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1.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36707929

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Early-onset colorectal cancer diagnosed before the age of 50 years has been increasing. Likely reflecting the pathogenic role of the intestinal microbiome, which gradually changes across the entire colorectal length, the prevalence of certain tumor molecular characteristics gradually changes along colorectal subsites. Understanding how colorectal tumor molecular features differ by age and tumor location is important in personalized patient management. METHODS: Using 14,004 cases with colorectal cancer including 3,089 early-onset cases, we examined microsatellite instability (MSI), CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), and KRAS and BRAF mutations in carcinomas of the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum and compared early-onset cases with later-onset cases. RESULTS: The proportions of MSI-high, CIMP-high, and BRAF-mutated early-onset tumors were lowest in the rectum (8.8%, 3.4%, and 3.5%, respectively) and highest in the ascending colon (46% MSI-high; 15% CIMP-high) or transverse colon (8.6% BRAF-mutated) (all Ptrend <0.001 across the rectum to ascending colon). Compared with later-onset tumors, early-onset tumors showed a higher prevalence of MSI-high status and a lower prevalence of CIMP-high status and BRAF mutations in most subsites. KRAS mutation prevalence was higher in the cecum compared with that in the other subsites in both early-onset and later-onset tumors (P < 0.001). Notably, later-onset MSI-high tumors showed a continuous decrease in KRAS mutation prevalence from the rectum (36%) to ascending colon (9%; Ptrend <0.001), followed by an increase in the cecum (14%), while early-onset MSI-high cancers showed no such trend. DISCUSSION: Our findings support biogeographical and pathogenic heterogeneity of colorectal carcinomas in different colorectal subsites and age groups.

2.
Fam Cancer ; 2023 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36708485

RESUMO

DNA methylation marks that are inherited from parents to offspring are known to play a role in cancer risk and could explain part of the familial risk for cancer. We therefore conducted a genome-wide search for heritable methylation marks associated with prostate cancer risk. Peripheral blood DNA methylation was measured for 133 of the 469 members of 25 multiple-case prostate cancer families, using the EPIC array. We used these families to systematically search the genome for methylation marks with Mendelian patterns of inheritance, then we tested the 1,000 most heritable marks for association with prostate cancer risk. After correcting for multiple testing, 41 heritable methylation marks were associated with prostate cancer risk. Separate analyses, based on 869 incident cases and 869 controls from a prospective cohort study, showed that 9 of these marks near the metastable epiallele VTRNA2-1 were also nominally associated with aggressive prostate cancer risk in the population.

3.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36688720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of ovulation in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is supported by the consistent protective effects of parity and oral contraceptive (OC) use. Whether these factors protect through anovulation alone remains unclear. We explored the association between lifetime ovulatory years (LOY) and EOC. METHODS: LOY was calculated using 12 algorithms. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) estimated the association between LOY or LOY components and EOC among 26,204 controls and 21,267 cases from 25 studies. To assess whether LOY components act through ovulation suppression alone, we compared beta coefficients obtained from regression models to expected estimates assuming one year of ovulation suppression has the same effect regardless of source. RESULTS: LOY was associated with increased EOC risk (ORs per year increase: 1.014 (95%CI 1.009-1.020) to 1.044 (95%CI 1.041-1.048)). Individual LOY components, except age at menarche, also associated with EOC. The estimated model coefficient for OC use and pregnancies were 4.45 times and 12-15 fold greater than expected, respectively. LOY was associated with high-grade serous (HGSOC), low-grade serous (LGSOC), endometrioid, and clear cell histotypes (ORs per year increase: 1.054, 1.040, 1.065, and 1.098, respectively), but not mucinous tumors. Estimated coefficients of LOY components were close to expected estimates for HGSOC but larger than expected for LGSOC, endometrioid, and clear cell histotypes. CONCLUSIONS: LOY is positively associated with non-mucinous EOC. Differences between estimated and expected model coefficients for LOY components suggest factors beyond ovulation underlie the associations between LOY components and EOC in general and for non-HGSOC.

4.
J Gastroenterol ; 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36648535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pathogenic effect of colorectal tumor molecular features may be influenced by several factors, including those related to microbiota, inflammation, metabolism, and epigenetics, which may change along colorectal segments. We hypothesized that the prognostic association of colon cancer location might differ by tumor molecular characteristics. METHODS: Utilizing a consortium dataset of 13,101 colorectal cancer cases, including 2994 early-onset cases, we conducted survival analyses of detailed tumor location stratified by statuses of microsatellite instability (MSI), CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), and KRAS and BRAF oncogenic mutation. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant trend for better colon cancer-specific survival in relation to tumor location from the cecum to sigmoid colon (Ptrend = 0.002), excluding the rectum. The prognostic association of colon location differed by MSI status (Pinteraction = 0.001). Non-MSI-high tumors exhibited the cecum-to-sigmoid trend for better colon cancer-specific survival [Ptrend < 0.001; multivariable hazard ratio (HR) for the sigmoid colon (vs. cecum), 0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-0.92], whereas MSI-high tumors demonstrated a suggestive cecum-to-sigmoid trend for worse survival (Ptrend = 0.020; the corresponding HR, 2.13; 95% CI 1.15-3.92). The prognostic association of colon tumor location also differed by CIMP status (Pinteraction = 0.003) but not significantly by age, stage, or other features. Furthermore, MSI-high status was a favorable prognostic indicator in all stages. CONCLUSIONS: Both detailed colonic location and tumor molecular features need to be accounted for colon cancer prognostication to advance precision medicine. Our study indicates the important role of large-scale studies to robustly examine detailed colonic subsites in molecular oncology research.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(12): 2116-2125, 2022 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36464995

RESUMO

Perturbation of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling system is often cited as a mechanism driving breast cancer risk. A systematic review identified prospective cohort studies and Mendelian randomization studies that examined the effects of insulin/IGF signaling (IGF, their binding proteins (IGFBP), and markers of insulin resistance] on breast cancer risk. Meta-analyses generated effect estimates; risk of bias was assessed and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system applied to evaluate the overall quality of the evidence. Four Mendelian randomization and 19 prospective cohort studies met our inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of cohort studies confirmed that higher IGF-1 increased risk of breast cancer; this finding was supported by the Mendelian randomization studies. IGFBP-3 did not affect breast cancer. Meta analyses for connecting-peptide and fasting insulin showed small risk increases, but confidence intervals were wide and crossed the null. The quality of evidence obtained ranged from 'very low' to 'moderate'. There were insufficient studies to examine other markers of insulin/IGF signaling. These findings do not strongly support the biological plausibility of the second part of the physical activity-insulin/IGF signaling system-breast cancer pathway. Robust conclusions cannot be drawn due to the dearth of high quality studies. See related article by Swain et al., p. 2106.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Insulina , Estudos Prospectivos , Mama , Exercício Físico
7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(12): 2106-2115, 2022 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36464996

RESUMO

Physical activity may reduce the risk of developing breast cancer via its effect on the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling system. A systematic review searched for randomized controlled trials (RCT), Mendelian randomization and prospective cohort studies that examined the effects of physical activity on insulin/IGF signaling [IGFs, their binding proteins (IGFBP), and markers of insulin resistance] in adult women. Meta-analyses were performed to generate effect estimates. Risk of bias was assessed, and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system used to determine the overall quality of the evidence. Fifty-eight RCTs met our inclusion criteria, no observational or Mendelian randomization studies met the criteria for inclusion. Meta-analyses indicated that physical activity interventions (vs. control) reduced fasting insulin, the Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance and fasting glucose. Physical activity increased IGF-1, but there was no clear effect on IGFBP-3 or the ratio of IGF-1:IGFBP-3. Strong evidence was only established for fasting insulin and insulin resistance. Further research is needed to examine the effect of physical activity on C-peptide and HBA1c in women. Reductions in fasting insulin and insulin resistance following exercise suggest some biological plausibility of the first part of the physical activity-insulin/IGF signaling-breast cancer pathway. See related article by Drummond et al., p. 2116.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Resistência à Insulina , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I , Proteína 3 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico
8.
Neuro Oncol ; 2022 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36541697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glioma accounts for approximately 80% of malignant adult brain cancer and its most common subtype, glioblastoma, has one of the lowest 5-year cancer survivals. Fifty risk-associated variants within 34 glioma genetic risk regions have been found by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with a sex difference reported for 8q24.21 region. We conducted an Australian GWAS by glioma subtype and sex. METHODS: We analysed genome-wide data from the Australian Genomics and Clinical Outcomes of Glioma (AGOG) consortium for 7,573,692 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for 560 glioma cases and 2,237 controls of European ancestry. Cases were classified as glioblastoma, non-glioblastoma, astrocytoma or oligodendroglioma Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the associations of SNPs with glioma risk by subtype and by sex. RESULTS: We replicated the previously reported glioma risk associations in the regions of 2q33.3 C2orf80, 2q37.3 D2HGDH, 5p15.33 TERT, 7p11.2 EGFR, 8q24.21 CCDC26, 9p21.3 CDKN2BAS, 11q21 MAML2, 11q23.3 PHLDB1, 15q24.2 ETFA, 16p13.3 RHBDF1, 16p13.3 LMF1, 17p13.1 TP53, 20q13.33 RTEL and 20q13.33 GMEB2 (P<0.05). We also replicated the previously reported sex difference at 8q24.21 CCDC26 (P=0.0024) with the association being nominally significant for both sexes (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our study supports a stronger female risk association for the region 8q24.21 CCDC26 and highlights the importance of analysing glioma GWAS by sex. A better understanding of sex differences could provide biological insight into the cause of glioma with implications for prevention, risk prediction and treatment.

9.
Front Oncol ; 12: 980879, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36523975

RESUMO

Objective: To examine the socio-economic and ethnocultural characteristics of geographical areas that may influence variation in breast cancer screening participation. Methods: In a cross-sectional analysis breast cancer screening participation for statistical areas in Victoria, Australia (2015-2017) was linked with data from the 2016 Australian Census. We selected four commonly used area-level measures of socio-economic status from the Australian Census (i) income (ii) educational level (iii) occupational status and (iv) employment profile. To assess the ethnocultural characteristics of statistical areas we used the Census measures (i) country of birth (ii) language spoken at home (iii) fluency in English (iv) religion and (v) the proportion of immigrants in an area, together with their recency of migration. Results: All the selected measures were related to screening participation. There was a high degree of association both within and between socio-economic and ethnocultural characteristics of areas as they relate to screening. Ethnocultural characteristics alone accounted for most of the explained geographical disparity in screening participation. Conclusions: Geographical disparities in breast cancer screening participation may be due to ethnocultural factors that are confounded with socio-economic factors.

10.
Ann Epidemiol ; 77: 1-12, 2022 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36404465

RESUMO

The Integrative Analysis of Lung Cancer Etiology and Risk (INTEGRAL) program is an NCI-funded initiative with an objective to develop tools to optimize low-dose CT (LDCT) lung cancer screening. Here, we describe the rationale and design for the Risk Biomarker and Nodule Malignancy projects within INTEGRAL. The overarching goal of these projects is to systematically investigate circulating protein markers to include on a panel for use (i) pre-LDCT, to identify people likely to benefit from screening, and (ii) post-LDCT, to differentiate benign versus malignant nodules. To identify informative proteins, the Risk Biomarker project measured 1161 proteins in a nested-case control study within 2 prospective cohorts (n = 252 lung cancer cases and 252 controls) and replicated associations for a subset of proteins in 4 cohorts (n = 479 cases and 479 controls). Eligible participants had a current or former history of smoking and cases were diagnosed up to 3 years following blood draw. The Nodule Malignancy project measured 1078 proteins among participants with a heavy smoking history within four LDCT screening studies (n = 425 cases diagnosed up to 5 years following blood draw, 430 benign-nodule controls, and 398 nodule-free controls). The INTEGRAL panel will enable absolute quantification of 21 proteins. We will evaluate its performance in the Risk Biomarker project using a case-cohort study including 14 cohorts (n = 1696 cases and 2926 subcohort representatives), and in the Nodule Malignancy project within five LDCT screening studies (n = 675 cases, 680 benign-nodule controls, and 648 nodule-free controls). Future progress to advance lung cancer early detection biomarkers will require carefully designed validation, translational, and comparative studies.

11.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 82: 102295, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies of dietary patterns and pancreatic cancer risk have been inconclusive; we aimed to investigate the association of Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010), and Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) with risk of pancreatic cancer. METHODS: We used data from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study including 33,690 men and women aged 40-69 years at recruitment in 1990-1994. A total of 258 incident cases of pancreatic cancer was identified over an average of 23.7 years of follow-up. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using Cox regression, with age as the underlying time metric, adjusting for potential confounders including sex, height, country of birth, education, socio-economic position, physical activity, energy intake, smoking status, pack-years smoking, years since quitting smoking, and alcohol intake. RESULTS: A healthier diet as assessed by the AHEI-2010 was associated with a lower risk of pancreatic cancer [HRQuartile4 vs Quartile1 = 0.58; 95%CI 0.40 - 0.85; p for trend 0.003]. Weaker but consistent evidence was observed for the other indexes [DII® HRQuartile4 vs Quartile1 = 1.30; 95%CI 0.82 - 2.06; p for trend 0.1], [MDS HRCategory3 vs Category1 = 0.79; 95%CI 0.49 - 1.26; p for trend 0.06]. CONCLUSION: Adherence to a healthier diet, as assessed by the AHEI-2010, may reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer.

12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18852, 2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36344807

RESUMO

Observational studies have shown higher folate consumption to be associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Understanding whether and how genetic risk factors interact with folate could further elucidate the underlying mechanism. Aggregating functionally relevant genetic variants in set-based variant testing has higher power to detect gene-environment (G × E) interactions and may provide information on the underlying biological pathway. We investigated interactions between folate consumption and predicted gene expression on colorectal cancer risk across the genome. We used variant weights from the PrediXcan models of colon tissue-specific gene expression as a priori variant information for a set-based G × E approach. We harmonized total folate intake (mcg/day) based on dietary intake and supplemental use across cohort and case-control studies and calculated sex and study specific quantiles. Analyses were performed using a mixed effects score tests for interactions between folate and genetically predicted expression of 4839 genes with available genetically predicted expression. We pooled results across 23 studies for a total of 13,498 cases with colorectal tumors and 13,918 controls of European ancestry. We used a false discovery rate of 0.2 to identify genes with suggestive evidence of an interaction. We found suggestive evidence of interaction with folate intake on CRC risk for genes including glutathione S-Transferase Alpha 1 (GSTA1; p = 4.3E-4), Tonsuko Like, DNA Repair Protein (TONSL; p = 4.3E-4), and Aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA: p = 4.5E-4). We identified three genes involved in preventing or repairing DNA damage that may interact with folate consumption to alter CRC risk. Glutathione is an antioxidant, preventing cellular damage and is a downstream metabolite of homocysteine and metabolized by GSTA1. TONSL is part of a complex that functions in the recovery of double strand breaks and AGA plays a role in lysosomal breakdown of glycoprotein.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Ácido Fólico , Humanos , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Risco , Expressão Gênica , Fatores de Risco , NF-kappa B/genética
13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 109(10): 1777-1788, 2022 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36206742

RESUMO

Rare pathogenic variants in known breast cancer-susceptibility genes and known common susceptibility variants do not fully explain the familial aggregation of breast cancer. To investigate plausible genetic models for the residual familial aggregation, we studied 17,425 families ascertained through population-based probands, 86% of whom were screened for pathogenic variants in BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, CHEK2, ATM, and TP53 via gene-panel sequencing. We conducted complex segregation analyses and fitted genetic models in which breast cancer incidence depended on the effects of known susceptibility genes and other unidentified major genes and a normally distributed polygenic component. The proportion of familial variance explained by the six genes was 46% at age 20-29 years and decreased steadily with age thereafter. After allowing for these genes, the best fitting model for the residual familial variance included a recessive risk component with a combined genotype frequency of 1.7% (95% CI: 0.3%-5.4%) and a penetrance to age 80 years of 69% (95% CI: 38%-95%) for homozygotes, which may reflect the combined effects of multiple variants acting in a recessive manner, and a polygenic variance of 1.27 (95% CI: 0.94%-1.65), which did not vary with age. The proportion of the residual familial variance explained by the recessive risk component was 40% at age 20-29 years and decreased with age thereafter. The model predicted age-specific familial relative risks consistent with those observed by large epidemiological studies. The findings have implications for strategies to identify new breast cancer-susceptibility genes and improve disease-risk prediction, especially at a young age.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Penetrância , Adulto Jovem
14.
Breast Cancer Res ; 24(1): 59, 2022 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation in blood may reflect adverse exposures accumulated over the lifetime and could therefore provide potential improvements in the prediction of cancer risk. A substantial body of research has shown associations between epigenetic aging and risk of disease, including cancer. Here we aimed to study epigenetic measures of aging and lifestyle-related factors in association with risk of breast cancer. METHODS: Using data from four prospective case-control studies nested in three cohorts of European ancestry participants, including a total of 1,655 breast cancer cases, we calculated three methylation-based measures of lifestyle factors (body mass index [BMI], tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption) and seven measures of epigenetic aging (Horvath-based, Hannum-based, PhenoAge and GrimAge). All measures were regression-adjusted for their respective risk factors and expressed per standard deviation (SD). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using conditional or unconditional logistic regression and pooled using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Subgroup analyses were conducted by age at blood draw, time from blood sample to diagnosis, oestrogen receptor-positivity status and tumour stage. RESULTS: None of the measures of epigenetic aging were associated with risk of breast cancer in the pooled analysis: Horvath 'age acceleration' (AA): OR per SD = 1.02, 95%CI: 0.95-1.10; AA-Hannum: OR = 1.03, 95%CI:0.95-1.12; PhenoAge: OR = 1.01, 95%CI: 0.94-1.09 and GrimAge: OR = 1.03, 95%CI: 0.94-1.12, in models adjusting for white blood cell proportions, body mass index, smoking and alcohol consumption. The BMI-adjusted predictor of BMI was associated with breast cancer risk, OR per SD = 1.09, 95%CI: 1.01-1.17. The results for the alcohol and smoking methylation-based predictors were consistent with a null association. Risk did not appear to substantially vary by age at blood draw, time to diagnosis or tumour characteristics. CONCLUSION: We found no evidence that methylation-based measures of aging, smoking or alcohol consumption were associated with risk of breast cancer. A methylation-based marker of BMI was associated with risk and may provide insights into the underlying associations between BMI and breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Envelhecimento/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926479

RESUMO

Limited evidence exists on the link between inflammation and epigenetic ageing. We aimed to 1) assess the cross-sectional and prospective associations of 22 inflammation-related plasma markers and a signature of inflammaging with epigenetic ageing; 2) determine whether epigenetic ageing and inflammaging are independently associated with mortality. Blood samples from 940 participants in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study, collected at baseline (1990-1994) and follow-up (2003-2007) were assayed for DNA methylation and 22 inflammation-related markers, including well-established markers (e.g., interleukins and C-reactive protein) and metabolites of the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway. Four measures of epigenetic ageing (PhenoAge, GrimAge, DunedinPoAm and Zhang) and a signature of inflammaging were considered, adjusted for age, and transformed to Z-scores. Associations were assessed using linear regression, and mortality hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using Cox regression. Cross-sectionally, most inflammation-related markers were associated with epigenetic ageing measures, although with generally modest effect sizes (regression coefficients per SD≤0.26) and explaining altogether between 1% and 11% of their variation. Prospectively, baseline inflammation-related markers were not, or only weakly, associated with epigenetic ageing after 11 years of follow-up. Epigenetic ageing and inflammaging were strongly and independently associated with mortality, e.g. inflammaging: HR=1.41, 95%CI=1.27-1.56, P=2x10-10; which was only slightly attenuated after adjustment for four epigenetic ageing measures: HR=1.35, 95%CI=1.22-1.51, P=7x10-9). Although cross-sectionally associated with epigenetic ageing, inflammation-related markers accounted for a modest proportion of its variation. Inflammaging and epigenetic ageing are essentially non-overlapping markers of biological ageing and may be used jointly to predict mortality.

16.
Eur J Cancer ; 173: 178-193, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35933885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Predict Breast (www.predict.nhs.uk) is an online prognostication and treatment benefit tool for early invasive breast cancer. The aim of this study was to incorporate the prognostic effect of progesterone receptor (PR) status into a new version of PREDICT and to compare its performance to the current version (2.2). METHOD: The prognostic effect of PR status was based on the analysis of data from 45,088 European patients with breast cancer from 49 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratio for PR status. Data from a New Zealand study of 11,365 patients with early invasive breast cancer were used for external validation. Model calibration and discrimination were used to test the model performance. RESULTS: Having a PR-positive tumour was associated with a 23% and 28% lower risk of dying from breast cancer for women with oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative and ER-positive breast cancer, respectively. The area under the ROC curve increased with the addition of PR status from 0.807 to 0.809 for patients with ER-negative tumours (p = 0.023) and from 0.898 to 0.902 for patients with ER-positive tumours (p = 2.3 × 10-6) in the New Zealand cohort. Model calibration was modest with 940 observed deaths compared to 1151 predicted. CONCLUSION: The inclusion of the prognostic effect of PR status to PREDICT Breast has led to an improvement of model performance and more accurate absolute treatment benefit predictions for individual patients. Further studies should determine whether the baseline hazard function requires recalibration.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Receptores de Progesterona , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Progesterona , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo
17.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2022 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36018819

RESUMO

Little is known regarding the potential relationship between clonal hematopoiesis (CH) of indeterminate potential (CHIP), which is the expansion of hematopoietic stem cells with somatic mutations, and risk of prostate cancer, the fifth leading cause of cancer death of men worldwide. We evaluated the association of age-related CHIP with overall and aggressive prostate cancer risk in two large whole-exome sequencing studies of 75 047 European ancestry men, including 7663 prostate cancer cases, 2770 of which had aggressive disease, and 3266 men carrying CHIP variants. We found that CHIP, defined by over 50 CHIP genes individually and in aggregate, was not significantly associated with overall (aggregate HR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.76-1.13, P = 0.46) or aggressive (aggregate OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.92-1.41, P = 0.22) prostate cancer risk. CHIP was weakly associated with genetic risk of overall prostate cancer, measured using a polygenic risk score (OR = 1.05 per unit increase, 95% CI = 1.01-1.10, P = 0.01). CHIP was not significantly associated with carrying pathogenic/likely pathogenic/deleterious variants in DNA repair genes, which have previously been found to be associated with aggressive prostate cancer. While findings from this study suggest that CHIP is likely not a risk factor for prostate cancer, it will be important to investigate other types of CH in association with prostate cancer risk.

18.
EJHaem ; 3(1): 109-120, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35846225

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematological cancer and causes significant mortality and morbidity. Knowledge regarding modifiable risk factors for MM remains limited. This analysis of an Australian population-based case-control family study investigates whether smoking or alcohol consumption is associated with risk of MM and related diseases. Incident cases (n = 789) of MM were recruited via cancer registries in Victoria and New South Wales. Controls (n = 1,113) were either family members of cases (n = 696) or controls recruited for a similarly designed study of renal cancers (n = 417). Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional multivariable logistic regression. Heavy intake (>20 g ethanol/day) of alcohol had a lower risk of MM compared with nondrinkers (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.50-0.93), and there was an inverse dose-response relationship for average daily alcohol intake (OR per 10 g ethanol per day = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86-0.99); there was no evidence of an interaction with sex. There was no evidence of an association with MM risk for smoking-related exposures (p > 0.18). The associations between smoking and alcohol with MM are similar to those with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Further research into potential underlying mechanisms is warranted.

19.
J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol ; 66(8): 1106-1114, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35726760

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We aim to evaluate the use of different whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) fractionation schedules for brain metastases (BM) in Victoria, and the factors associated with it. METHODS: This is a population-based cohort of patients who received radiation therapy for BM between 2012 and 2017, as captured in the Victorian Radiotherapy Minimum Dataset. We excluded patients with primary brain tumour and those who had 'prophylactic' intent treatment. The Cochran-Armitage test was used to evaluate changing trend in WBRT fractionation. Multivariate multinomial logistic regressions were used to evaluate factors associated with WBRT fractionation. RESULTS: Of the 3111 patients who had WBRT, 1048 (45%), 1291 (42%) and 312 (13%) had ≤5, 6-10 and >10 fractions WBRT respectively. There was progressive increase in ≤5 fractions WBRT use over time, from 37% in 2012 to 50% in 2017 (P-trend < 0.001). In multivariate analyses, increasing age, patients with gastrointestinal cancer, patients living in remote/regional areas and more recent treatment were associated with the use of shorter WBRT fractionation (≤5 fractions), while patients who had WBRT plus stereotactic radiosurgery, and those treated in private institutions were associated with the use of prolonged WBRT fractionation (≥6 fractions). Three hundred eighty-nine (13%) patients died within 30 days of WBRT, of which 241 (64%), 119 (32%) and 17 (5%) had ≤5, 6-10 and > 10 fractions WBRT respectively. CONCLUSION: We observed large variations in WBRT fractionation that are associated with patient, tumour, treatment and institutional factors. It is important to continuously monitor and benchmark our practice in order to reduce potentially unwarranted variations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Radiocirurgia , Humanos , Irradiação Craniana/efeitos adversos , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Encéfalo
20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(8): 1630-1637, 2022 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35654416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mechanisms for how Helicobacter pylori infection affects risk of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and Barrett's esophagus are incompletely understood and might differ by sex. METHODS: In a case-control study nested in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study with 425 GERD cases and 169 Barrett's esophagus cases (identified at 2007-2010 follow-up), we estimated sex-specific odds ratios for participants who were H. pylori seronegative versus seropositive at baseline (1990-1994). To explore possible mechanisms, we (i) compared patterns of H. pylori-induced gastritis by sex using serum pepsinogen-I and gastrin-17 data and (ii) quantified the effect of H. pylori seronegativity on Barrett's esophagus mediated by GERD using causal mediation analysis. RESULTS: For men, H. pylori seronegativity was associated with 1.69-fold [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-2.75] and 2.28-fold (95% CI, 1.27-4.12) higher odds of GERD and Barrett's esophagus, respectively. No association was observed for women. H. pylori-induced atrophic antral gastritis was more common in men (68%) than in women (56%; P = 0.015). For men, 5 of the 15 per 1,000 excess Barrett's esophagus risk from being seronegative were mediated by GERD. CONCLUSIONS: Men, but not women, who were H. pylori seronegative had increased risks of GERD and Barrett's esophagus. A possible explanation might be sex differences in patterns of H. pylori-induced atrophic antral gastritis, which could lead to less erosive reflux for men. Evidence of GERD mediating the effect of H. pylori on Barrett's esophagus risk among men supports this proposed mechanism. IMPACT: The findings highlight the importance of investigating sex differences in the effect of H. pylori on risk of GERD and Barrett's esophagus in future studies.


Assuntos
Esôfago de Barrett , Gastrite , Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/complicações , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Humanos , Masculino
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