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1.
Genet Med ; 23(1): 80-85, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893266

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Carney complex (CNC), is an autosomal dominant multiple neoplasia and lentiginosis syndrome. We aimed to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence and recurrence of cardiac myxomas, the predominant cause of death in CNC patients. METHODS: Patients with CNC were monitored prospectively between 1995 and 2020 for the development of cardiac myxomas. RESULTS: Of the 319 patients studied, 136 (42.6%) developed myxomas. The mean age at diagnosis was 28.7 ± 16.6 years in females and 25.0 ± 16.4 years in males. By age 30, 35% of females and 45% of males had at least one myxoma. The CNC-related lesions, lentigines, cutaneous, mucosal, or breast myxomas, thyroid nodules, pituitary adenoma, and schwannoma were significantly more frequent (all p < 0.05) among patients with myxomas. Forty-four percent of patients had recurrences; nearly all within the first 8 and 16 years for males and females, respectively. Recurrences were more common in females. CONCLUSION: This is the largest study to date and provides the first-time risk estimates by age and gender for cardiac myxomas in CNC patients. Cardiac myxomas are common by age 30 and often recur, especially in women, but the risk drops in 10 to 20 years. These findings may guide patient counseling, screening intervals, and surgical approaches. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trial Registration: Defining the Genetic Basis for the Development of Primary Pigmented Nodular Adrenocortical Disease and the Carney complex, Registration number: NCT00001452 URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00001452.

2.
JCI Insight ; 5(23)2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108146

RESUMO

Pituitary developmental defects lead to partial or complete hormone deficiency and significant health problems. The majority of cases are sporadic and of unknown cause. We screened 28 patients with pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) for mutations in the FAT/DCHS family of protocadherins that have high functional redundancy. We identified seven variants, four of which putatively damaging, in FAT2 and DCHS2 in six patients with pituitary developmental defects recruited through a cohort of patients with mostly ectopic posterior pituitary gland and/or pituitary stalk interruption. All patients had growth hormone deficiency and two presented with multiple hormone deficiencies and small glands. FAT2 and DCHS2 were strongly expressed in the mesenchyme surrounding the normal developing human pituitary. We analyzed Dchs2-/- mouse mutants and identified anterior pituitary hypoplasia and partially penetrant infundibular defects. Overlapping infundibular abnormalities and distinct anterior pituitary morphogenesis defects were observed in Fat4-/- and Dchs1-/- mouse mutants but all animal models displayed normal commitment to the anterior pituitary cell type. Together our data implicate FAT/DCHS protocadherins in normal hypothalamic-pituitary development and identify FAT2 and DCHS2 as candidates underlying pituitary gland developmental defects such as ectopic pituitary gland and/or pituitary stalk interruption.

3.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821998

RESUMO

Preeclampsia, a pregnancy disorder that includes hypertension and proteinuria, is a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Some studies, but not all, have found that women with preeclampsia have significantly lower iodine levels than healthy pregnant women. Resolving this issue is important because iodine deficiency in pregnancy is common in the USA and parts of Europe including Finland. We conducted a nested case-control study to determine whether the risk for preeclampsia is associated with iodine status. We measured serum iodine, thyroglobulin (Tg), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) at 10-14 weeks gestational age in 204 women with preeclampsia and 246 unaffected controls selected from all births in Finland. We found no significant difference in iodine (case mean = 26.04 ng/mL, control mean = 27.88 ng/mL, p = 0.995), Tg (case mean = 31.11 ng/mL, control mean = 29.61 ng/mL, p = 0.996), and TSH (case mean = 1.30 mIU/L, control mean = 1.24 mIU/L, p = 0.896) levels between cases and controls. There was no significant relationship between preeclampsia risk and iodine, Tg, or TSH after adjustment for known risk factors. These results are reassuring given the high prevalence of iodine deficiency in pregnancy.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32714280

RESUMO

Context: The DICER1 syndrome is a multiple neoplasia disorder caused by germline mutations in the DICER1 gene. In DICER1 patients, aggressive congenital pituitary tumors lead to neonatal Cushing's disease (CD). The role of DICER1 in other corticotropinomas, however, remains unknown. Objective: To perform a comprehensive screening for DICER1 variants in a large cohort of CD patients, and to analyze their possible contribution to the phenotype. Design, setting, patients, and interventions: We included 192 CD cases: ten young-onset (age <30 years at diagnosis) patients were studied using a next generation sequencing panel, and 182 patients (170 pediatric and 12 adults) were screened via whole-exome sequencing. In seven cases, tumor samples were analyzed by Sanger sequencing. Results: Rare germline DICER1 variants were found in seven pediatric patients with no other known disease-associated germline defects or somatic DICER1 second hits. By immunohistochemistry, DICER1 showed nuclear localization in 5/6 patients. Variant transmission from one of the parents was confirmed in 5/7 cases. One patient had a multinodular goiter; another had a family history of melanoma; no other patients had a history of neoplasms. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that DICER1 gene variants may contribute to the pathogenesis of non-syndromic corticotropinomas. Clarifying whether DICER1 loss-of-function is disease-causative or a mere disease-modifier in this setting, requires further studies. Clinical trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00001595.

5.
J Nutr ; 150(9): 2429-2434, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe iodine deficiency or excess during pregnancy can cause congenital hypothyroidism (CH). Iodine deficiency is common in pregnant women in the United States. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a nested case-control study in a cohort of ∼2.5 million births in California to determine whether iodine status is related to CH in a US population. METHODS: Dried blood spots from 907 newborns with CH identified by newborn screening and 909 unaffected controls matched by month of birth were obtained from the California Newborn Screening Program to measure whole-blood iodine concentration. Iodine status was compared between cases and controls, and logistic regression was used to assess the association between CH status and blood iodine concentrations. Iodine status was also compared between cases and controls among infants treated in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) because CH has been reported in infants exposed to high levels of iodine in the NICU. RESULTS: Blood iodine concentrations did not differ significantly between cases (median: 20.0 ng/mL; IQR: 12.1-29.8 ng/mL) and controls (median: 20.3 ng/mL; IQR: 12.5-30.9 ng/mL; P = 0.59). Neither extremely high nor extremely low blood iodine concentrations (1st, 5th, 95th, and 99th percentiles of the distribution) were more common in cases. Among infants treated in NICUs, however, cases had significantly (P = 0.01) higher iodine (median: 22.7 ng/mL; IQR: 16.4-32.1 ng/mL) compared with controls (median: 17.3 ng/mL; IQR: 8.3-26.6 ng/mL). CONCLUSIONS: CH cases did not have significantly higher or lower iodine in this population, which is reassuring given that maternal iodine deficiency is common in the United States. Among newborns in the NICU, CH cases had higher blood iodine concentrations compared with controls, suggesting that excess iodine exposure in the NICU could be causing CH. It may be beneficial to monitor iodine exposure from surgical procedures, imaging, and iodine-containing disinfectants and to consider non-iodine alternatives.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo Congênito/sangue , Iodo/sangue , Iodo/deficiência , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez
6.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232325

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Germline loss-of-function CDKN1B gene variants cause the autosomal dominant syndrome of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 4 (MEN4). Even though pituitary neuroendocrine tumors are a well-known component of the syndrome, only 2 cases of Cushing's disease (CD) have so far been described in this setting. AIM: To screen a large cohort of CD patients for CDKN1B gene defects and to determine their functional effects. PATIENTS: We screened 211 CD patients (94.3% pediatric) by germline whole-exome sequencing (WES) only (n = 157), germline and tumor WES (n = 27), Sanger sequencing (n = 6), and/or germline copy number variant (CNV) analysis (n = 194). Sixty cases were previously unpublished. Variant segregation was investigated in the patients' families, and putative pathogenic variants were functionally characterized. RESULTS: Five variants of interest were found in 1 patient each: 1 truncating (p.Q107Rfs*12) and 4 nontruncating variants, including 3 missense changes affecting the CDKN1B protein scatter domain (p.I119T, p.E126Q, and p.D136G) and one 5' untranslated region (UTR) deletion (c.-29_-26delAGAG). No CNVs were found. All cases presented early (10.5 ± 1.3 years) and apparently sporadically. Aside from colon adenocarcinoma in 1 carrier, no additional neoplasms were detected in the probands or their families. In vitro assays demonstrated protein instability and disruption of the scatter domain of CDKN1B for all variants tested. CONCLUSIONS: Five patients with CD and germline CDKN1B variants of uncertain significance (n = 2) or pathogenic/likely pathogenic (n = 3) were identified, accounting for 2.6% of the patients screened. Our finding that germline CDKN1B loss-of-function may present as apparently sporadic, isolated pediatric CD has important implications for clinical screening and genetic counselling.

7.
Hum Genet ; 139(8): 1077-1090, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32266521

RESUMO

Our previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) for sagittal nonsyndromic craniosynostosis (sNCS) provided important insights into the genetics of midline CS. In this study, we performed a GWAS for a second midline NCS, metopic NCS (mNCS), using 215 non-Hispanic white case-parent triads. We identified six variants with genome-wide significance (P ≤ 5 × 10-8): rs781716 (P = 4.71 × 10-9; odds ratio [OR] = 2.44) intronic to SPRY3; rs6127972 (P = 4.41 × 10-8; OR = 2.17) intronic to BMP7; rs62590971 (P = 6.22 × 10-9; OR = 0.34), located ~ 155 kb upstream from TGIF2LX; and rs2522623, rs2573826, and rs2754857, all intronic to PCDH11X (P = 1.76 × 10-8, OR = 0.45; P = 3.31 × 10-8, OR = 0.45; P = 1.09 × 10-8, OR = 0.44, respectively). We performed a replication study of these variants using an independent non-Hispanic white sample of 194 unrelated mNCS cases and 333 unaffected controls; only the association for rs6127972 (P = 0.004, OR = 1.45; meta-analysis P = 1.27 × 10-8, OR = 1.74) was replicated. Our meta-analysis examining single nucleotide polymorphisms common to both our mNCS and sNCS studies showed the strongest association for rs6127972 (P = 1.16 × 10-6). Our imputation analysis identified a linkage disequilibrium block encompassing rs6127972, which contained an enhancer overlapping a CTCF transcription factor binding site (chr20:55,798,821-55,798,917) that was significantly hypomethylated in mesenchymal stem cells derived from fused metopic compared to open sutures from the same probands. This study provides additional insights into genetic factors in midline CS.


Assuntos
Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 7/genética , Craniossinostoses/genética , Variação Genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Alelos , Metilação de DNA , Genes Reporter , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Íntrons/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Fatores de Risco
8.
Adv Nutr ; 11(4): 753-759, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134106

RESUMO

Folate-containing prenatal supplements are commonly consumed in the United States, but inconsistencies in units of measure and chemical forms pose challenges for providing authoritative advice on recommended amounts. New regulations require folate to be declared as micrograms of dietary folate equivalents (DFE) on product labels, whereas intake recommendations for reducing the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) and the Tolerable Upper Intake Level are expressed as micrograms of folic acid. Today, >25% of prenatal supplements contain folate as synthetic salts of L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate (L-5-MTHF), but recommendations do not include this form of the vitamin. Harmonizing units of measure and addressing newer forms of folate salts in intake recommendations and in the prevention of NTDs would resolve the confusion.

9.
Diabetes Care ; 43(4): 793-798, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041900

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We examined the association of lactation duration with incident type 2 diabetes among women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We monitored 4,372 women with a history of GDM participating in the Nurses' Health Study II for incident type 2 diabetes over 25 years up to 2017. Lactation history was obtained through follow-up questionnaires to calculate lactation duration. Follow-up blood samples were collected from a subset of these women at median age of 58 years through the Diabetes & Women's Health Study. RESULTS: We documented 873 incident cases of type 2 diabetes during 87,411 person-years of follow-up. Longer duration of lactation was associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes for both total lactation (hazard ratio 1.05 [95% CI 0.83-1.34] for up to 6 months, 0.91 [0.72-1.16] for 6-12 months, 0.85 [0.67-1.06] for 12-24 months, and 0.73 [0.57-0.93] for >24 months, compared with 0 months; P-trend = 0.003) and exclusive breastfeeding (P-trend = 0.002) after adjustment for age, ethnicity, family history of diabetes, parity, age at first birth, smoking, diet quality, physical activity, and prepregnancy BMI. Longer duration of lactation was also associated with lower HbA1c, fasting plasma insulin, and C-peptide concentrations among women without type 2 diabetes at follow-up (all adjusted P-trend ≤0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Longer duration of lactation is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes and a favorable glucose metabolic biomarker profile among women with a history of GDM. The underlying mechanisms and impact on diabetes complications, morbidity, and mortality remain to be determined.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Lactação/fisiologia , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paridade/fisiologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958311

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have an exceptionally high risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Yet, little is known about genetic determinants for T2D in this population. We examined the association of a genetic risk score (GRS) with risk of T2D in two independent populations of women with a history of GDM and how this association might be modified by non-genetic determinants for T2D. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This cohort study included 2434 white women with a history of GDM from the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII, n=1884) and the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC, n=550). A GRS for T2D was calculated using 59 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms for T2D identified from genome-wide association studies in European populations. An alternate healthy eating index (AHEI) score was derived to reflect dietary quality after the pregnancy affected by GDM. RESULTS: Women on average were followed for 21 years in NHSII and 13 years in DNBC, during which 446 (23.7%) and 155 (28.2%) developed T2D, respectively. The GRS was generally positively associated with T2D risk in both cohorts. In the pooled analysis, the relative risks (RRs) for increasing quartiles of GRS were 1.00, 0.97, 1.25 and 1.19 (p trend=0.02). In both cohorts, the association appeared to be stronger among women with poorer (AHEI

11.
J Ren Nutr ; 30(5): 415-422, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959496

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Nut intake has been associated with reduced cardiometabolic risk, but few studies have examined its association with renal function. We examined associations between nut intake and renal function among women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a population with an increased risk for renal dysfunction. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study included 607 women with a history of GDM who participated in the Diabetes & Women's Health Study (2012-2014) follow-up clinical examination in Denmark. At the clinic, biospecimens were collected, and habitual intake of nuts (9 types) in the past year was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. A total of 330 women free of major chronic diseases were included in the analysis. Total nut intake was classified as none (≤1 serving/month), monthly (2-3 servings/month), weekly (1-6 servings/week), and daily (≥1 serving/day). One serving was defined as 28 g. Renal function markers included estimated glomerular rate (eGFR) and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), calculated based on plasma creatinine (mg/dL), and urinary albumin (mg/L), and creatinine (mg/dL) measurements, respectively. We estimated percent differences with 95% confidence intervals for each outcome by nut intake, adjusted for current body mass index, age, physical activity, energy intake, alcohol consumption, and vegetables intake. RESULTS: We observed a nonlinear association between total nut intake and UACR with lowest UACR values among women with weekly intake. Compared to women with weekly intake (n = 222), the adjusted UACR values were higher by 86% [95% confidence interval: 15%, 202%], 24% [-1%, 54%], and 117% [22%, 288%] among women with no (n = 13), monthly (n = 86), and daily (n = 9) intake, respectively. Compared to weekly consumers, daily nut consumers also had 9% [0%, 19%] significantly higher eGFR values, but eGFR values were similar among women with no and monthly intake. CONCLUSION: Moderate nut consumption may be beneficial to kidney health among women with prior GDM.

12.
JAMA ; 323(1): 35-48, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910279

RESUMO

Importance: Dietary supplements marketed for male fertility commonly contain folic acid and zinc based on limited prior evidence for improving semen quality. However, no large-scale trial has examined the efficacy of this therapy for improving semen quality or live birth. Objective: To determine the effect of daily folic acid and zinc supplementation on semen quality and live birth. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Folic Acid and Zinc Supplementation Trial was a multicenter randomized clinical trial. Couples (n = 2370; men aged ≥18 years and women aged 18-45 years) planning infertility treatment were enrolled at 4 US reproductive endocrinology and infertility care study centers between June 2013 and December 2017. The last 6-month study visit for semen collection occurred during August 2018, with chart abstraction of live birth and pregnancy information completed during April 2019. Interventions: Men were block randomized by study center and planned infertility treatment (in vitro fertilization, other treatment at a study site, and other treatment at an outside clinic) to receive either 5 mg of folic acid and 30 mg of elemental zinc (n = 1185) or placebo (n = 1185) daily for 6 months. Main Outcomes and Measures: The co-primary outcomes were live birth (resulting from pregnancies occurring within 9 months of randomization) and semen quality parameters (sperm concentration, motility, morphology, volume, DNA fragmentation, and total motile sperm count) at 6 months after randomization. Results: Among 2370 men who were randomized (mean age, 33 years), 1773 (75%) attended the final 6-month study visit. Live birth outcomes were available for all couples, and 1629 men (69%) had semen available for analysis at 6 months after randomization. Live birth was not significantly different between treatment groups (404 [34%] in the folic acid and zinc group and 416 [35%] in the placebo group; risk difference, -0.9% [95% CI, -4.7% to 2.8%]). Most of the semen quality parameters (sperm concentration, motility, morphology, volume, and total motile sperm count) were not significantly different between treatment groups at 6 months after randomization. A statistically significant increase in DNA fragmentation was observed with folic acid and zinc supplementation (mean of 29.7% for percentage of DNA fragmentation in the folic acid and zinc group and 27.2% in the placebo group; mean difference, 2.4% [95% CI, 0.5% to 4.4%]). Gastrointestinal symptoms were more common with folic acid and zinc supplementation compared with placebo (abdominal discomfort or pain: 66 [6%] vs 40 [3%], respectively; nausea: 50 [4%] vs 24 [2%]; and vomiting: 32 [3%] vs 17 [1%]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among a general population of couples seeking infertility treatment, the use of folic acid and zinc supplementation by male partners, compared with placebo, did not significantly improve semen quality or couples' live birth rates. These findings do not support the use of folic acid and zinc supplementation by male partners in the treatment of infertility. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01857310.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Infertilidade Masculina/tratamento farmacológico , Sêmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Zinco/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fragmentação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Ácido Fólico/efeitos adversos , Ácido Fólico/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Nascimento Vivo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise do Sêmen , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Falha de Tratamento , Adulto Jovem , Zinco/efeitos adversos , Zinco/uso terapêutico
13.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 120(5): 885-892, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Riboflavin, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 are key players in one-carbon metabolism as enzymatic cofactors, and deficiency of these nutrients may influence reproductive outcomes possibly through affecting reproductive hormones. OBJECTIVE: The goal was to investigate associations between dietary intakes of riboflavin, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12, and menstrual function among premenopausal women. DESIGN: This was a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study conducted at the University at Buffalo during 2005 to 2007. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Participants were 259 healthy, regularly menstruating women (aged 18 to 44 years) with self-reported menstrual cycles between 21 and 35 days, who were not trying to conceive, and who had not used hormonal contraception during the past 3 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Intakes of B vitamins were assessed via 24-hour dietary recalls four times per menstrual cycle for two cycles. Serum reproductive hormones and plasma homocysteine were measured eight and three times, respectively, per cycle for two cycles. Anovulatory cycles were determined by progesterone concentrations ≤5 ng/mL (15.9 nmol/L) and no observed serum luteinizing hormone peak during the mid or late luteal phase visit. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Weighted linear mixed regressions were used to evaluate associations between cycle-averaged B vitamin intakes and hormones and homocysteine, and generalized linear regressions for associations with anovulation. Models were adjusted for age, race, body mass index, physical activity, alternate Mediterranean diet score, intakes of total energy, protein, fiber, and folate, and percentage of energy intake from fat. RESULTS: Higher intakes of riboflavin (per 0.1 mg increase in intake) were inversely correlated with estradiol (-0.87%, 95% CI -1.67 to -0.06) and homocysteine levels (-0.61%, 95% CI -1.10 to -0.12). Higher vitamin B-6 intakes were suggestive of higher follicle-stimulating hormone, although the results were not statistically significant (0.63% difference, 95% CI -0.03 to 1.29, per 0.1 mg increase in intake; P=0.06). Small increases in testosterone and decreases in homocysteine were found with vitamin B-12 intake. No associations were observed between intake of B vitamins and a risk of sporadic anovulation. CONCLUSIONS: Higher intakes of riboflavin were associated with a small decrease in serum estradiol among healthy, regularly menstruating women. Higher intakes of riboflavin and vitamin B-12 were associated with lower plasma homocysteine concentrations. Overall, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 that are one-carbon nutrients do not appear to influence the ovarian cycle among premenopausal women.


Assuntos
Ciclo Menstrual/sangue , Pré-Menopausa/sangue , Riboflavina/análise , Vitamina B 12/análise , Vitamina B 6/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Anovulação/sangue , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Alimentos , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Progesterona/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am J Epidemiol ; 189(1): 8-26, 2020 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712803

RESUMO

The Folic Acid and Zinc Supplementation Trial (FAZST) was a multicenter, double-blind, block-randomized, placebo-controlled trial to determine whether folic acid and zinc supplementation in men improves semen quality and increases livebirth rate among couples seeking infertility treatment (2013-2017). Eligible men were aged 18 years or older with female partners aged 18-45 years, seeking infertility treatment. Men were randomized (1:1) to 5 mg folic acid and 30 mg elemental zinc daily or matching placebo for 6 months. Randomization was stratified by site and intended infertility treatment (in vitro fertilization (IVF), non-IVF/study site, and non-IVF/outside clinic). Follow-up of men continued for 6 months, and female partners were passively followed for a minimum of 9 months. Women who conceived were followed throughout pregnancy. Overall, 2,370 men were randomized during 2013-2017 (1,185 folic acid and zinc, 1,185 placebo); they had a mean age of 33 years and body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2) of 29.8. Most participants were white (82%), well educated (83% with some college), and employed (72%). Participant characteristics were balanced across intervention arms. Study visits were completed by 89%, 77%, and 75% of men at months 2, 4, and 6, respectively. Here we describe the study design, recruitment, data collection, lessons learned, and baseline participant characteristics.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Infertilidade Masculina/terapia , Nascimento Vivo , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Projetos de Pesquisa , Análise do Sêmen , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
Epidemiology ; 31(2): 310-316, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies linking large pregnancy cohorts with mortality data can address critical questions about long-term implications of gravid health, yet relevant US data are scant. We examined the feasibility of linking the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a large multiracial U.S. cohort study of pregnant women (n = 48,197; 1959-1966), to death records. METHODS: We abstracted essential National Death Index (NDI) (1979-2016) (n = 46,428). We performed a linkage to the Social Security Administration Death Master File through 2016 (n = 46,450). Genealogists manually searched vital status in 2016 for a random sample of women (n = 1,249). We conducted agreement analyses for women with abstracted data among the three sources. As proof of concept, we calculated adjusted associations between mortality and smoking and other sociodemographic factors using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: We successfully abstracted identifying information for most of the cohort (97%). National Death Index identified the greatest proportion of participants deceased (35%), followed by genealogists (31%) and Death Master File (23%). Estimates of agreement (κ [95% confidence interval]) between National Death Index and Death Master File were lower (0.52 [0.51, 0.53]) than for National Death Index and genealogist (0.66 [0.61, 0.70]). As expected, compared with nonsmokers, smoking ≥1 pack per day was associated with elevated mortality for all vital sources and was strongest for National Death Index. CONCLUSIONS: Linking this historic cohort with mortality records was feasible and agreed reasonably on vital status when compared with other data sources. Such linkage enables future examination of pregnancy conditions in relation to mortality in a diverse U.S. cohort.

16.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731400

RESUMO

Normal maternal thyroid function during pregnancy is essential for fetal development and depends upon an adequate supply of iodine. Little is known about how iodine status is associated with preterm birth and small for gestational age (SGA) in mildly iodine insufficient populations. Our objective was to evaluate associations of early pregnancy serum iodine, thyroglobulin (Tg), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) with odds of preterm birth and SGA in a prospective, population-based, nested case-control study from all births in Finland (2012-2013). Cases of preterm birth (n = 208) and SGA (n = 209) were randomly chosen from among all singleton births. Controls were randomly chosen from among singleton births that were not preterm (n = 242) or SGA (n = 241) infants during the same time period. Women provided blood samples at 10-14 weeks' gestation for serum iodide, Tg and TSH measurement. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for preterm birth and SGA. Each log-unit increase in serum iodide was associated with higher odds of preterm birth (adjusted OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.02-1.40), but was not associated with SGA (adjusted OR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.86-1.18). Tg was not associated with preterm birth (OR per 1 log-unit increase = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.73-1.05), but was inversely associated with SGA (OR per log-unit increase = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.65-0.94). Neither high nor low TSH (versus normal) were associated with either outcome. These findings suggest that among Finnish women, iodine status is not related to SGA, but higher serum iodide may be positively associated with preterm birth.

17.
Epidemiology ; 30 Suppl 2: S47-S54, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569152

RESUMO

In 2017, the Division of Intramural Population Health Research (DIPHR), within the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), reached a significant milestone: 50 years in existence. DIPHR celebrated this anniversary with a scientific program that reviewed past accomplishments and reflected on future directions in support of promoting the health of populations across the life course. Extending from the scientific program, the impetus of this article is to contribute to archiving and consolidating the legacy of intramural population health research at NICHD over the past 50 years. We present a brief history of the origin and evolution of intramural population health research at NICHD. Next, we conduct an empirical assessment of the scientific impact and evolving scope of this research over the past five decades and present specific key discoveries emerging from topics spanning the life course: (1) reproductive health, (2) the health of pregnant women and fetuses, (3) the health of children, and (4) associated methodologies. We also explore the Division's service to the profession in the form of mentorship of the next generation of scientists in population health research. Finally, we conclude with thoughts about future directions of population health research and reaffirm the DIPHR's commitment to promoting the health and well-being of the many populations we serve, both locally and globally.

18.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(1): 221-232, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) are commonly consumed and recommended for individuals at high risk for cardiometabolic diseases; however, the health effects of ASBs remain contradictory. Given that cross-sectional analyses are subject to reverse causation, prospective studies with long-term follow-up are needed to evaluate associations between ASBs and cardiometabolic health, especially among high-risk individuals. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine associations of ASB intake and cardiometabolic health among high-risk women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: We included 607 women with GDM from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC; 1996-2002) who completed a clinical exam 9-16 y after the DNBC pregnancy for the Diabetes & Women's Health (DWH) Study (2012-2014). We assessed ASB intake using FFQs completed during the DNBC pregnancy and at the DWH Study clinical exam. We examined cardiometabolic outcomes at the DWH clinical exam. We estimated percentage differences in continuous cardiometabolic markers and RRs for clinical endpoints in association with ASB intake both during pregnancy and at follow-up adjusted for prepregnancy BMI, diet, and lifestyle factors. Sensitivity analyses to account for reverse causation were performed. RESULTS: In pregnancy and at follow-up, 30.4% and 36.4% of women regularly (≥2 servings/wk) consumed ASB, respectively. Consumption of ASBs, both during pregnancy and at follow-up, was associated with higher glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, liver fat, and adiposity and with lower HDL at follow-up. After adjustment for covariates, particularly prepregnancy BMI, the majority of associations between ASB intake in pregnancy and outcomes at follow-up became null with the exception of HbA1c. ASB intake at follow-up (≥1 serving/d compared with <1 serving/mo) was associated with higher HbA1c (6.5%; 95% CI: 1.9, 11.3; P-trend = 0.007); however, associations were not upheld in sensitivity analyses for reverse causation. CONCLUSIONS: Among Danish women with a history of GDM, ASB intake was not significantly associated with cardiometabolic profiles.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Edulcorantes/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Bebidas/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Edulcorantes/análise , Saúde da Mulher
19.
BMJ Open ; 9(4): e025517, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048434

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Women who experience gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at exceptionally high-risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2DM) later in life. However, limited information is available about genetic and environmental factors that are implicated in the progression from GDM to T2DM. PARTICIPANTS: The Diabetes & Women's Health (DWH) Study applied a hybrid design, which combined new prospective data collection with existing data in two prospective cohorts, the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) and the Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II). In total, the DWH Study identified 7759 women with a GDM diagnosis from both cohorts; 4457 women participated in the DWH Study data collection, which included two cycles of follow-up from 2012 to 2014 and 2014 to 2016. FINDINGS TO DATE: Progression from GDM to T2DM was high. In the NHS II group, by 2013, 23.1% (n=846/3667) developed T2DM. In the DNBC group, at cycle 1 (2012-2014), the progression rate was even higher: 27.2% (n=215/790) had developed T2DM. Furthermore, we have shown that women who had GDM experienced a significantly greater risk of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, as well as early stages of glomerular hyperfiltration and renal damage. Moreover, the DWH Study findings have shown that healthful diet and lifestyle factors and weight control were related to a lower risk of T2DM, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. FUTURE PLANS: Primary data collection for the DWH Study is complete and investigators are currently investigating interactions of the abovementioned modifiable factors with T2DM genetic susceptibility in determining the risk of progression from GDM to T2DM. Findings from ongoing work will provide further insights for identifying more precise prevention strategies for T2DM and comorbidities in this high-risk population. Future work will examine novel biomarkers of health and disease in this cohort.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Comorbidade , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Estilo de Vida , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Diabetes Care ; 42(6): 1034-1041, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010874

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify novel modifiable risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) by examining the association between prepregnancy habitual folate intake and GDM risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study included 14,553 women in the Nurses' Health Study II who reported at least one singleton pregnancy between the 1991 and 2001 questionnaires. Prepregnancy intakes of total folate, supplemental folate, and food folate were assessed using a food frequency questionnaire administered every 4 years. Incident GDM was ascertained from a self-reported physician diagnosis. Relative risks (RRs) of GDM were estimated using log-binomial models, with adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors. RESULTS: Over the study follow-up, 824 incident GDM cases were reported among 20,199 pregnancies. Women with adequate total folate intake (≥400 µg/day) had an RR of GDM of 0.83 (95% CI 0.72, 0,95, P = 0.007) compared with women with inadequate intake (<400 µg/day). This association was entirely driven by supplemental folate intake. The RRs of GDM for 1-399, 400-599, and ≥600 µg/day of supplemental folate intake were 0.83, 0.77, and 0.70, respectively, compared with no supplemental folate intake (P trend = 0.002). The association between supplemental folate intake and GDM risk largely persisted after additional adjustment for intake of multivitamins and other micronutrients, as well as among women who likely planned for the pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Higher habitual intakes of supplemental folate before pregnancy were significantly associated with lower GDM risk. If confirmed, these findings indicate that prepregnancy folic acid supplementation could offer a novel and low-cost avenue to reduce GDM risk.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Cuidado Pré-Concepcional/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Diabetes Gestacional/etiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Cuidado Pré-Concepcional/métodos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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