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1.
Cancer Cell ; 36(2): 194-209.e9, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408619

RESUMO

Cancer-associated mutations in genes encoding RNA splicing factors (SFs) commonly occur in leukemias, as well as in a variety of solid tumors, and confer dependence on wild-type splicing. These observations have led to clinical efforts to directly inhibit the spliceosome in patients with refractory leukemias. Here, we identify that inhibiting symmetric or asymmetric dimethylation of arginine, mediated by PRMT5 and type I protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs), respectively, reduces splicing fidelity and results in preferential killing of SF-mutant leukemias over wild-type counterparts. These data identify genetic subsets of cancer most likely to respond to PRMT inhibition, synergistic effects of combined PRMT5 and type I PRMT inhibition, and a mechanistic basis for the therapeutic efficacy of PRMT inhibition in cancer.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2891, 2019 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253791

RESUMO

Our ability to manage acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is limited by our incomplete understanding of the epigenetic disruption central to leukemogenesis, including improper histone methylation. Here we examine 16 histone H3 genes in 434 primary AML samples and identify Q69H, A26P, R2Q, R8H and K27M/I mutations (1.6%), with higher incidence in secondary AML (9%). These mutations occur in pre-leukemic hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and exist in the major leukemic clones in patients. They increase the frequency of functional HSCs, alter differentiation, and amplify leukemic aggressiveness. These effects are dependent on the specific mutation. H3K27 mutation increases the expression of genes involved in erythrocyte and myeloid differentiation with altered H3K27 tri-methylation and K27 acetylation. The functional impact of histone mutations is independent of RUNX1 mutation, although they at times co-occur. This study establishes that H3 mutations are drivers of human pre-cancerous stem cell expansion and important early events in leukemogenesis.


Assuntos
Epigenômica , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Histonas/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Sequência de Bases , Células da Medula Óssea , Diferenciação Celular , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , DNA/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hematopoese/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutação , Neoplasias Experimentais
7.
Cancer Cell ; 35(5): 721-737.e9, 2019 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056398

RESUMO

The mitochondrial caseinolytic protease P (ClpP) plays a central role in mitochondrial protein quality control by degrading misfolded proteins. Using genetic and chemical approaches, we showed that hyperactivation of the protease selectively kills cancer cells, independently of p53 status, by selective degradation of its respiratory chain protein substrates and disrupts mitochondrial structure and function, while it does not affect non-malignant cells. We identified imipridones as potent activators of ClpP. Through biochemical studies and crystallography, we show that imipridones bind ClpP non-covalently and induce proteolysis by diverse structural changes. Imipridones are presently in clinical trials. Our findings suggest a general concept of inducing cancer cell lethality through activation of mitochondrial proteolysis.

9.
Cell Stem Cell ; 24(4): 621-636.e16, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930145

RESUMO

Tafazzin (TAZ) is a mitochondrial transacylase that remodels the mitochondrial cardiolipin into its mature form. Through a CRISPR screen, we identified TAZ as necessary for the growth and viability of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. Genetic inhibition of TAZ reduced stemness and increased differentiation of AML cells both in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, knockdown of TAZ did not impair normal hematopoiesis under basal conditions. Mechanistically, inhibition of TAZ decreased levels of cardiolipin but also altered global levels of intracellular phospholipids, including phosphatidylserine, which controlled AML stemness and differentiation by modulating toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling.

10.
Blood ; 133(20): 2198-2211, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796022

RESUMO

There is a growing body of evidence that the molecular properties of leukemia stem cells (LSCs) are associated with clinical outcomes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and LSCs have been linked to therapy failure and relapse. Thus, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that contribute to the persistence and regenerative potential of LSCs is expected to result in the development of more effective therapies. We therefore interrogated functionally validated data sets of LSC-specific genes together with their known protein interactors and selected 64 candidates for a competitive in vivo gain-of-function screen to identify genes that enhanced stemness in human cord blood hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. A consistent effect observed for the top hits was the ability to restrain early repopulation kinetics while preserving regenerative potential. Overexpression (OE) of the most promising candidate, the orphan gene C3orf54/INKA1, in a patient-derived AML model (8227) promoted the retention of LSCs in a primitive state manifested by relative expansion of CD34+ cells, accumulation of cells in G0, and reduced output of differentiated progeny. Despite delayed early repopulation, at later times, INKA1-OE resulted in the expansion of self-renewing LSCs. In contrast, INKA1 silencing in primary AML reduced regenerative potential. Mechanistically, our multidimensional confocal analysis found that INKA1 regulates G0 exit by interfering with nuclear localization of its target PAK4, with concomitant reduction of global H4K16ac levels. These data identify INKA1 as a novel regulator of LSC latency and reveal a link between the regulation of stem cell kinetics and pool size during regeneration.

11.
Nat Genet ; 51(2): 296-307, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30643249

RESUMO

Recent genomic studies have identified chromosomal rearrangements defining new subtypes of B-progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), however many cases lack a known initiating genetic alteration. Using integrated genomic analysis of 1,988 childhood and adult cases, we describe a revised taxonomy of B-ALL incorporating 23 subtypes defined by chromosomal rearrangements, sequence mutations or heterogeneous genomic alterations, many of which show marked variation in prevalence according to age. Two subtypes have frequent alterations of the B lymphoid transcription-factor gene PAX5. One, PAX5alt (7.4%), has diverse PAX5 alterations (rearrangements, intragenic amplifications or mutations); a second subtype is defined by PAX5 p.Pro80Arg and biallelic PAX5 alterations. We show that p.Pro80Arg impairs B lymphoid development and promotes the development of B-ALL with biallelic Pax5 alteration in vivo. These results demonstrate the utility of transcriptome sequencing to classify B-ALL and reinforce the central role of PAX5 as a checkpoint in B lymphoid maturation and leukemogenesis.


Assuntos
Fator de Transcrição PAX5/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/genética , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos/genética , Feminino , Rearranjo Gênico/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nature ; 563(7732): 579-583, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429608

RESUMO

The use of liquid biopsies for cancer detection and management is rapidly gaining prominence1. Current methods for the detection of circulating tumour DNA involve sequencing somatic mutations using cell-free DNA, but the sensitivity of these methods may be low among patients with early-stage cancer given the limited number of recurrent mutations2-5. By contrast, large-scale epigenetic alterations-which are tissue- and cancer-type specific-are not similarly constrained6 and therefore potentially have greater ability to detect and classify cancers in patients with early-stage disease. Here we develop a sensitive, immunoprecipitation-based protocol to analyse the methylome of small quantities of circulating cell-free DNA, and demonstrate the ability to detect large-scale DNA methylation changes that are enriched for tumour-specific patterns. We also demonstrate robust performance in cancer detection and classification across an extensive collection of plasma samples from several tumour types. This work sets the stage to establish biomarkers for the minimally invasive detection, interception and classification of early-stage cancers based on plasma cell-free DNA methylation patterns.

13.
Exp Hematol ; 2018 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352278

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a complex, heterogeneous disease with variable outcomes following curative intent chemotherapy. AML with inv(3) is a genetic subgroup characterized by a very low response rate to current induction type chemotherapy and thus has among the worst long-term survivorship of the AMLs. Here, we describe OCI-AML-20, a new AML cell line with inv(3) and deletion of chromosome 7; the latter is a common co-occurrence in inv(3) AML. In OCI-AML-20, CD34 expression is maintained and required for repopulation in vitro and in vivo. CD34 expression in OCI-AML-20 shows dependence on the co-culture with stromal cells. Transcriptome analysis indicates that the OCI-AML-20 clusters with other AML patient data sets that have poor prognosis, as well as other AML cell lines, including another inv(3) line, MUTZ-3. OCI-AML-20 is a new cell line resource for studying the biology of inv(3) AML that can be used to identify potential therapies for this poor outcome disease.

14.
J Clin Invest ; 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30358567

RESUMO

Replicative immortality is a hallmark of cancer cells governed by telomere maintenance. Approximately 90% of human cancers maintain their telomeres by activating telomerase, driven by the transcriptional upregulation of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT). Although TERT promoter mutations (TPMs) are a major cancer-associated genetic mechanism of TERT upregulation, many cancers exhibit TERT upregulation without TPMs. In this study, we describe the TERT hypermethylated oncological region (THOR), a 433-bp genomic region encompassing 52 CpG sites located immediately upstream of the TERT core promoter, as a cancer-associated epigenetic mechanism of TERT upregulation. Unmethylated THOR repressed TERT promoter activity regardless of TPM status, and hypermethylation of THOR counteracted this repressive function. THOR methylation analysis in 1,352 human tumors revealed frequent (>45%) cancer-associated DNA hypermethylation in 9 of 11 (82%) tumor types screened. Additionally, THOR hypermethylation, either independently or along with TPMs, accounted for how approximately 90% of human cancers can aberrantly activate telomerase. Thus, we propose that THOR hypermethylation is a prevalent telomerase-activating mechanism in cancer that can act independently of or in conjunction with TPMs, further supporting the utility of THOR hypermethylation as a prognostic biomarker.

15.
Blood Adv ; 2(20): 2658-2671, 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30327374

RESUMO

There is a paucity of data regarding the impact of mutations on outcomes in accelerated-phase (AP) and blast-phase (BP) myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). Moreover, it is unknown whether mutational status affects survival, as seen in chronic-phase MPNs. Therefore, we performed a retrospective analysis of all patients treated at our institution with AP/BP MPNs (N = 122; AP = 14; BP = 108) to comprehensively describe the mutational profile and correlate with clinical outcomes. Targeted sequencing with a 54-gene panel was performed. Forty-four patients were treated with intensive therapy, 27 with nonintensive therapy, and 51 with best supportive care (BSC). The most common mutation was JAK2V617F, occurring in 55% of subjects; CALR was found in 13% of patients and MPL in 6%. Thirty-two (26%) patients were triple negative. Other frequently mutated genes were ASXL1 (30%), TET2 (25%), SRSF2 (22%), RUNX1 (20%), and TP53 (17%). Mutations in 1, 2, 3, and ≥4 genes were seen in 15%, 13%, 25%, and 46% of patients, respectively. There was no difference in survival between patients treated with intensive vs nonintensive therapy, and the benefit of intensive therapy was limited to patients who were able to undergo transplantation. TP53 was the only individual mutation to correlate with shorter overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.89; P = .03). In the multivariate analysis, mutated TP53, ≥4 mutations, low albumin, increased peripheral blood blasts, ≥3 cytogenetic abnormalities, and BSC were associated with shorter survival. In conclusion, mutational data enhance the understanding of patients with AP/BP MPN who are likely to benefit from current therapeutic options.

16.
Leukemia ; 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30275526

RESUMO

Older patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in the phase 3 AZA-AML-001 study were evaluated at entry for cytogenetic abnormalities, and a subgroup of patients was assessed for gene mutations. Patients received azacitidine 75 mg/m2/day x7 days (n = 240) or conventional care regimens (CCR; n = 245): intensive chemotherapy, low-dose cytarabine, or best supportive care only. Overall survival (OS) was assessed for patients with common (occurring in ≥10% of patients) cytogenetic abnormalities and karyotypes, and for patients with recurring gene mutations. There was a significant OS improvement with azacitidine vs CCR for patients with European LeukemiaNet-defined Adverse karyotype (HR 0.71 [95%CI 0.51-0.99]; P = 0.046). Azacitidine-treated patients with -5/5q-, -7/7q-, or 17p abnormalities, or with monosomal or complex karyotypes, had a 31-46% reduced risk of death vs CCR. The most frequent gene mutations were DNMT3A (27%), TET2 (25%), IDH2 (23% [R140, 15%; R172, 8%]), and TP53 (21%). Compared with wild-type, OS was significantly reduced among CCR-treated patients with TP53 or NRAS mutations and azacitidine-treated patients with FLT3 or TET2 mutations. Azacitidine may be a preferred treatment for older patients with AML with Adverse-risk cytogenetics, particularly those with chromosome 5, 7, and/or 17 abnormalities and complex or monosomal karyotypes. The influence of gene mutations in azacitidine-treated patients warrants further study.

17.
Chemotherapy ; 63(4): 225-237, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30372692

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) continues to be a deadly disease, with only 50-70% of patients achieving complete remission and less than 30% of adults having sustained long-term remissions. In order to address these unmet medical needs, we carried out a high-throughput screen of an in-house library of on- and off-patent drugs with the OCI/AML-2 cell line. Through this screen, we discovered adefovir dipi-voxil (adefovir-DP) as being active against human AML. In addition to adefovir-DP, there are second-generation formulations of adefovir, including octadecyloxyethyl adefovir (ODE-adefovir) and hexadecyloxypropyl adefovir (HDP-adefovir), which were designed to overcome the pharmacokinetic problems of the parent compound adefovir. Given the known clinical benefit of nucleoside analogs for the treatment of AML, we undertook studies to evaluate the potential benefit of adefovir-based molecules. In AML cell lines and patient samples, adefovir-DP and ODE-adefovir were highly potent, whereas HDP-adefovir was significantly less active. Interestingly, ODE-adefovir was remarkably less toxic than adefovir-DP towards normal hematopoietic cells. In addition, ODE-adefovir at a dose of 15 mg/kg/day showed potent activity against human AML in a NOD/SCID mouse model, with a reduction of human leukemia in mouse bone marrow of > 40% in all mice tested within 20 days of treatment. Based on its chemical structure, we hypothesized that the cytotoxicity of ODE-adefovir toward AML was through cell cycle arrest and DNA damage. Indeed, ODE-adefovir treatment induced cell cycle arrest in the S phase and increased levels of pH2Ax, indicating the induction of DNA damage. Furthermore, there was an increase in phospho-p53, transactivation of proapoptotic genes and activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Subsequent investigation unveiled strong synergism between ODE-adefovir and ara-C, making their coadministration of potential clinical benefit. Expression of MRP4, a nucleoside transporter, appeared to influence the response of AML cells to ODE-adefovir, as its inhibition potentiated ODE-adefovir killing. Taken together, our findings indicate that clinical development of ODE-adefovir or related compounds for the treatment of AML is warranted.

20.
Haematologica ; 103(10): 1720-1729, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29976748

RESUMO

Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) often relapse after initial therapy because of persistence of leukemic stem cells that frequently express the IL-3 receptor alpha chain CD123. Natural killer (NK) cell-based therapeutic strategies for AML show promise and we explore the NK cell lines, NK-92 and CD16+ NK-92, as a treatment for AML. NK-92 has been tested in phase I clinical trials with minimal toxicity; irradiation prior to infusion prevents risk of engraftment. The CD16 negative NK-92 parental line was genetically modified to express the high affinity Fc gamma receptor, enabling antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, which we utilized in combination with an anti-CD123 antibody to target leukemic stem cells. NK-92 was preferentially cytotoxic against leukemic stem and progenitor cells compared with bulk leukemia in in vitro assays, while CD16+ NK-92 in combination with an anti-CD123 mAb mediated antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity against CD123+ leukemic targets. Furthermore, NK-92 infusions (with or without prior irradiation) improved survival in a primary AML xenograft model. Mice xenografted with primary human AML cells had a superior survival when treated with irradiated CD16+NK-92 cells and an anti-CD123 monoclonal antibody (7G3) versus treatment with irradiated CD16+NK-92 cells combined with an isotype control antibody. In this proof-of-principle study, we show for the first time that a CD16+NK-92 cell line combined with an antibody that targets a leukemic stem cell antigen can lead to improved survival in a relevant pre-clinical model of AML.

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