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1.
Innovation (N Y) ; 3(1): 100194, 2022 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34977836

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapies exhibit substantial clinical benefit in different cancers, but relatively low response rates in the majority of patients highlight the need to understand mutual relationships among immune features. Here, we reveal overall positive correlations among immune checkpoints and immune cell populations. Clinically, patients benefiting from ICB exhibited increases for both immune stimulatory and inhibitory features after initiation of therapy, suggesting that the activation of the immune microenvironment might serve as the biomarker to predict immune response. As proof-of-concept, we demonstrated that the immune activation score (IS Δ) based on dynamic alteration of interleukins in patient plasma as early as two cycles (4-6 weeks) after starting immunotherapy can accurately predict immunotherapy efficacy. Our results reveal a systematic landscape of associations among immune features and provide a noninvasive, cost-effective, and time-efficient approach based on dynamic profiling of pre- and on-treatment plasma to predict immunotherapy efficacy.

2.
J Exp Med ; 219(1)2022 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825915

RESUMO

Targeted therapies represent attractive combination partners with immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) to increase the population of patients who benefit or to interdict the emergence of resistance. We demonstrate that targeting WEE1 up-regulates immune signaling through the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viral defense pathway with subsequent responsiveness to immune checkpoint blockade even in cGAS/STING-deficient tumors, which is a typical phenotype across multiple cancer types. WEE1 inhibition increases endogenous retroviral elements (ERVs) expression by relieving SETDB1/H3K9me3 repression through down-regulating FOXM1. ERVs trigger dsRNA stress and interferon response, increasing recruitment of anti-tumor T cells with concurrent PD-L1 elevation in multiple tumor models. Furthermore, combining WEE1 inhibition and PD-L1 blockade induced striking tumor regression in a CD8+ T cell-dependent manner. A WEE1 inhibition-induced viral defense signature provides a potentially informative biomarker for patient selection for combination therapy with WEE1 and ICB. WEE1 inhibition stimulates anti-tumor immunity and enhances sensitivity to ICB, providing a rationale for the combination of WEE1 inhibitors and ICB in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/antagonistas & inibidores , Retrovirus Endógenos/genética , Neoplasias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células A549 , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Retrovirus Endógenos/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Neoplasias Experimentais/genética , Neoplasias Experimentais/imunologia , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Tumoral/genética , Carga Tumoral/imunologia
3.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(12)2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34937742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gamma delta (γδ) T cells are attractive effector cells for cancer immunotherapy. Vδ2 T cells expanded by zoledronic acid (ZOL) are the most commonly used γδ T cells for adoptive cell therapy. However, adoptive transfer of the expanded Vδ2 T cells has limited clinical efficacy. METHODS: We developed a costimulation method for expansion of Vδ2 T cells in PBMCs by activating γδ T-cell receptor (γδTCR) and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/8 using isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and resiquimod, respectively, and tested the functional markers and antitumoral effects in vitro two-dimensional two-dimensional and three-dimensional spheroid models and in vivo models. Single-cell sequencing dataset analysis and reverse-phase protein array were employed for mechanistic studies. RESULTS: We find that Vδ2 T cells expanded by IPP plus resiquimod showed significantly increased cytotoxicity to tumor cells with lower programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) expression than Vδ2 T cells expanded by IPP or ZOL. Mechanistically, the costimulation enhanced the activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (PKB/Akt)-the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and the TLR7/8-MyD88 pathway. Resiquimod stimulated Vδ2 T-cell expansion in both antigen presenting cell dependent and independent manners. In addition, resiquimod decreased the number of adherent inhibitory antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and suppressed the inhibitory function of APCs by decreasing PD-L1 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) expression in these cells during in vitro Vδ2 T-cell expansion. Finally, we showed that human Vδ2 T cells can be expanded from PBMCs and spleen of humanized NSG mice using IPP plus resiquimod or ZOL, demonstrating that humanized mice are a promising preclinical model for studying human γδ T-cell development and function. CONCLUSIONS: Vδ2 T cells expanded by IPP and resiquimod demonstrate improved anti-tumor function and have the potential to increase the efficacy of γδ T cell-based therapies.

4.
Mol Cancer Res ; 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782370

RESUMO

Advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer is highly resistant to existing therapies, and new treatments are urgently needed to improve patient outcomes. Current studies focus on alternative treatment approaches that target the abnormal microenvironment of pancreatic tumors and the resulting elevated mechanical stress in the tumor interior. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms by which mechanical stress regulates pancreatic cancer metastatic potential remain elusive. Herein, we used a proteomic assay to profile mechanical stress-induced signaling cascades that drive the motility of pancreatic cancer cells. Proteomic analysis, together with selective protein inhibition and siRNA treatments, revealed that mechanical stress enhances cell migration through activation of the p38 MAPK/HSP27 and JNK/c-Jun signaling axes, and activation of the actin cytoskeleton remodelers: Rac1, cdc42, and Myosin II. In addition, mechanical stress upregulated transcription factors associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and stimulated the formation of stress fibers and filopodia. p38 MAPK and JNK inhibition resulted in lower cell proliferation and more effectively blocked cell migration under mechanical stress compared to control conditions. The enhanced tumor cell motility under mechanical stress was potently reduced by cdc42 and Rac1 silencing with no effects on proliferation. Our results highlight the importance of targeting aberrant signaling in cancer cells that have adapted to mechanical stress in the tumor microenvironment, as a novel approach to effectively limit pancreatic cancer cell migration. Implications: Our findings highlight that mechanical stress activated the p38 MAPK and JNK signaling axis and stimulated pancreatic cancer cell migration via upregulation of the actin cytoskeleton remodelers Cdc42 and Rac1.

6.
J Clin Invest ; 131(22)2021 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779417

RESUMO

Alpelisib selectively inhibits the p110α catalytic subunit of PI3Kα and is approved for treatment of breast cancers harboring canonical PIK3CA mutations. In head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), 63% of PIK3CA mutations occur at canonical hotspots. The oncogenic role of the remaining 37% of PIK3CA noncanonical mutations is incompletely understood. We report a patient with HNSCC with a noncanonical PIK3CA mutation (Q75E) who exhibited a durable (12 months) response to alpelisib in a phase II clinical trial. Characterization of all 32 noncanonical PIK3CA mutations found in HNSCC using several functional and phenotypic assays revealed that the majority (69%) were activating, including Q75E. The oncogenic impact of these mutations was validated in 4 cellular models, demonstrating that their activity was lineage independent. Further, alpelisib exhibited antitumor effects in a xenograft derived from a patient with HNSCC containing an activating noncanonical PIK3CA mutation. Structural analyses revealed plausible mechanisms for the functional phenotypes of the majority of the noncanonical PIK3CA mutations. Collectively, these findings highlight the importance of characterizing the function of noncanonical PIK3CA mutations and suggest that patients with HNSCC whose tumors harbor activating noncanonical PIK3CA mutations may benefit from treatment with PI3Kα inhibitors.

8.
Clin Transl Med ; 11(10): e608, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 1q21.3 amplification, which is frequently observed in metastatic melanoma, is associated with cancer progression. Interleukin enhancer-binding factor 2 (ILF2) is located in the 1q21.3 amplified region, but its functional role or contribution to tumour aggressiveness in cutaneous melanoma is unknown. METHODS: In silico analyses were performed using the TCGA SKCM dataset with clinical annotations and three melanoma microarray cohorts from the GEO datasets. RNA in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry were utilised to validate the gene expression in melanoma tissues. Four stable melanoma cell lines were established for in vitro ILF2 functional characterisation. RESULTS: Our results showed that the ILF2 copy number variation (CNV) is positively correlated with ILF2 mRNA expression (r = 0.68, p < .0001). Additionally, ILF2 expression is significantly increased with melanoma progression (p < .0001), and significantly associated with poor overall survival for metastatic melanoma patients (p = .026). The overexpression of ILF2 (ILF2-OV) promotes proliferation in metastatic melanoma cells, whereas ILF2 knockdown decreases proliferation by blocking the cell cycle. Mechanistically, we demonstrated the interaction between ILF2 and the splicing factor U2AF2, whose knockdown reverses the proliferation effects mediated by ILF2-OV. Stage IIIB-C melanoma patients with high ILF2-U2AF2 expression showed significantly shorter overall survival (p = .024). Enhanced ILF2/U2AF2 expression promotes a more efficient DNA-damage repair by increasing RAD50 and ATM mRNA expression. Paradoxically, metastatic melanoma cells with ILF2-OV were more sensitive to ATM inhibitors. CONCLUSION: Our study uncovered that ILF2 amplification of the 1q21.3 chromosome is associated with melanoma progression and triggers a functional downstream pathway in metastatic melanoma promoting drug resistance.

9.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(9): 100394, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622231

RESUMO

CCNE1-amplified ovarian cancers (OVCAs) and endometrial cancers (EMCAs) are associated with platinum resistance and poor survival, representing a clinically unmet need. We hypothesized that dysregulated cell-cycle progression promoted by CCNE1 overexpression would lead to increased sensitivity to low-dose WEE1 inhibition and ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) inhibition (WEE1i-ATRi), thereby optimizing efficacy and tolerability. The addition of ATRi to WEE1i is required to block feedback activation of ATR signaling mediated by WEE1i. Low-dose WEE1i-ATRi synergistically decreases viability and colony formation and increases replication fork collapse and double-strand breaks (DSBs) in a CCNE1 copy number (CN)-dependent manner. Only upon CCNE1 induction does WEE1i perturb DNA synthesis at S-phase entry, and addition of ATRi increases DSBs during DNA synthesis. Inherent resistance to WEE1i is overcome with WEE1i-ATRi, with notable durable tumor regressions and improved survival in patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models in a CCNE1-level-dependent manner. These studies demonstrate that CCNE1 CN is a clinically tractable biomarker predicting responsiveness to low-dose WEE1i-ATRi for aggressive subsets of OVCAs/EMCAs.

10.
NPJ Precis Oncol ; 5(1): 92, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34667258

RESUMO

In a pilot study, we evaluated the feasibility of real-time deep analysis of serial tumor samples from triple negative breast cancer patients to identify mechanisms of resistance and treatment opportunities as they emerge under therapeutic stress engendered by poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors (PARPi). In a BRCA-mutant basal breast cancer exceptional long-term survivor, a striking tumor destruction was accompanied by a marked infiltration of immune cells containing CD8 effector cells, consistent with pre-clinical evidence for association between STING mediated immune activation and benefit from PARPi and immunotherapy. Tumor cells in the exceptional responder underwent extensive protein network rewiring in response to PARP inhibition. In contrast, there were minimal changes in the ecosystem of a luminal androgen receptor rapid progressor, likely due to indifference to the effects of PARP inhibition. Together, identification of PARPi-induced emergent changes could be used to select patient specific combination therapies, based on tumor and immune state changes.

11.
Theranostics ; 11(19): 9180-9197, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646365

RESUMO

Cell cycle regulators are frequently altered in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC). Emerging agents targeting these signals offer the possibility to design new combinatorial therapies. However, preclinical models that recapitulate TNBC primary resistance and heterogeneity are essential to evaluate the potency of these combined treatments. Methods: Bioinformatic processing of human breast cancer datasets was used to analyse correlations between expression levels of cell cycle regulators and patient survival outcome. The MMTV-R26Met mouse model of TNBC resistance and heterogeneity was employed to analyse expression and targeting vulnerability of cell cycle regulators in the presence of BCL-XL blockage. Robustness of outcomes and selectivity was further explored using a panel of human breast cancer cells. Orthotopic studies in nude mice were applied for preclinical evaluation of efficacy and toxicity. Alterations of protein expression, phosphorylation, and/or cellular localisation were analysed by western blots, reverse phase protein array, and immunocytochemistry. Bioinformatics was performed to highlight drug's mechanisms of action. Results: We report that high expression levels of the BCL2L1 gene encoding BCL-XL and of specific cell cycle regulators correlate with poor survival outcomes of TNBC patients. Blockage of BCL-XL confers vulnerability to drugs targeting CDK1/2/4, but not FOXM1, CDK4/6, Aurora A and Aurora B, to all MMTV-R26Met and human TNBC cell lines tested. Combined blockage of BCL-XL and CDK1/2/4 interfered with tumour growth in vivo. Mechanistically, we show that, co-targeting of BCL-XL and CDK1/2/4 synergistically inhibited cell viability by combinatorial depletion of survival and RTK/AKT signals, and concomitantly restoring FOXO3a tumour suppression actions. This was accompanied by an accumulation of DNA damage and consequently apoptosis. Conclusions: Our studies illustrate the possibility to exploit the vulnerability of TNBC cells to CDK1/2/4 inhibition by targeting BCL-XL. Moreover, they underline that specificity matters in targeting cell cycle regulators for combinatorial anticancer therapies.

12.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(23): 6354-6365, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518313

RESUMO

PURPOSE: On the basis of strong preclinical rationale, we sought to confirm recommended phase II dose (RP2D) for olaparib, a PARP inhibitor, combined with the AKT inhibitor capivasertib and assess molecular markers of response and resistance. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a safety lead-in followed by expansion in endometrial, triple-negative breast, ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal cancer. Olaparib 300 mg orally twice daily and capivasertib orally twice daily on a 4-day on 3-day off schedule was evaluated. Two dose levels (DL) of capivasertib were planned: 400 mg (DL1) and 320 mg (DL-1). Patients underwent biopsies at baseline and 28 days. RESULTS: A total of 38 patients were enrolled. Seven (18%) had germline BRCA1/2 mutations. The first 2 patients on DL1 experienced dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) of diarrhea and vomiting. No DLTs were observed on DL-1 (n = 6); therefore, DL1 was reexplored (n = 6) with no DLTs, confirming DL1 as RP2D. Most common treatment-related grade 3/4 adverse events were anemia (23.7%) and leukopenia (10.5%). Of 32 evaluable subjects, 6 (19%) had partial response (PR); PR rate was 44.4% in endometrial cancer. Seven (22%) additional patients had stable disease greater than 4 months. Tumor analysis demonstrated strong correlations between response and immune activity, cell-cycle alterations, and DNA damage response. Therapy resistance was associated with receptor tyrosine kinase and RAS-MAPK pathway activity, metabolism, and epigenetics. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of olaparib and capivasertib is associated to no serious adverse events and demonstrates durable activity in ovarian, endometrial, and breast cancers, with promising responses in endometrial cancer. Importantly, tumor samples acquired pre- and on-therapy can help predict patient benefit.

13.
JCI Insight ; 6(20)2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546978

RESUMO

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor cetuximab is the only FDA-approved oncogene-targeting therapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Despite variable treatment response, no biomarkers exist to stratify patients for cetuximab therapy in HNSCC. Here, we applied unbiased hierarchical clustering to reverse-phase protein array molecular profiles from patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumors and revealed 2 PDX clusters defined by protein networks associated with EGFR inhibitor resistance. In vivo validation revealed unbiased clustering to classify PDX tumors according to cetuximab response with 88% accuracy. Next, a support vector machine classifier algorithm identified a minimalist biomarker signature consisting of 8 proteins - caveolin-1, Sox-2, AXL, STING, Brd4, claudin-7, connexin-43, and fibronectin - with expression that strongly predicted cetuximab response in PDXs using either protein or mRNA. A combination of caveolin-1 and Sox-2 protein levels was sufficient to maintain high predictive accuracy, which we validated in tumor samples from patients with HNSCC with known clinical response to cetuximab. These results support further investigation into the combined use of caveolin-1 and Sox-2 as predictive biomarkers for cetuximab response in the clinic.

14.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(7): 100349, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337565

RESUMO

Uncoupling of mRNA expression from copy number (UECN) might be a strategy for cancer cells to a tolerate high degree of aneuploidy. To test the extent and role of UECN across cancers, we perform integrative multiomic analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset, encompassing ∼5,000 individual tumors. We find UECN is common in cancers and is associated with increased oncogenic signaling, proliferation, and immune suppression. UECN appears to be orchestrated by complex regulatory changes, with transcription factors (TFs) playing a prominent role. To further dissect the regulatory mechanisms, we develop a systems-biology approach to identify candidate TFs, which could serve as targets to disrupt UECN and reduce tumor fitness. Applying our approach to TCGA data, we identify 21 putative targets, 42.8% of which are validated by independent sources. Together, our study indicates that UECN is likely an important mechanism in development of aneuploid tumors and might be therapeutically targetable.

15.
Cancer Res ; 81(20): 5230-5241, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462276

RESUMO

Metastatic melanoma is challenging to clinically address. Although standard-of-care targeted therapy has high response rates in patients with BRAF-mutant melanoma, therapy relapse occurs in most cases. Intrinsically resistant melanoma cells drive therapy resistance and display molecular and biologic properties akin to neural crest-like stem cells (NCLSC) including high invasiveness, plasticity, and self-renewal capacity. The shared transcriptional programs and vulnerabilities between NCLSCs and cancer cells remains poorly understood. Here, we identify a developmental LPAR1-axis critical for NCLSC viability and melanoma cell survival. LPAR1 activity increased during progression and following acquisition of therapeutic resistance. Notably, genetic inhibition of LPAR1 potentiated BRAFi ± MEKi efficacy and ablated melanoma migration and invasion. Our data define LPAR1 as a new therapeutic target in melanoma and highlights the promise of dissecting stem cell-like pathways hijacked by tumor cells. SIGNIFICANCE: This study identifies an LPAR1-axis critical for melanoma invasion and intrinsic/acquired therapy resistance.

16.
Annu Rev Cancer Biol ; 5: 39-57, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34222745

RESUMO

The use of ex vivo drug sensitivity testing to predict drug activity in individual patients has been actively explored for almost 50 years without delivering a generally useful predictive capability. However, extended failure should not be an indicator of futility. This is especially true in cancer research where ultimate success is often preceded by less successful attempts. For example, both immune- and genetic-based targeted therapies for cancer underwent numerous failed attempts before biological understanding, improved targets, and optimized drug development matured to facilitate an arsenal of transformational drugs. Similarly, the concept of directly assessing drug sensitivity of primary tumor biopsies-and the use of this information to help direct therapeutic approaches-has a long history with a definitive learning curve. In this review, we will survey the history of ex vivo testing as well as the current state of the art for this field. We will present an update on methodologies and approaches, describe the use of these technologies to test cutting-edge drug classes, and describe an increasingly nuanced understanding of tumor types and models for which this strategy is most likely to succeed. We will consider the relative strengths and weaknesses of predicting drug activity across the broad biological context of cancer patients and tumor types. This will include an analysis of the potential for ex vivo drug sensitivity testing to accurately predict drug activity within each of the biological hallmarks of cancer pathogenesis.

18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13630, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211050

RESUMO

Metastatic progression defines the final stages of tumor evolution and underlies the majority of cancer-related deaths. The heterogeneity in disseminated tumor cell populations capable of seeding and growing in distant organ sites contributes to the development of treatment resistant disease. We recently reported the identification of a novel tumor-derived cell population, circulating hybrid cells (CHCs), harboring attributes from both macrophages and neoplastic cells, including functional characteristics important to metastatic spread. These disseminated hybrids outnumber conventionally defined circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in cancer patients. It is unknown if CHCs represent a generalized cancer mechanism for cell dissemination, or if this population is relevant to the metastatic cascade. Herein, we detect CHCs in the peripheral blood of patients with cancer in myriad disease sites encompassing epithelial and non-epithelial malignancies. Further, we demonstrate that in vivo-derived hybrid cells harbor tumor-initiating capacity in murine cancer models and that CHCs from human breast cancer patients express stem cell antigens, features consistent with the potential to seed and grow at metastatic sites. Finally, we reveal heterogeneity of CHC phenotypes reflect key tumor features, including oncogenic mutations and functional protein expression. Importantly, this novel population of disseminated neoplastic cells opens a new area in cancer biology and renewed opportunity for battling metastatic disease.


Assuntos
Células Híbridas/patologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Neoplasias/sangue
19.
Oncogene ; 40(37): 5590-5599, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304249

RESUMO

Targeting MAPK pathway using a combination of BRAF and MEK inhibitors is an efficient strategy to treat melanoma harboring BRAF-mutation. The development of acquired resistance is inevitable due to the signaling pathway rewiring. Combining western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and reverse phase protein array (RPPA), we aim to understanding the role of the mTORC1 signaling pathway, a center node of intracellular signaling network, in mediating drug resistance of BRAF-mutant melanoma to the combination of BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi) and MEK inhibitor (MEKi) therapy. The mTORC1 signaling pathway is initially suppressed by BRAFi and MEKi combination in melanoma but rebounds overtime after tumors acquire resistance to the combination therapy (CR) as assayed in cultured cells and PDX models. In vitro experiments showed that a subset of CR melanoma cells was sensitive to mTORC1 inhibition. The mTOR inhibitors, rapamycin and NVP-BEZ235, induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in CR cell lines. As a proof-of-principle, we demonstrated that rapamycin and NVP-BEZ235 treatment reduced tumor growth in CR xenograft models. Mechanistically, AKT or ERK contributes to the activation of mTORC1 in CR cells, depending on PTEN status of these cells. Our study reveals that mTOR activation is essential for drug resistance of melanoma to MAPK inhibitors, and provides insight into the rewiring of the signaling networks in CR melanoma.

20.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(16): 4587-4598, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117033

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Mutations in KRAS/NRAS (RAS) predict lack of anti-EGFR efficacy in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, it is unclear if all RAS mutations have similar impact, and atypical mutations beyond those in standard guidelines exist. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We reviewed 7 tissue and 1 cell-free DNA cohorts of 9,485 patients to characterize atypical RAS variants. Using an in vitro cell-based assay (functional annotation for cancer treatment), Ba/F3 transformation, and in vivo xenograft models of transduced isogenic clones, we assessed signaling changes across mutations. RESULTS: KRAS exon 2, extended RAS, and atypical RAS mutations were noted in 37.8%, 9.5%, and 1.2% of patients, respectively. Among atypical variants, KRAS L19F, Q22K, and D33E occurred at prevalence ≥0.1%, whereas no NRAS codon 117/146 and only one NRAS codon 59 mutation was noted. Atypical RAS mutations had worse overall survival than RAS/BRAF wild-type mCRC (HR, 2.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-6.80; P = 0.014). We functionally characterized 114 variants with the FACT assay. All KRAS exon 2 and extended RAS mutations appeared activating. Of 57 atypical RAS variants characterized, 18 (31.6%) had signaling below wild-type, 23 (40.4%) had signaling between wild-type and activating control, and 16 (28.1%) were hyperactive beyond the activating control. Ba/F3 transformation (17/18 variants) and xenograft model (7/8 variants) validation was highly concordant with FACT results, and activating atypical variants were those that occurred at highest prevalence in clinical cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: We provide best available evidence to guide treatment when atypical RAS variants are identified. KRAS L19F, Q22K, D33E, and T50I are more prevalent than many guideline-included RAS variants and functionally relevant.

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