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1.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 711, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666125

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Approximately 10% of patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency carry a mutation that disrupts CYP21A2 and the flanking TNXB gene resulting in CAH-X, a contiguous gene deletion syndrome. TNXB encodes tenascin-X (TNX), an extracellular matrix glycoprotein that plays an important role in collagen organization. TNXB impairment is associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Symptoms include joint hypermobility, hernias and cardiac defects. We measured serum TNX using an antibody targeting the amino-terminal of the TNX protein in 161 subjects, including extensively genotyped and phenotyped CAH patients, their relatives, and healthy controls. RESULTS: We evaluated the potential of serum TNX as a screening tool for CAH-X. CAH-X patients, especially haploinsufficient patients carrying the TNXA-TNXB chimeric gene CAH-X-CH-1 showed reduced TNX levels compared to controls (P < 0.05). TNX levels were similar in all subjects carrying a TNXB mutation. However, CAH patients who did not harbor a TNXB mutation also had reduced TNX compared to controls (P < 0.001). Thus, measuring serum TNX is not an effective screen for CAH-X amongst patients with CAH. TNXB genotyping is recommended for CAH patients who have symptoms of a connective tissue disorder. Epigenetic factors that influence TNX expression require further study.

4.
Curr Opin Immunol ; 60: 148-155, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302571

RESUMO

Environmental factors modify disease presentation and severity in allergic disorders. Primary atopic disorders (PADs) are a heterogenous group of single gene disorders that lead to significant atopic and allergic disease manifestations. However, a number of these monogenic diseases have variable penetrance suggesting that gene-gene and/or gene-environment interactions could modulate the clinical phenotype. Environmental factors such as diet, the microbiome at the epithelial-environment interface, the presence and/or extent of infection, and psychologic stress can alter disease phenotypic expression of allergic diseases, and PADs provide discrete contexts in which to understand these influences. We outline how gene-environment interactions likely contribute to a variable penetrance and expressivity in PADs. Dietary modifications of both macronutrients and/or micronutrients alter T-cell metabolism and may influence effector T-cell function. The mucosal microbiome may affect local inflammation and may remotely influence regulatory elements, while psychologic stress can affect mast cell and other allergic effector cell function. Understanding gene-environment interactions in PADs can hopefully provide a foundation for interrogating gene-environment interactions to common allergic disorders, and also present opportunities for personalized interventions based on the altered pathways and environmental influences in affected individuals.

5.
J Exp Med ; 216(10): 2348-2361, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337736

RESUMO

Both α-tryptase and ß-tryptase are preferentially expressed by human mast cells, but the purpose of α-tryptase is enigmatic, because its tetramers lack protease activity, whereas ß-tryptase tetramers are active proteases. The monogenic disorder called hereditary α-tryptasemia, due to increased α-tryptase gene copies and protein expression, presents with clinical features such as vibratory urticaria and dysautonomia. We show that heterotetramers composed of 2α- and 2ß-tryptase protomers (α/ß-tryptase) form naturally in individuals who express α-tryptase. α/ß-Tryptase, but not homotetramer, activates protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2), which is expressed on cell types such as smooth muscle, neurons, and endothelium. Also, only α/ß-tryptase makes mast cells susceptible to vibration-triggered degranulation by cleaving the α subunit of the EGF-like module-containing mucin-like hormone receptor-like 2 (EMR2) mechanosensory receptor. Allosteric effects of α-tryptase protomers on neighboring ß-tryptase protomers likely result in the novel substrate repertoire of α/ß-tryptase tetramers that in turn cause some of the clinical features of hereditary α-tryptasemia and of other disorders involving mast cells.

6.
J Exp Med ; 216(9): 1986-1998, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235509

RESUMO

IL-6 excess is central to the pathogenesis of multiple inflammatory conditions and is targeted in clinical practice by immunotherapy that blocks the IL-6 receptor encoded by IL6R We describe two patients with homozygous mutations in IL6R who presented with recurrent infections, abnormal acute-phase responses, elevated IgE, eczema, and eosinophilia. This study identifies a novel primary immunodeficiency, clarifying the contribution of IL-6 to the phenotype of patients with mutations in IL6ST, STAT3, and ZNF341, genes encoding different components of the IL-6 signaling pathway, and alerts us to the potential toxicity of drugs targeting the IL-6R.

8.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(4): 401-413, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037583

RESUMO

MALT1 (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma-translocation gene 1) is an intracellular signaling protein that activates NFκB and is crucial for both the adaptive and innate immune responses. Only 6 patients with immune deficiencies secondary to inherited mutations in the MALT1 gene have been described. PURPOSE: To provide clinical and immunological insights from 2 patients diagnosed with MALT1 immunodeficiency syndrome due to a novel MALT1 mutation. METHODS: Two cousins with suspected combined immunodeficiency underwent immunological and genetic work-up, including lymphocyte phenotyping, lymphocyte activation by mitogen stimulation, and next-generation sequencing (NGS) of T cell receptor gamma chain (TRG) repertoire. Whole exome sequencing was performed to identify the underlying genetic defect. RESULTS: Clinical findings included recurrent infections, failure to thrive, lymphadenopathy, dermatitis, and autoimmunity. Immune work-up revealed lymphocytosis, low to normal levels of immunoglobulins, absence of regulatory T cells, and low Th17 cells. A normal proliferative response was induced by phytohemagglutinin and IL-2 but was diminished with anti-CD3. TRG repertoire was diverse with a clonal expansion pattern. Genetic analysis identified a novel autosomal recessive homozygous c.1799T>A; p. I600N missense mutation in MALT1. MALT1 protein expression was markedly reduced, and in vitro IL-2 production and NFκB signaling pathway were significantly impaired. CONCLUSIONS: Two patients harboring a novel MALT1 mutation presented with signs of immune deficiency and dysregulation and were found to have an abnormal T cell receptor repertoire. These findings reinforce the link between MALT1 deficiency and combined immunodeficiency. Early diagnosis is crucial, and curative treatment by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may be warranted.

10.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 122(4): 393-400.e2, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnosing food allergy in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) is complicated by their high rate of asymptomatic sensitization to foods, which can lead to misdiagnosis and unnecessary food avoidance. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether food-specific (sIgE) or component immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels could predict allergic status in patients with moderate to severe AD and elevated total IgE. METHODS: Seventy-eight children (median age, 10.7 years) with moderate to severe AD were assessed for a history of clinical reactivity to milk, egg, peanut, wheat, and soy. The IgE levels for each food and its components were determined by ImmunoCAP. The level and pattern of IgE reactivity to each food and its components, and their ratio to total IgE, were compared between subjects who were allergic and tolerant to each food. RESULTS: Ninety-one percent of subjects were sensitized, and 51% reported allergic reactivity to at least 1 of the 5 most common food allergens. Allergy to milk, egg, and peanut were most common, and IgE levels to each of these foods were significantly higher in the allergic group. Component IgEs most associated with milk, egg, and peanut allergy were Bos d8, Gal d1, and Ara h2, respectively. The ratio of sIgE to total IgE offered no advantage to sIgE alone in predicting allergy. CONCLUSION: Specific IgE levels and the pattern of IgE reactivity to food components can distinguish AD subjects allergic vs tolerant to the major food allergens and may therefore be helpful in guiding the clinical management of these patients.

11.
Immunity ; 50(1): 106-120.e10, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30650370

RESUMO

CD4+ T helper (Th) differentiation is regulated by diverse inputs, including the vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA). RA acts through its receptor RARα to repress transcription of inflammatory cytokines, but is also essential for Th-mediated immunity, indicating complex effects of RA on Th specification and the outcome of the immune response. We examined the impact of RA on the genome-wide transcriptional response during Th differentiation to multiple subsets. RA effects were subset-selective and were most significant in Th9 cells. RA globally antagonized Th9-promoting transcription factors and inhibited Th9 differentiation. RA directly targeted the extended Il9 locus and broadly modified the Th9 epigenome through RARα. RA-RARα activity limited murine Th9-associated pulmonary inflammation, and human allergic inflammation was associated with reduced expression of RA target genes. Thus, repression of the Th9 program is a major function of RA-RARα signaling in Th differentiation, arguing for a role for RA in interleukin 9 (IL-9) related diseases.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Pulmão/fisiologia , Pneumonia/imunologia , Receptor alfa de Ácido Retinoico/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/fisiologia , Animais , Repressão Epigenética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/genética , Interleucina-9/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Pneumonia/genética , Receptor alfa de Ácido Retinoico/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Transcrição Genética , Tretinoína/metabolismo
12.
Immunol Rev ; 287(1): 135-144, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30565252

RESUMO

Dynamic changes in metabolism have long been understood as critical for both the initiation and maintenance of innate and adaptive immune responses. A number of recent advances have clarified details of how metabolic pathways can specifically affect cellular function in immune cells. Critical to this understanding is ongoing study of the congenital disorders of glycosylation and other genetic disorders of metabolism that lead to altered immune function in humans. While there are a number of immune phenotypes associated with metabolic derangements caused by single gene disorders, several genetic mutations have begun to link discrete alterations in metabolism and growth specifically with allergic disease. This subset of primary atopic disorders is of particular interest as they illuminate how hypomorphic mutations which allow for some residual function of mutated protein products permit the "abnormal" allergic response. This review will highlight how mutations altering sugar metabolism and mTOR activation place similar constraints on T lymphocyte metabolism to engender atopy, and how alterations in JAK/STAT signaling can impair growth and cellular metabolism while concomitantly promoting allergic diseases and reactions in humans.

13.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 30(6): 848-854, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30407976

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The mechanisms underlying the overlap of, and relationship between, atopy and immunodeficiency are just beginning to be recognized, through the identification of novel genetic conditions and the reexamination of well known primary immunodeficiencies. The present review seeks both to frame the topic and to highlight the most recent literature combining allergy in the context of immunodeficiency. RECENT FINDINGS: The true prevalence of atopic disorders in the setting of primary immunodeficiency as a whole is difficult to pinpoint, however there have been recent attempts to measure prevalence. Individual immunodeficiency disorders have been more carefully dissected for atopic disease and the mechanisms underlying the atopic phenotypic, whereas several newly described immune deficiencies because of single gene mutations are highly associated with atopic phenotypes. Finally, a number of novel genetic conditions with atopy being the primary feature, even in the absence of overt immune deficiency, have been described, providing instrumental clues into the diagnostic dilemmas these syndromes create. SUMMARY: Defining and examining diseases with primary features of atopy and infection allow for a better understanding of the interplay between the two in rare disease, and hopefully sheds light on fundamental pathways involved in atopy and host defense in the general population.

14.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2078, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30283440

RESUMO

The caspase recruitment domain family member 11 (CARD11 or CARMA1)-B cell CLL/lymphoma 10 (BCL10)-MALT1 paracaspase (MALT1) [CBM] signalosome complex serves as a molecular bridge between cell surface antigen receptor signaling and the activation of the NF-κB, JNK, and mTORC1 signaling axes. This positions the CBM complex as a critical regulator of lymphocyte activation, proliferation, survival, and metabolism. Inborn errors in each of the CBM components have now been linked to a diverse group of human primary immunodeficiency diseases termed "CBM-opathies." Clinical manifestations range from severe combined immunodeficiency to selective B cell lymphocytosis, atopic disease, and specific humoral defects. This surprisingly broad spectrum of phenotypes underscores the importance of "tuning" CBM signaling to preserve immune homeostasis. Here, we review the distinct clinical and immunological phenotypes associated with human CBM complex mutations and introduce new avenues for targeted therapeutic intervention.

15.
Oncotarget ; 9(76): 34357-34378, 2018 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30344948

RESUMO

Depending on its occurrence in the germline or somatic context, a single point mutation, S707Y, of phospholipase C-γ2 (PLCγ2) gives rise to two distinct human disease states: acquired resistance of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells (CLL) to inhibitors of Brutons´s tyrosine kinase (Btk) and dominantly inherited autoinflammation and PLCγ2-associated antibody deficiency and immune dysregulation, APLAID, respectively. The functional relationships of the PLCγ2S707Y mutation to other PLCG2 mutations causing (i) Btk inhibitor resistance of CLL cells and (ii) the APLAID-related human disease PLCγ2-associated antibody deficiency and immune dysregulation, PLAID, revealing different clinical characteristics including cold-induced urticaria, respectively, are currently incompletely understood. Here, we show that PLCγ2S707 point mutants displayed much higher activities at 37° C than the CLL Btk inhibitor resistance mutants R665W and L845F and the two PLAID mutants, PLCγ2Δ19 and PLCγ2Δ20-22. Combinations of CLL Btk inhibitor resistance mutations synergized to enhance PLCγ2 activity, with distinct functional consequences for different temporal orders of the individual mutations. Enhanced activity of PLCγ2S707Y was not observed in a cell-free system, suggesting that PLCγ2 activation in intact cells is dependent on regulatory rather than mutant-enzyme-inherent influences. Unlike the two PLAID mutants, PLCγ2S707Y was insensitive to activation by cooling and retained marked hyperresponsiveness to activated Rac upon cooling. In contrast to the PLAID mutants, which are insensitive to activation by endogenously expressed EGF receptors, the S707Y mutation markedly enhanced the stimulatory effect of EGF, explaining some of the pathophysiological discrepancies between immune cells of PLAID and APLAID patients in response to receptor-tyrosine-kinase activation.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30248356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a highly prevalent chronic inflammatory skin disease that is known to be, at least in part, genetically determined. Mutations in caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 14 (CARD14) have been shown to result in various forms of psoriasis and related disorders. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify rare DNA variants conferring a significant risk for AD through genetic and functional studies in a cohort of patients affected with severe AD. METHODS: Whole-exome and direct gene sequencing, immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR, ELISA, and functional assays in human keratinocytes were used. RESULTS: In a cohort of patients referred with severe AD, DNA sequencing revealed in 4 patients 2 rare heterozygous missense mutations in the gene encoding CARD14, a major regulator of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). A dual luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that both mutations exert a dominant loss-of-function effect and result in decreased NF-κB signaling. Accordingly, immunohistochemistry staining showed decreased expression of CARD14 in patients' skin, as well as decreased levels of activated p65, a surrogate marker for NF-κB activity. CARD14-deficient or mutant-expressing keratinocytes displayed abnormal secretion of key mediators of innate immunity. CONCLUSIONS: Although dominant gain-of-function mutations in CARD14 are associated with psoriasis and related diseases, loss-of-function mutations in the same gene are associated with a severe variant of AD.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30030006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with loss-of-function (LOF) signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) mutations have dermatitis, enhanced IgE production despite a relative lack of immediate hypersensitivity, recurrent infection, and an increased rate of lymphoma in addition to a number of skeletal and connective tissue abnormalities. Patients with STAT1 gain-of-function (GOF) mutations also have susceptibility to candidiasis and sinopulmonary infection, as well as autoimmunity and squamous cell carcinoma, in addition to even more broad phenotypes. OBJECTIVE: Because of the link between TH9 cells and allergic inflammation, autoimmunity, and antitumor surveillance and because evidence shows a role for either STAT3 or STAT1 in TH9 differentiation conflicts, we sought to determine the status on this lineage of STAT1 GOF and STAT3 LOF mutations in human subjects. METHODS: We detected IL-9 levels and TH9 differentiation in patients with STAT3 LOF and STAT1 GOF mutations, together with TH9 transcript factors, and partially rescued their deficiency in vitro by adding cytokines they lacked or transfecting key molecules. RESULTS: We found that PBMCs or sorted naive CD4+ T cells from patients with STAT3 LOF and STAT1 GOF mutations had impaired TH9 generation/differentiation. STAT3 inhibition in normal TH9 cultures diminished early IL-21 induction and late IL-9 production, whereas exogenous IL-21 enhanced TH9 differentiation, even with STAT3 inhibition, by restoring suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 expression and thus inhibiting excessive phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription (p-STAT) 1 activation. Furthermore, exogenous expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 or either T-bet or STAT1 RNA interference in STAT3 LOF cells partially rescued IL-9 differentiation. CONCLUSION: Collectively, these results suggest that human TH9 differentiation depends on normal p-STAT3 and IL-21 production to suppress p-STAT1 activation and T-bet transcription.

19.
J Immunol ; 201(2): 757-771, 2018 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29898962

RESUMO

Macrophage activation by bacterial LPS leads to induction of a complex inflammatory gene program dependent on numerous transcription factor families. The transcription factor Ikaros has been shown to play a critical role in lymphoid cell development and differentiation; however, its function in myeloid cells and innate immune responses is less appreciated. Using comprehensive genomic analysis of Ikaros-dependent transcription, DNA binding, and chromatin accessibility, we describe unexpected dual repressor and activator functions for Ikaros in the LPS response of murine macrophages. Consistent with the described function of Ikaros as transcriptional repressor, Ikzf1-/- macrophages showed enhanced induction for select responses. In contrast, we observed a dramatic defect in expression of many delayed LPS response genes, and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing analyses support a key role for Ikaros in sustained NF-κB chromatin binding. Decreased Ikaros expression in Ikzf1+/- mice and human cells dampens these Ikaros-enhanced inflammatory responses, highlighting the importance of quantitative control of Ikaros protein level for its activator function. In the absence of Ikaros, a constitutively open chromatin state was coincident with dysregulation of LPS-induced chromatin remodeling, gene expression, and cytokine responses. Together, our data suggest a central role for Ikaros in coordinating the complex macrophage transcriptional program in response to pathogen challenge.

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