH without risk organ involvement, 43.9% of patients (86 of 196) with single-system LCH, and 42.1% of patients (8 of 19) with lung-involved LCH (P < .001). BRAF(V600E) mutation was also associated with organ involvement that could lead to permanent, irreversible damage, such as neurologic (75%) and pituitary (72.9%) injuries. Compared with patients with wild-type BRAF, patients with BRAF(V600E) more commonly displayed resistance to combined vinblastine and corticosteroid therapy (21.9% v 3.3%; P = .001), showed a higher reactivation rate (5-year reactivation rate, 42.8% v 28.1%; P = .006), and had more permanent, long-term consequences from disease or treatment (27.9% v 12.6%; P = .001). CONCLUSION: In children with LCH, BRAF(V600E) mutation was associated with high-risk features, permanent injury, and poor short-term response to chemotherapy. Further population-based studies should be undertaken to confirm our observations and to assess the impact of BRAF inhibitors for this subgroup of patients who may benefit from targeted therapy.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/tratamento farmacológico , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Adolescente , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/enzimologia , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Sistema de Registros , Vimblastina/administração & dosagem
18.
Clin Cancer Res ; 22(22): 5564-5573, 2016 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27440268

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The tumor genomic copy number profile is of prognostic significance in neuroblastoma patients. We have studied the genomic copy number profile of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and compared this with primary tumor arrayCGH (aCGH) at diagnosis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In 70 patients, cfDNA genomic copy number profiling was performed using the OncoScan platform. The profiles were classified according to the overall pattern, including numerical chromosome alterations (NCA), segmental chromosome alterations (SCA), and MYCN amplification (MNA). RESULTS: Interpretable and dynamic cfDNA profiles were obtained in 66 of 70 and 52 of 70 cases, respectively. An overall identical genomic profile between tumor aCGH and cfDNA was observed in 47 cases (3 NCAs, 22 SCAs, 22 MNAs). In one case, cfDNA showed an additional SCA not detected by tumor aCGH. In 4 of 8 cases with a silent tumor aCGH profile, cfDNA analysis revealed a dynamic profile (3 SCAs, 1 NCA). In 14 cases, cfDNA analysis did not reveal any copy number changes. A total of 378 breakpoints common to the primary tumor and cfDNA of any given patient were identified, 27 breakpoints were seen by tumor aCGH, and 54 breakpoints were seen in cfDNA only, including two cases with interstitial IGFR1 gains and two alterations targeting TERT CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the feasibility of cfDNA copy number profiling in neuroblastoma patients, with a concordance of the overall genomic profile in aCGH and cfDNA dynamic cases of 97% and a sensitivity of 77%, respectively. Furthermore, neuroblastoma heterogeneity is highlighted, suggesting that cfDNA might reflect genetic alterations of more aggressive cell clones. Clin Cancer Res; 22(22); 5564-73. ©2016 AACRSee related commentary by Janku and Kurzrock, p. 5400.


Assuntos
DNA Tumoral Circulante/genética , Dosagem de Genes/genética , Neuroblastoma/sangue , Neuroblastoma/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa/métodos , Feminino , Amplificação de Genes/genética , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/métodos , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Blood ; 127(4): 392-9, 2016 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26511135

RESUMO

Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in children is relatively rare. Because of a lack of robust clinical study evidence, management of CML in children is not standardized and often follows guidelines developed for adults. Children and young adults tend to have a more aggressive clinical presentation than older adults, and prognostic scores for adult CML do not apply to children. CML in children has been considered to have the same biology as in adults, but recent data indicate that some genetic differences exist in pediatric and adult CML. Because children with CML may receive tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy for many decades, and are exposed to TKIs during a period of active growth, morbidities in children with CML may be distinct from those in adults and require careful monitoring. Aggressive strategies, such as eradication of CML stem cells with limited duration and intensive regimens of chemotherapy and TKIs, may be more advantageous in children as a way to avoid lifelong exposure to TKIs and their associated adverse effects. Blood and marrow transplantation in pediatric CML is currently indicated only for recurrent progressive disease, and the acute and long-term toxicities of this option should be carefully evaluated against the complications associated with lifelong use of TKIs.


Assuntos
Transplante de Medula Óssea , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/patologia , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/terapia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Criança , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pediatria , Prognóstico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos
20.
Front Pediatr ; 3: 79, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26484337

RESUMO

Evans syndrome (ES) is a rare autoimmune disorder whose long-term outcome is not well known. In France, a collaborative pediatric network set up via the National Rare Disease Plan now provides comprehensive clinical data in children with this disease. Patients aged less than 18 years at the initial presentation of autoimmune cytopenia have been prospectively included into a national observational cohort since 2004. The definition of ES was restricted to the simultaneous or sequential association of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Cases were deemed secondary if associated with a primitive immunodeficiency or systemic lupus erythematosus. In December 2014, we analyzed the data pertaining to 156 children from 26 centers with ES whose diagnosis was made between 1981 and 2014. Median age (range) at the onset of cytopenia was 5.4 years (0.2-17.2). In 85 sequential cases, the time lapse between the first episodes of AIHA and ITP was 2.4 years (0.1-16.3). The follow-up period as from ES diagnosis was 6.5 years (0.1-28.8). ES was secondary, revealing another underlying disease, in 10% of cases; various associated immune manifestations (mainly lymphoproliferation, other autoimmune diseases, and hypogammaglobulinemia) were observed in 60% of cases; and ES remained primary in 30% of cases. Five-year ITP and AIHA relapse-free survival were 25 and 61%, respectively. Overall, 69% of children required one or more second-line immune treatments, and 15 patients (10%) died at the age of 14.3 years (1.7-28.1). To our knowledge, this is the first consistent long-term clinical description of this rare syndrome. It underscores the high rate of associated immune manifestations and the burden of long-term complications and treatment toxicity. Future challenges include (1) the identification of the underlying genetic defects inducing immune dysregulation and (2) the need to better characterize patient subgroups and second-line treatment strategies.

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