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1.
Heart ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020224

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To monitor hospital activity for presentation, diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases during the COVID-19) pandemic to inform on indirect effects. METHODS: Retrospective serial cross-sectional study in nine UK hospitals using hospital activity data from 28 October 2019 (pre-COVID-19) to 10 May 2020 (pre-easing of lockdown) and for the same weeks during 2018-2019. We analysed aggregate data for selected cardiovascular diseases before and during the epidemic. We produced an online visualisation tool to enable near real-time monitoring of trends. RESULTS: Across nine hospitals, total admissions and emergency department (ED) attendances decreased after lockdown (23 March 2020) by 57.9% (57.1%-58.6%) and 52.9% (52.2%-53.5%), respectively, compared with the previous year. Activity for cardiac, cerebrovascular and other vascular conditions started to decline 1-2 weeks before lockdown and fell by 31%-88% after lockdown, with the greatest reductions observed for coronary artery bypass grafts, carotid endarterectomy, aortic aneurysm repair and peripheral arterial disease procedures. Compared with before the first UK COVID-19 (31 January 2020), activity declined across diseases and specialties between the first case and lockdown (total ED attendances relative reduction (RR) 0.94, 0.93-0.95; total hospital admissions RR 0.96, 0.95-0.97) and after lockdown (attendances RR 0.63, 0.62-0.64; admissions RR 0.59, 0.57-0.60). There was limited recovery towards usual levels of some activities from mid-April 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial reductions in total and cardiovascular activities are likely to contribute to a major burden of indirect effects of the pandemic, suggesting they should be monitored and mitigated urgently.

2.
Am Heart J ; 229: 18-28, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916606

RESUMO

Despite evidence that high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) levels in women are lower than in men, a single threshold based on the 99th percentile upper reference limit of the overall reference population is commonly used to diagnose myocardial infarction in clinical practice. This trial aims to determine whether the use of a lower female-specific hs-cTn threshold would improve the diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of women presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial ischemia. METHODS/DESIGN: CODE-MI (hs-cTn-Optimizing the Diagnosis of Acute Myocardial Infarction/Injury in Women) is a multicenter, stepped-wedge, cluster-randomized trial of 30 secondary and tertiary care hospitals across 8 Canadian provinces, with the unit of randomization being the hospital. All adults (≥20 years of age) presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial ischemia and at least 1 hs-cTn test are eligible for inclusion. Over five, 5-month intervals, hospitals will be randomized to implement lower female hs-cTn thresholds according to the assay being used at each site. Men will continue to be assessed using the overall thresholds throughout. Women with a peak hs-cTn value between the female-specific and the overall thresholds will form our primary cohort. The primary outcome, a 1-year composite of all-cause mortality or readmission for nonfatal myocardial infarction, incident heart failure, or emergent/urgent coronary revascularization, will be compared before and after the implementation of female thresholds using mixed-effects logistic regression models. The cohort and outcomes will be obtained from routinely collected administrative data. The trial is designed to detect a 20% relative risk difference in the primary outcome, or a 2.2% absolute difference, with 82% power. CONCLUSIONS: This pragmatic trial will assess whether adopting lower female hs-cTn thresholds leads to appropriate assessment of women with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction, thereby improving treatment and outcomes.

4.
Heart ; 106(20): 1545-1546, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747496
7.
Environ Int ; 143: 105901, 2020 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest an association between short-term exposure to carbon monoxide and myocardial infarction. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess current evidence on this association to support the update of the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Air Quality Guidelines. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to update the evidence published in a previous systematic review up to 30th September 2018 for studies investigating the association between short-term exposure to ambient carbon monoxide (up to lag of seven days) and emergency department visits or hospital admissions and mortality due to myocardial infarction. Two reviewers assessed potentially eligible studies and performed data extraction independently. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to derive the pooled risk estimate per 1 mg/m3 increase in ambient carbon monoxide concentration. Risk of bias in individual studies was assessed using a domain-based assessment tool. The overall certainty of the body of evidence was evaluated using an adapted certainty of evidence assessment framework. RESULTS: We evaluated 1,038 articles from the previous review and our updated literature search, of which, 26 satisfied our inclusion criteria. Overall, myocardial infarction was associated with exposure to ambient carbon monoxide concentration (risk ratio of 1.052, 95% confidence interval 1.017-1.089 per 1 mg/m3 increase). A third of studies were assessed to be at high risk of bias (RoB) due to inadequate adjustment for confounding. Using an adaptation of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework, the overall evidence was assessed to be of moderate certainty. CONCLUSIONS: This review demonstrated that the pooled risk ratio for myocardial infarction was 1.052 (95% CI 1.017-1.089) per 1 mg/m3 increase in ambient carbon monoxide concentration. However, very few studies originated from low- and middle-income countries.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-603749

RESUMO

AIMS: To describe the cardiac abnormalities in patients with COVID-19 and identify the characteristics of patients who would benefit most from echocardiography. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a prospective international survey, we captured echocardiography findings in patients with presumed or confirmed COVID-19 between 3 and 20 April 2020. Patient characteristics, indications, findings, and impact of echocardiography on management were recorded. Multivariable logistic regression identified predictors of echocardiographic abnormalities. A total of 1216 patients [62 (52-71) years, 70% male] from 69 countries across six continents were included. Overall, 667 (55%) patients had an abnormal echocardiogram. Left and right ventricular abnormalities were reported in 479 (39%) and 397 (33%) patients, respectively, with evidence of new myocardial infarction in 36 (3%), myocarditis in 35 (3%), and takotsubo cardiomyopathy in 19 (2%). Severe cardiac disease (severe ventricular dysfunction or tamponade) was observed in 182 (15%) patients. In those without pre-existing cardiac disease (n = 901), the echocardiogram was abnormal in 46%, and 13% had severe disease. Independent predictors of left and right ventricular abnormalities were distinct, including elevated natriuretic peptides [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.75-5.05) and cardiac troponin (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.13-2.53) for the former, and severity of COVID-19 symptoms (OR 3.19, 95% CI 1.73-6.10) for the latter. Echocardiography changed management in 33% of patients. CONCLUSION: In this global survey, cardiac abnormalities were observed in half of all COVID-19 patients undergoing echocardiography. Abnormalities were often unheralded or severe, and imaging changed management in one-third of patients.

10.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 21(9): 949-958, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556199

RESUMO

AIMS: To describe the cardiac abnormalities in patients with COVID-19 and identify the characteristics of patients who would benefit most from echocardiography. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a prospective international survey, we captured echocardiography findings in patients with presumed or confirmed COVID-19 between 3 and 20 April 2020. Patient characteristics, indications, findings, and impact of echocardiography on management were recorded. Multivariable logistic regression identified predictors of echocardiographic abnormalities. A total of 1216 patients [62 (52-71) years, 70% male] from 69 countries across six continents were included. Overall, 667 (55%) patients had an abnormal echocardiogram. Left and right ventricular abnormalities were reported in 479 (39%) and 397 (33%) patients, respectively, with evidence of new myocardial infarction in 36 (3%), myocarditis in 35 (3%), and takotsubo cardiomyopathy in 19 (2%). Severe cardiac disease (severe ventricular dysfunction or tamponade) was observed in 182 (15%) patients. In those without pre-existing cardiac disease (n = 901), the echocardiogram was abnormal in 46%, and 13% had severe disease. Independent predictors of left and right ventricular abnormalities were distinct, including elevated natriuretic peptides [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.75-5.05) and cardiac troponin (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.13-2.53) for the former, and severity of COVID-19 symptoms (OR 3.19, 95% CI 1.73-6.10) for the latter. Echocardiography changed management in 33% of patients. CONCLUSION: In this global survey, cardiac abnormalities were observed in half of all COVID-19 patients undergoing echocardiography. Abnormalities were often unheralded or severe, and imaging changed management in one-third of patients.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Internacionalidade , Internet , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Sexuais
11.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492104

RESUMO

Importance: Recent European guidance supports a diminished role for exercise electrocardiography (ECG) in the assessment of suspected stable angina. Objective: To evaluate the utility of exercise ECG in contemporary practice and assess the value of combined functional and anatomical testing. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is a post hoc analysis of the Scottish Computed Tomography of the Heart (SCOT-HEART) open-label randomized clinical trial, conducted in 12 cardiology chest pain clinics across Scotland for patients with suspected angina secondary to coronary heart disease. Between November 18, 2010, and September 24, 2014, 4146 patients aged 18 to 75 years with stable angina underwent clinical evaluation and 1417 of 1651 (86%) underwent exercise ECG prior to randomization. Statistical analysis was conducted from October 10 to November 5, 2019. Interventions: Patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive standard care plus coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography or to receive standard care alone. The present analysis was limited to the 3283 patients who underwent exercise ECG alone or in combination with coronary CT angiography. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary clinical end point was death from coronary heart disease or nonfatal myocardial infarction at 5 years. Results: Among the 3283 patients (1889 men; median age, 57.0 years [interquartile range, 50.0-64.0 years]), exercise ECG had a sensitivity of 39% and a specificity of 91% for detecting any obstructive coronary artery disease in those who underwent subsequent invasive angiography. Abnormal results of exercise ECG were associated with a 14.47-fold (95% CI, 10.00-20.41; P < .001) increase in coronary revascularization at 1 year and a 2.57-fold (95% CI, 1.38-4.63; P < .001) increase in mortality from coronary heart disease death at 5 years or in cases of nonfatal myocardial infarction at 5 years. Compared with exercise ECG alone, results of coronary CT angiography had a stronger association with 5-year coronary heart disease death or nonfatal myocardial infarction (hazard ratio, 10.63; 95% CI, 2.32-48.70; P = .002). The greatest numerical difference in outcome with CT angiography compared with exercise ECG alone was observed for those with inconclusive results of exercise ECG (6 of 283 [2%] vs 18 of 283 [6%]), although this was not statistically significant (log-rank P = .05). Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that abnormal results of exercise ECG are associated with coronary revascularization and the future risk of adverse coronary events. However, coronary CT angiography more accurately detects coronary artery disease and is more strongly associated with future risk compared with exercise ECG. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01149590.

12.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 162, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ischemic heart disease is common in COPD and associated with worse prognosis. This study aimed to investigate the presence and prognostic impact of biomarkers of myocardial injury and ischemia among individuals with COPD and normal lung function, respectively. METHODS: In 2002-04, all individuals with airway obstruction (FEV1/VC < 0.70, n = 993) were identified from population-based cohorts, together with age and sex-matched non-obstructive referents. At re-examination in 2005, spirometry, Minnesota-coded ECG and analyses of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) were performed in individuals with COPD (n = 601) and those with normal lung function (n = 755). Deaths were recorded until December 31st, 2010. RESULTS: Hs-cTnI concentrations were above the risk stratification threshold of ≥5 ng/L in 31.1 and 24.9% of those with COPD and normal lung function, respectively. Ischemic ECG abnormalities were present in 14.8 and 13.4%, while 7.7 and 6.6% had both elevated hs-cTnI concentrations and ischemic ECG abnormalities. The 5-year cumulative mortality was higher in those with COPD than those with normal lung function (13.6% vs. 7.7%, p < 0.001). Among individuals with COPD, elevated hs-cTnI both independently and in combination with ischemic ECG abnormalities were associated with an increased risk for death (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.72; 1.46-5.07 and 4.54; 2.25-9.13, respectively). Similar associations were observed also among individuals with COPD without reported ischemic heart disease. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, elevated hs-cTnI concentrations in combination with myocardial ischemia on the electrocardiogram were associated with a more than four-fold increased risk for death in a population-based COPD-cohort, independent of disease severity.

14.
Eur Heart J ; 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516805

RESUMO

AIMS: The Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score was developed to evaluate risk in patients with myocardial infarction. However, its performance in type 2 myocardial infarction is uncertain. METHODS AND RESULTS: In two cohorts of consecutive patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome from 10 hospitals in Scotland (n = 48 282) and a tertiary care hospital in Sweden (n = 22 589), we calculated the GRACE 2.0 score to estimate death at 1 year. Discrimination was evaluated by the area under the receiver operating curve (AUC), and compared for those with an adjudicated diagnosis of type 1 and type 2 myocardial infarction using DeLong's test. Type 1 myocardial infarction was diagnosed in 4981 (10%) and 1080 (5%) patients in Scotland and Sweden, respectively. At 1 year, 720 (15%) and 112 (10%) patients died with an AUC for the GRACE 2.0 score of 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82-0.85] and 0.85 (95% CI 0.81-0.89). Type 2 myocardial infarction occurred in 1121 (2%) and 247 (1%) patients in Scotland and Sweden, respectively, with 258 (23%) and 57 (23%) deaths at 1 year. The AUC was 0.73 (95% CI 0.70-0.77) and 0.73 (95% CI 0.66-0.81) in type 2 myocardial infarction, which was lower than for type 1 myocardial infarction in both cohorts (P < 0.001 and P = 0.008, respectively). CONCLUSION: The GRACE 2.0 score provided good discrimination for all-cause death at 1 year in patients with type 1 myocardial infarction, and moderate discrimination for those with type 2 myocardial infarction. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01852123.

15.
Circulation ; 141(25): 2067-2077, 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in management, infective endocarditis remains associated with high mortality and morbidity. We describe temporal changes in the incidence, microbiology, and outcomes of infective endocarditis and the effect of changes in national antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines on incident infective endocarditis. METHODS: Using a Scotland-wide, individual-level linkage approach, all patients hospitalized with infective endocarditis from 1990 to 2014 were identified and linked to national microbiology, prescribing, and morbidity and mortality datasets. Linked data were used to evaluate trends in the crude and age- and sex-adjusted incidence and outcomes of infective endocarditis hospitalizations. From 2008, microbiology data and associated outcomes adjusted for patient demographics and comorbidity were also analyzed. An interrupted time series analysis was performed to evaluate incidence before and after changes to national antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines. RESULTS: There were 7638 hospitalizations (65±17 years, 51% females) with infective endocarditis. The estimated crude hospitalization rate increased from 5.3/100 000 (95% CI, 4.8-5.9) to 8.6/100 000 (95% CI, 8.1-9.1) between 1990 and 1995 but remained stable thereafter. There was no change in crude incidence following the 2008 change in antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines (relative risk of change 1.06 [95% CI, 0.94-1.20]). The incidence rate in patients >80 years of age doubled from 1990 to 2014 (17.7/100 000 [95% CI, 13.4-23.3] to 37.9/100 000 [95% CI, 31.5-45.5]). The predicted 1-year age- and comorbidity-adjusted case fatality rate for a 65-year-old patient decreased in women (27.3% [95% CI, 24.6-30.2] to 23.7% [95% CI, 21.1-26.6]) and men (30.7% [95% CI, 27.7-33.8] to 26.8% [95% CI, 24.0-29.7]) from 1990 to 2014. Blood culture data were available from 2008 (n=2267/7638, 30%), with positive blood cultures recorded in 42% (950/2267). Staphylococcus (403/950, 42.4%) and streptococcus (337/950, 35.5%) species were most common. Staphylococcus aureus and enterococcus had the highest 1-year mortality (adjusted odds ratio 4.34 [95% CI, 3.12-6.05] and 3.41 [95% CI, 2.04-5.70], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Despite changes in antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines, the crude incidence of infective endocarditis has remained stable. However, the incidence rate has doubled in the elderly. Positive blood cultures were observed in less than half of patients, with Staphylococcus aureus and enterococcus bacteremia associated with worse outcomes.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32337819

RESUMO

Autophagy is an essential cellular quality control process that has emerged as a critical one for vascular homeostasis. Here, we show that trichoplein (TCHP) links autophagy with endothelial cell (EC) function. TCHP localizes to centriolar satellites, where it binds and stabilizes PCM1. Loss of TCHP leads to delocalization and proteasome-dependent degradation of PCM1, further resulting in degradation of PCM1's binding partner GABARAP. Autophagic flux under basal conditions is impaired in THCP-depleted ECs, and SQSTM1/p62 (p62) accumulates. We further show that TCHP promotes autophagosome maturation and efficient clearance of p62 within lysosomes, without affecting their degradative capacity. Reduced TCHP and high p62 levels are detected in primary ECs from patients with coronary artery disease. This phenotype correlates with impaired EC function and can be ameliorated by NF-κB inhibition. Moreover, Tchp knock-out mice accumulate of p62 in the heart and cardiac vessels correlating with reduced cardiac vascularization. Taken together, our data reveal that TCHP regulates endothelial cell function via an autophagy-mediated mechanism.

18.
Heart ; 106(16): 1236-1243, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345658

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: First-phase ejection fraction (EF1) is a novel measure of early left ventricular systolic dysfunction. We investigated determinants of EF1 and its prognostic value in aortic stenosis. METHODS: EF1 was measured retrospectively in participants of an echocardiography/cardiovascular magnetic resonance cohort study which recruited patients with aortic stenosis (peak aortic velocity of ≥2 m/s) between 2012 and 2014. Linear regression models were constructed to examine variables associated with EF1. Cox proportional hazards were used to determine the prognostic power of EF1 for aortic valve replacement (AVR, performed as part of clinical care in accordance with international guidelines) or death. RESULTS: Total follow-up of the 149 participants (69.8% male, 70 (65-76) years, mean gradient 33 (21-42) mm Hg) was 238 029 person-days. Sixty-seven participants (45%) had a low baseline EF1 (<25%) despite normal ejection fraction (67% (62%-71%)). Patients with low EF1 had more severe aortic stenosis (mean gradient 39 (34-45) mm Hg vs 24 (16-35) mm Hg, p<0.001) and more myocardial fibrosis (indexed extracellular volume (iECV) (24.2 (19.6-28.7) mL/m2 vs 20.6 (16.8-24.3) mL/m2, p=0.002; late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) prevalence 52% vs 20%, p<0.001). Zva, iECV and infarct LGE were independent predictors of EF1. EF1 improved post-AVR (n=57 with post-AVR EF1 available, baseline 16 (12-24) vs follow-up 27% (22%-31%); p<0.001). Low baseline EF1 was an independent predictor of AVR/death (HR 5.6, 95% CI 3.4 to 9.4), driven by AVR. CONCLUSION: EF1 quantifies early, potentially reversible systolic dysfunction in aortic stenosis, is associated with global afterload and myocardial fibrosis, and is an independent predictor of AVR.

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