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2.
Ann Surg ; 270(4): 602-611, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478978

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of postoperative permissive anemia and high cardiovascular risk on postoperative outcomes. METHODS: The Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program and Corporate Data Warehouse databases were queried for patients who underwent major vascular or general surgery operations. The status of cardiovascular risk was assessed by calculating the Revised Cardiac Risk Index. Primary endpoint was a composite of mortality, myocardial infarction, acute renal failure, coronary revascularization, or stroke within 90 days postoperatively. RESULTS: We analyzed 142,510 procedures performed from 2000 to 2015. Postoperative anemia was the strongest independent predictor of the primary endpoint whose odds increased by 43% for every g/dL drop in postoperative nadir Hb [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 41-45]. Cardiac risk status as described by the RCRI also independently predicted the primary endpoint, with an additive effect particularly evident at postoperative nadir Hb values below 10 gm/dL. Postoperative anemia, after age, was the second strongest independent predictor of long-term (12 years) mortality (hazard ratio: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.17-1.19). CONCLUSION: Postoperative anemia is strongly associated with postoperative ischemic events, 90-day mortality, and long-term mortality. Restrictive transfusion should be used cautiously after major general and vascular operations, particularly in patients at a high cardiovascular risk.

4.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endovascular management of complex aortoiliac occlusive disease (AIOD) has been described as a viable alternative to open surgical reconstruction. To date, few studies have directly compared the 2 techniques. We therefore, evaluated short and mid- term outcomes of open and endovascular therapy in TASC II D AIOD patients. METHODS: TASC II D patients undergoing treatment between January 2009 and December 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Patient demographics, clinical data, and outcomes (complications [technical and systemic] and graft patency) were collected. The primary outcome of this study was primary graft patency. Patients were compared according to treatment group (open versus endovascular). Kaplan-Meier curves were used to analyze follow up results. RESULTS: A total of 75 consecutive patients (open: 30; endovascular: 45) were included in this analysis. In the endovascular group, 25 (55.6%) patients were managed using a hybrid approach with 100% technical success. Critical limb ischemia was the indication for intervention in 16.0% of this cohort (open, 13.3% vs. endovascular, 17.8%, P = 0.397). Overall, there were no significant differences in gender (male: open, 50.0% vs. endovascular, 55.6%, P = 0.637) or age (54.5 ± 5.9 years vs. 57.0 ± 8.7 years, P = 0.171). No in hospital deaths occurred in this cohort. The overall complication rate was significantly higher in the open group (43.3% vs. 17.8%, OR 3.5, 95% CI [1.2-10.1], P = 0.016) with peri-operative systemic complications being more likely in the open cohort (40.0% vs. 6.7%, OR 9.3, 95% CI [2.3-37.3], P < 0.001) while technical complications did not differ between the 2 groups (6.7% vs. 11.1%, OR 0.6, 95% CI [0.1-3.1], P = 0.517). Follow up data was available for 68 patients (90.7%), for a mean of 21.3 ± 17.1 months (range: 1-72 months). Re-intervention rates were significantly higher in the endovascular group (3.3% vs. 20.0%, OR 7.2, 95% CI [1.1-14.3], P = 0.038). The overall primary patency at 2 years was significantly higher in the open group (96.7% vs. 80.0%, OR 7.2, 95% CI [1.2-60.5], P = 0.038). Cox regression analysis revealed separation of the primary outcome for open therapy relative to endovascular repair (log rank, P = 0.320). CONCLUSIONS: In this comparison of open and endovascular therapy for complex AIOD, endovascular therapy was associated with high initial technical success and fewer in-hospital systemic complications but also high re-intervention rates when compared to open repair. Further prospective studies aimed at reduction of complications, optimization of patency, and patient selection for such procedures is warranted.

6.
J Vasc Surg ; 69(6S): 3S-125S.e40, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159978

RESUMO

Chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI) is associated with mortality, amputation, and impaired quality of life. These Global Vascular Guidelines (GVG) are focused on definition, evaluation, and management of CLTI with the goals of improving evidence-based care and highlighting critical research needs. The term CLTI is preferred over critical limb ischemia, as the latter implies threshold values of impaired perfusion rather than a continuum. CLTI is a clinical syndrome defined by the presence of peripheral artery disease (PAD) in combination with rest pain, gangrene, or a lower limb ulceration >2 weeks duration. Venous, traumatic, embolic, and nonatherosclerotic etiologies are excluded. All patients with suspected CLTI should be referred urgently to a vascular specialist. Accurately staging the severity of limb threat is fundamental, and the Society for Vascular Surgery Threatened Limb Classification system, based on grading of Wounds, Ischemia, and foot Infection (WIfI) is endorsed. Objective hemodynamic testing, including toe pressures as the preferred measure, is required to assess CLTI. Evidence-based revascularization (EBR) hinges on three independent axes: Patient risk, Limb severity, and ANatomic complexity (PLAN). Average-risk and high-risk patients are defined by estimated procedural and 2-year all-cause mortality. The GVG proposes a new Global Anatomic Staging System (GLASS), which involves defining a preferred target artery path (TAP) and then estimating limb-based patency (LBP), resulting in three stages of complexity for intervention. The optimal revascularization strategy is also influenced by the availability of autogenous vein for open bypass surgery. Recommendations for EBR are based on best available data, pending level 1 evidence from ongoing trials. Vein bypass may be preferred for average-risk patients with advanced limb threat and high complexity disease, while those with less complex anatomy, intermediate severity limb threat, or high patient risk may be favored for endovascular intervention. All patients with CLTI should be afforded best medical therapy including the use of antithrombotic, lipid-lowering, antihypertensive, and glycemic control agents, as well as counseling on smoking cessation, diet, exercise, and preventive foot care. Following EBR, long-term limb surveillance is advised. The effectiveness of nonrevascularization therapies (eg, spinal stimulation, pneumatic compression, prostanoids, and hyperbaric oxygen) has not been established. Regenerative medicine approaches (eg, cell, gene therapies) for CLTI should be restricted to rigorously conducted randomizsed clinical trials. The GVG promotes standardization of study designs and end points for clinical trials in CLTI. The importance of multidisciplinary teams and centers of excellence for amputation prevention is stressed as a key health system initiative.

7.
J Vasc Surg ; 70(5): 1629-1633, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230847

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The effect that ipsilateral tunneled dialysis catheters (TDC) have on arteriovenous fistula (AVF) maturation is unclear. We sought to define this association by comparing AVF maturation rates in patients with contralateral TDC with those with ipsilateral TDC. METHODS: A review of a prospectively maintained database including all AVF creation procedures between 2009 and 2016 was performed. All patients with a TDC in place at the time of AVF creation were included in this study. Clinical and functional maturation rates were compared in patients with contralateral vs ipsilateral dialysis catheters. Categorical variables were analyzed by a two-tailed Fisher's exact test. A P value of less than .05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: There were 187 patients who underwent fistula creation with a TDC in place during the study period. Of those, 137 patients had a contralateral TDC and 50 had an ipsilateral TDC. A greater proportion of contralateral patients were first-time dialysis access patients at the time of index AVF creation (67% vs 48%; P = .03). There was no difference in clinical (contralateral 73% vs ipsilateral 78%; P = .57) and functional (contralateral 64% vs ipsilateral 74%) maturation rates between the two groups. The rate of TDC removal after AVF maturation was also not different (contralateral 64% vs ipsilateral 72%; P = .30). There was also no statistical difference in the rates of thrombosis at less than 30 days, outflow stenosis, central stenosis, and steal syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: There was no association between TDC sidedness and AVF maturation or early failure in our cohort. Planning for AVF creation should not be influenced by attempts to avoid an ipsilateral TDC.

8.
J Vasc Surg ; 70(1): 3-7, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230649

RESUMO

A recent meta-analysis identified increased 2- to 5-year mortality associated with paclitaxel-eluting balloons and stents when they are used to treat peripheral artery disease. The history of the development of paclitaxel, its mechanism of action, and its use in the coronary and peripheral circulation are reviewed in this special communication. In addition, inferences are made to place these findings in perspective and to explain them in light of presently available information, and proposals regarding end points and open access to data are put forth to minimize risk of such developments in the future.

10.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 58(1S): S120-S134.e3, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151867

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Accurate survival prediction critically influences decision-making in caring for patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI). The Bypass versus Angioplasty in Severe Ischaemia of the Leg (BASIL) trial demonstrated that in patients who survived >2 years, there was a significant advantage to infrainguinal bypass compared with endovascular intervention, which increased with time. Validated survival models for patients with CLTI are lacking. METHODS: The Vascular Quality Initiative was interrogated for patients who underwent infrainguinal bypass or endovascular intervention for CLTI (January 2003-February 2017). Cox survival models were generated using only preoperative variables. Survival at 30 days, 2 years, and 5 years was modeled separately. Patients were defined as low risk (30-day survival >97% and 2-year survival >70%), medium risk (30-day survival 95%-97% or 2-year survival 50%-70%), and high-risk (30-day survival <95% or 2-year survival <50%). RESULTS: Among 38,470 unique CLTI patients, 63% (n = 24,214) underwent endovascular intervention and 37% (n = 14,256) underwent infrainguinal bypass. Kaplan-Meier estimates of overall survival at 30 days, 2 years, and 5 years were 98%, 81%, and 69%, respectively. The proportion of patients in the low-, medium-, and high-risk groups was 84%, 10%, and 6.5%, respectively. Patients in the low-risk group were significantly less likely to undergo endovascular intervention compared with those in the high-risk group (low risk, 59% endovascular; high risk, 75% endovascular; P < .0001). Independent predictors of death were similar in all three models, with greatest magnitude of effect associated with age >80 years, oxygen-dependent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, stage 5 chronic kidney disease, and bedbound status. The C index for the 30-day model, 2-year model, and 5-year model was 0.76, 0.72, and 0.71, respectively. Procedure type (open or endovascular) was not significant in any models and did not have an impact on C indices. CONCLUSIONS: These survival prediction models, derived from a large U.S. cohort of patients who underwent revascularization for CLTI, demonstrated good performance and should be validated. Most CLTI patients considered candidates for limb salvage were of average perioperative risk and were predicted to survive beyond 2 years. These models can differentiate patients into low-, medium-, and high-risk groups to facilitate evidence-based revascularization recommendations that are consistent with current treatment guidelines.

11.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 58(1S): S1-S109.e33, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182334

RESUMO

GUIDELINE SUMMARY: Chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI) is associated with mortality, amputation, and impaired quality of life. These Global Vascular Guidelines (GVG) are focused on definition, evaluation, and management of CLTI with the goals of improving evidence-based care and highlighting critical research needs. The term CLTI is preferred over critical limb ischemia, as the latter implies threshold values of impaired perfusion rather than a continuum. CLTI is a clinical syndrome defined by the presence of peripheral artery disease (PAD) in combination with rest pain, gangrene, or a lower limb ulceration >2 weeks duration. Venous, traumatic, embolic, and nonatherosclerotic etiologies are excluded. All patients with suspected CLTI should be referred urgently to a vascular specialist. Accurately staging the severity of limb threat is fundamental, and the Society for Vascular Surgery Threatened Limb Classification system, based on grading of Wounds, Ischemia, and foot Infection (WIfI) is endorsed. Objective hemodynamic testing, including toe pressures as the preferred measure, is required to assess CLTI. Evidence-based revascularization (EBR) hinges on three independent axes: Patient risk, Limb severity, and ANatomic complexity (PLAN). Average-risk and high-risk patients are defined by estimated procedural and 2-year all-cause mortality. The GVG proposes a new Global Anatomic Staging System (GLASS), which involves defining a preferred target artery path (TAP) and then estimating limb-based patency (LBP), resulting in three stages of complexity for intervention. The optimal revascularization strategy is also influenced by the availability of autogenous vein for open bypass surgery. Recommendations for EBR are based on best available data, pending level 1 evidence from ongoing trials. Vein bypass may be preferred for average-risk patients with advanced limb threat and high complexity disease, while those with less complex anatomy, intermediate severity limb threat, or high patient risk may be favored for endovascular intervention. All patients with CLTI should be afforded best medical therapy including the use of antithrombotic, lipid-lowering, antihypertensive, and glycemic control agents, as well as counseling on smoking cessation, diet, exercise, and preventive foot care. Following EBR, long-term limb surveillance is advised. The effectiveness of nonrevascularization therapies (eg, spinal stimulation, pneumatic compression, prostanoids, and hyperbaric oxygen) has not been established. Regenerative medicine approaches (eg, cell, gene therapies) for CLTI should be restricted to rigorously conducted randomizsed clinical trials. The GVG promotes standardization of study designs and end points for clinical trials in CLTI. The importance of multidisciplinary teams and centers of excellence for amputation prevention is stressed as a key health system initiative.

12.
J Vasc Surg ; 70(3): 776-785.e1, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Society of Vascular Surgery Wound Ischemia foot Infection (WIfI) classification system for chronic limb-threatening ischemia was intended to predict 1-year major lower extremity amputation (LEA) risk and to identify which patients benefit most from revascularization. We aimed to identify which WIfI presentations benefited most from revascularization to explore whether a cluster analysis could identify a more data-driven WIfI score, and to quantify which component of the WIfI score was most strongly associated with 1-year LEA after revascularization. METHODS: Composite multi-institutional nested cohort data from centers who previously validated WIfI were reviewed retrospectively. We collected each patient's WIfI component grades and whether LEA was performed. To examine the benefit of revascularization, the predicted LEA rates were subtracted from observed LEA rates. We used k-means cluster analysis to model predicted vs observed LEA rates after revascularization. Multivariable linear regression analysis was performed to quantify which WIfI score component(s) best predicted LEA. RESULTS: Data from 10 centers, accumulated between 2005 and 2015 were collated (2878 limbs at risk; 314 LEAs performed). The subset of patients who underwent revascularization comprised the study base (1654 limbs; 169 LEAs). Of 64 potential WIfI grade combinations, 15 were never reported and were excluded from the analysis. By original WIfI stages, the observed LEA rate after revascularization was: stage 1, 10.8% (14/130); stage 2, 4.9% (5/103); stage 3, 5.1% (25/487); and stage 4, 13.4% (125/934). Based on the difference between predicted and observed LEA risk for those who underwent revascularization, the WIfI scores were placed into quartiles from greatest to no benefit of revascularization. Cluster analysis identified four clusters with the following 1-year LEA rates: cluster 1, 4.4% (46/1038); cluster 2, 14.8% (66/447); cluster 3, 28.1% (36/128); and cluster 4, 51.2% (21/41). The between sum of squares/total sum of squares was 93.9%. Multiple linear regression revealed the wound grade most strongly predicted LEA (F-value, 17.25; P < .001). Ischemia (F-value, 6.51; P = .001) and infection (F-value, 5.7; P = .003) were similarly associated with LEA risk. Interaction terms between each component of the WIfI score were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: WIfI can identify which patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia are most likely to benefit from revascularization and may provide improved prognostication, risk stratification, and equitable outcome assessments. After revascularization, wound severity is most strongly associated with LEA risk. Ischemic and infectious grades confer additive, but not synergistic, risk. Future cluster analyses comparing specific WIfI presentations treated with and without revascularization will be required to further refine WIfI.

13.
J Am Coll Surg ; 229(1): 38-46.e4, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We compared the rates of stroke, death, and/or MI between men and women, stratified by symptomatic status and procedure type (carotid endarterectomy [CEA] or carotid artery stent [CAS]). STUDY DESIGN: Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, crude and propensity-matched rates of the composite end point of stroke/death/MI were estimated. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate the odds of stroke/death/MI associated with sex. RESULTS: Between 2005 and 2015, there were 1,242,688 carotid interventions performed (1,083,912 CEA; 158,776 CAS; 515,789 [41.5%] were female patients). Symptomatic admissions comprised 11.3% of the cohort. In-hospital stroke/death/MI rates were more prevalent in men compared with women (4.2% vs 3.9%; p < 0.01). Subgroup analysis revealed symptomatic women vs men had higher rates of stroke after CEA (7.7% vs 6.2%; p < 0.01) and CAS (9.9% vs 7.6%; p < 0.01). Asymptomatic women experienced the same rates of stroke after either CEA (0.3% vs 0.3%; p = 0.051) or CAS (0.4% vs 0.5%; p = 0.09). Propensity-matched logistic regression revealed that symptomatic males vs females had lower odds of stroke after CEA (odds ratio [OR] 0.81; 95% CI 0.72 to 0.91) and CAS (OR 0.72; 95% CI 0.57 to 0.90). Asymptomatic men and women had similar odds of stroke after both CEA (OR 0.95; 95% CI 0.79 to 1.14) and CAS (OR 0.70; 95% CI 0.43 to 1.13). CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest cohort study to date that demonstrates asymptomatic women undergoing CEA or CAS do not have a higher risk of perioperative stroke, death, or MI. Symptomatic men experience lower rates of stroke after CEA or CAS.

14.
Heart ; 105(7): 510-515, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700518

RESUMO

In 2017, the British Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation published its official document detailing standards and core components for cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation. Building on the success of previous editions of this document (published in 2007 and 2012), the 2017 update aims to further emphasise to commissioners, clinicians, politicians and the public the importance of robust, quality indicators of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) service delivery. Otherwise, its overall aim remains consistent with the previous publications-to provide a precedent on which all effective cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation programmes are based and a framework for use in assessment of variation in service delivery quality. In this 2017 edition, the previously described seven standards and core components have both been revised to six, with a greater focus on measurable clinical outcomes, audit and certification. The principles within the updated document underpin the six-stage pathway of care for CR, and reflect the extensive evidence base now available within the field. To help improve current services, close collaboration between commissioners and CR providers is advocated, with use of the CR costing tool in financial planning of programmes. The document specifies how quality assurance can be facilitated through local audit, and advocates routine upload of individual-level data to the annual British Heart Foundation National Audit of Cardiac Rehabilitation, and application for national certification ensuring attainment of a minimum quality standard. Although developed for the UK, these standards and core components may be applicable to other countries.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Cardíaca , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Humanos , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Reino Unido
15.
J Vasc Surg ; 70(1): 23-30, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626551

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Placement of large sheaths in the iliac system during fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (FEVAR) leads to lower extremity (LE) ischemia that can be associated with serious neurologic complications. We sought to determine the effect of LE ischemic time on neurologic impairment after FEVAR. METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent FEVAR at a single institution were analyzed. LE ischemic time was calculated from the time of large sheath (≥18F) insertion to the time of sheath removal from the iliac arteries that led to continuous LE ischemia. The primary outcome was neurologic impairment defined as any new sensory or motor deficit in either LE. Outcomes were analyzed using descriptive statistics and modeled with logistic regression with interaction terms. Each individual LE was used as a unit of analysis. RESULTS: We examined 101 patients (202 lower extremities) who underwent FEVAR over a 5-year period. The median LE ischemic time was 2.75 hours (range, 0.8-5.2 hours). Neurologic impairment developed in 18 extremities (9%). Of those, 12 (67%) developed mild sensory loss, 6 (33%) complete sensory loss, 4 (22%) loss of proprioception, and 2 (11%) motor dysfunction. Sensory deficit was permanent in four limbs (2%) and motor dysfunction in one limb (0.5%). In all other cases, the neurologic examination returned to baseline by postoperative day 15. Duration of LE ischemic time (odds ratio, 6.3; 95% confidence interval, 3.1-12.4; P < .001) and common iliac artery (CIA) stenosis to a lumen of 8 mm or less (odds ratio, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-7.3; P = .002) were independent predictors for the development of neurologic impairment. An interaction term between LE ischemic time and CIA stenosis was statistically significant (P = .042), indicating that the presence of CIA stenosis modifies the effect of LE ischemic time. In those with CIA stenosis to a lumen of 8 mm or less, the risk of neurologic impairment increased rapidly after 2.5 hours of LE ischemia, and became nearly certain after 4 hours of ischemic time. By contrast, patients without CIA stenosis tolerated longer ischemic times and demonstrated a less steep increase in the risk for LE neurologic impairment. CONCLUSIONS: LE neurologic impairment after FEVAR is strongly associated with LE ischemic time and CIA occlusive disease to a lumen of 8 mm or less. Our data indicate that, when the LE ischemic time is expected to exceed 2.5 hours (in patients with CIA stenosis) or 3 hours (in patients without CIA stenosis), measures to ensure LE perfusion should be given consideration.

16.
J Vasc Surg ; 69(2): 313-314, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683190
17.
J Vasc Surg ; 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30497863

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Accurate survival prediction critically influences decision-making in caring for patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI). The Bypass versus Angioplasty in Severe Ischaemia of the Leg (BASIL) trial demonstrated that in patients who survived >2 years, there was a significant advantage to infrainguinal bypass compared with endovascular intervention, which increased with time. Validated survival models for patients with CLTI are lacking. METHODS: The Vascular Quality Initiative was interrogated for patients who underwent infrainguinal bypass or endovascular intervention for CLTI (January 2003-February 2017). Cox survival models were generated using only preoperative variables. Survival at 30 days, 2 years, and 5 years was modeled separately. Patients were defined as low risk (30-day survival >97% and 2-year survival >70%), medium risk (30-day survival 95%-97% or 2-year survival 50%-70%), and high-risk (30-day survival <95% or 2-year survival <50%). RESULTS: Among 38,470 unique CLTI patients, 63% (n = 24,214) underwent endovascular intervention and 37% (n = 14,256) underwent infrainguinal bypass. Kaplan-Meier estimates of overall survival at 30 days, 2 years, and 5 years were 98%, 81%, and 69%, respectively. The proportion of patients in the low-, medium-, and high-risk groups was 84%, 10%, and 6.5%, respectively. Patients in the low-risk group were significantly less likely to undergo endovascular intervention compared with those in the high-risk group (low risk, 59% endovascular; high risk, 75% endovascular; P < .0001). Independent predictors of death were similar in all three models, with greatest magnitude of effect associated with age >80 years, oxygen-dependent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, stage 5 chronic kidney disease, and bedbound status. The C index for the 30-day model, 2-year model, and 5-year model was 0.76, 0.72, and 0.71, respectively. Procedure type (open or endovascular) was not significant in any models and did not have an impact on C indices. CONCLUSIONS: These survival prediction models, derived from a large U.S. cohort of patients who underwent revascularization for CLTI, demonstrated good performance and should be validated. Most CLTI patients considered candidates for limb salvage were of average perioperative risk and were predicted to survive beyond 2 years. These models can differentiate patients into low-, medium-, and high-risk groups to facilitate evidence-based revascularization recommendations that are consistent with current treatment guidelines.

18.
J Vasc Surg ; 68(6): 1880-1888, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30473029

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have demonstrated an increase in trauma mortality relative to mortality from cancer and heart diseases in the United States. Major vascular injuries such as to the inferior vena cava (IVC) and aortic injuries remain responsible for a significant proportion of early trauma deaths in modern trauma care. The purpose of this study was to explore patterns in epidemiology and mortality after IVC and aortic injuries in the United States. METHODS: A 13-year analysis of the National Trauma Databank (2002-2014) was performed to extract all patients who sustained IVC, abdominal aortic, or thoracic aortic injuries. Demographics, clinical data, and outcomes were extracted. Patients were analyzed according to injury mechanism. RESULTS: A total of 25,428 patients were included in this analysis. Overall, the mean age was 39.8 ± 19.1 years, 70.3% were male, and 14.1% sustained a penetrating trauma. Although the incidence of all three injuries remained constant throughout the study period, for blunt trauma, mortality decreased over the study period (from 48.8% in 2002 to 28.7% in 2014; P < .001), in particular for thoracic aortic injuries (from 46.1% in 2002 to 23.7% in 2014; P < .001) and abdominal aortic injuries (from 58.3% in 2002 to 26.2% in 2014; P < .001). This decrease in mortality after blunt trauma was accompanied by an increase in endovascular procedures over the study period (from 1.0% in 2002 to 30.4% in 2014; P < .001), in particular for blunt thoracic aortic injuries (from 0.7% in 2002 to 41.4% in 2014; P < .001). When penetrating trauma patients were analyzed, overall there was an increase in mortality (from 43.8% in 2002 to 50.6% in 2014; P < .001), in particular after abdominal aortic injury (from 30.4% in 2002 to 66.0% in 2014; P < .001). Similar trends were observed for IVC injuries. No increase in endovascular use in penetrating trauma was identified (from 0.1% in 2002 to 3.4% in 2014; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrates an overall decrease in mortality after blunt aortic injuries in the United States. This decrease was accompanied by an increase in the use of endovascular procedures. After penetrating trauma, however, despite contemporary advances in trauma care, mortality has increased over the study period, in particular after abdominal aortic injury. No increase in endovascular use in penetrating trauma was demonstrated.

19.
J Vasc Surg Cases Innov Tech ; 4(3): 244-247, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30186995

RESUMO

We describe a patient who underwent a renal cell carcinoma resection with inferior vena cava thrombectomy complicated by tumor embolization. This resulted in massive pulmonary embolism requiring venous-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The patient was ineligible for systemic or catheter-directed thrombolysis because of the recent surgical resection and postoperative hemorrhage. Hence, the patient underwent percutaneous suction thrombectomy with successful removal of the tumor thrombus and significant clinical improvement. This report represents a unique case of suction thrombectomy for the removal of tumor embolus from the pulmonary circulation and highlights the ability of suction thrombectomy in the management of massive pulmonary embolism.

20.
J Vasc Surg ; 68(6): 1841-1847, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30064844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite advances in endovascular therapy, infrainguinal bypass continues to play a major role in achieving limb salvage. In this study, we sought to compare outcomes of infrainguinal bypass in patients with limb-threatening ischemia who presented with or without foot infection. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent infrainguinal bypass for chronic limb-threatening ischemia at a single institution. End points of interest included long-term mortality, 45-day readmission, postoperative length of stay (LOS), major amputation, and time to wound healing. Multivariable Cox, logistic, and robust regressions were used to model time to event outcomes, readmission rates, and LOS. RESULTS: There were 454 infrainguinal bypass procedures analyzed. Demographics and baseline characteristics were similar, except congestive heart failure and diabetes were more common in the infection group. Presence of foot infection had no impact on mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.78; P = .243). Significant predictors of long-term mortality included increasing age, hypoalbuminemia, and congestive heart failure; preoperative use of clopidogrel was protective. Presence of foot infection was an independent predictor of major amputation. In the multiple regression model, the presence of foot infection was independently associated with amputation rate (HR, 2.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.42-3.22; P < .001); use of venous conduit and increasing age and body mass index were protective. Foot infection was an independent predictor of prolonged LOS (mean LOS was 1.54 days longer in patients with vs those without infection; P = .001). Other independent predictors of prolonged LOS included intraoperative blood loss and reoperation; history of continuous preoperative aspirin use and normal baseline renal function and albumin levels were associated with decreased LOS. Readmission was influenced by reoperation (odds ratio [OR], 2.51; P < .001) but not by presence of foot infection (OR, 1.21; P = .349). There was a strong trend for prolonged wound healing time in patients with diabetes (HR, 1.58; P = .05) but not in those with foot infection (OR, 0.74; P = .36). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients requiring infrainguinal bypass for limb-threatening ischemia, infection was more common in patients with diabetes and was a significant predictor of major amputation and prolonged LOS. Infection was not predictive of mortality, wound healing time, or readmission. These findings lend support to the inclusion of infection in risk stratification schemes for patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia, as recommended in the Society for Vascular Surgery Wound, Ischemia, and foot Infection (WIfI) classification system, because of its adverse impacts on limb salvage.

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