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1.
Acta Myol ; 38(1): 8-12, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309175

RESUMO

Tripartite motif-containing protein 32 (TRIM32) is a member of the TRIM ubiquitin E3 ligases which ubiquitinates different substrates in muscle including sarcomeric proteins. Mutations in TRIM32 are associated with Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy 2H. In a 66 old woman with disto-proximal myopathy, we identified a novel homozygous mutation of TRIM32 gene c.1781G > A (p. Ser594Asn) localised in the c-terminus NHL domain. Mutations of this domain have been also associated to Sarcotubular Myopathy (STM), a form of distal myopathy with peculiar features in muscle biopsy, now considered in the spectrum of LGMD2H. Muscle biopsy revealed severe abnormalities of the myofibrillar network with core like areas, lobulated fibres, whorled fibres and multiple vacuoles. Desmin and Myotilin stainings also pointed to accumulation as in Myofibrillar Myopathy. This report further confirms that STM and LGMD2H represent the same disorder and suggests to consider TRIM32 mutations in the genetic diagnosis of Sarcotubular Myopathy and Myofibrillar Myopathy.

2.
Expert Rev Neurother ; 19(10): 1037-1050, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260640

RESUMO

Introduction: The microbiota-gut brain (MGB) axis is the bidirectional communication between the intestinal microbiota and the brain. An increasing body of preclinical and clinical evidence has revealed that the gut microbial ecosystem can affect neuropsychiatric health. However, there is still a need of further studies to elucidate the complex gene-environment interactions and the role of the MGB axis in neuropsychiatric diseases, with the aim of identifying biomarkers and new therapeutic targets, to allow early diagnosis and improving treatments. Areas covered: To review the role of MGB axis in neuropsychiatric disorders, prediction and prevention of disease through exploitation, integration, and combination of data from existing gut microbiome/microbiota projects and appropriate other International '-Omics' studies. The authors also evaluated the new technological advances to investigate and modulate, through nutritional and other interventions, the gut microbiota. Expert opinion: The clinical studies have documented an association between alterations in gut microbiota composition and/or function, whereas the preclinical studies support a role for the gut microbiota in impacting behaviors which are of relevance to psychiatry and other central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Targeting MGB axis could be an additional approach for treating CNS disorders and all conditions in which alterations of the gut microbiota are involved.

3.
Neurogenetics ; 20(3): 165-172, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267352

RESUMO

TSFM is a nuclear gene encoding the elongation factor Ts (EFTs), an essential component of mitochondrial translational machinery. Impaired mitochondrial translation is responsible for neurodegenerative disorders characterized by multiple respiratory chain complex defects, multisystemic involvement, and neuroradiological features of Leigh-like syndrome. With the use of a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based multigene panel for mitochondrial disorders, we identified the novel TSFM homozygous variant c.547G>A (p.Gly183Ser) in a 5-year-old boy with infantile early onset encephalocardiomyopathy, sensorineural hearing loss, and peculiar partially reversible neuroimaging features. Our findings expand the phenotypic spectrum of TSFM-related encephalopathy, offering new insights into the natural history of brain involvement and suggesting that TSFM should be investigated in pediatric mitochondrial disorders with distinctive neurologic and cardiac involvement.

4.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 23(4): 657-661, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176596

RESUMO

GRIN1 encodes the obligate subunit (GluN1) of glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAr). Pathogenic variants in GRIN1 are a well-known cause of infantile encephalopathy characterized by profound developmental delay (DD), variable epileptic phenotypes, and distinctive behavioral abnormalities. Recently, GRIN1 has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of polymicrogyria (PMG). We investigated two patients presenting with severe intellectual disability (ID), epilepsy, stereotyped movements, and abnormal ocular movements. They showed distinctive circadian rhythm alterations and sleep-wake patterns anomalies characterized by recurrent cyclic crying or laughing spells. Genetic analysis led to the identification of two distinct de novo variants in GRIN1 affecting the same amino acid residue of an important functional protein domain. Recent advances in circadian rhythm and sleep regulation suggest that abnormal GluN1 function might play a relevant pathogenetic role for the peculiar behavioral abnormalities observed in GRIN1 patients. Our cases highlight the relevance of circadian rhythm abnormalities in epileptic children as a clue toward GRIN1 encephalopathy and expand the complex phenotypic spectrum of this severe genetic disorder.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/genética , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/genética , Adolescente , Encefalopatias/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino
6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 721-730, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929742

RESUMO

VAMP2 encodes the vesicular SNARE protein VAMP2 (also called synaptobrevin-2). Together with its partners syntaxin-1A and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25), VAMP2 mediates fusion of synaptic vesicles to release neurotransmitters. VAMP2 is essential for vesicular exocytosis and activity-dependent neurotransmitter release. Here, we report five heterozygous de novo mutations in VAMP2 in unrelated individuals presenting with a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by axial hypotonia (which had been present since birth), intellectual disability, and autistic features. In total, we identified two single-amino-acid deletions and three non-synonymous variants affecting conserved residues within the C terminus of the VAMP2 SNARE motif. Affected individuals carrying de novo non-synonymous variants involving the C-terminal region presented a more severe phenotype with additional neurological features, including central visual impairment, hyperkinetic movement disorder, and epilepsy or electroencephalography abnormalities. Reconstituted fusion involving a lipid-mixing assay indicated impairment in vesicle fusion as one of the possible associated disease mechanisms. The genetic synaptopathy caused by VAMP2 de novo mutations highlights the key roles of this gene in human brain development and function.

7.
Epilepsia ; 60(5): e31-e36, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30719712

RESUMO

Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a common syndrome of genetic generalized epilepsies (GGEs). Linkage and association studies suggest that the gene encoding the bromodomain-containing protein 2 (BRD2) may increase risk of JME. The present methylation and association study followed up a recent report highlighting that the BRD2 promoter CpG island (CpG76) is differentially hypermethylated in lymphoblastoid cells from Caucasian patients with JME compared to patients with other GGE subtypes and unaffected relatives. In contrast, we found a uniform low average percentage of methylation (<4.5%) for 13 CpG76-CpGs in whole blood cells from 782 unrelated European Caucasians, including 116 JME patients, 196 patients with genetic absence epilepsies, and 470 control subjects. We also failed to confirm an allelic association of the BRD2 promoter single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs3918149 with JME (Armitage trend test, P = 0.98), and we did not detect a substantial impact of SNP rs3918149 on CpG76 methylation in either 116 JME patients (methylation quantitative trait loci [meQTL], P = 0.29) or 470 German control subjects (meQTL, P = 0.55). Our results do not support the previous observation that a high DNA methylation level of the BRD2 promoter CpG76 island is a prevalent epigenetic motif associated with JME in Caucasians.

8.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(2): 317-321, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561154

RESUMO

Kyphoscoliotic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome associated with FKBP14 (FKBP14-kEDS) is an ultrarare autosomal recessive disorder reported in less than 30 individuals so far. In its original description, emphasis was put on the mild muscle involvement. Further reports confirm that FKBP14-kEDS is distinguishable from primary muscle disorders by the lack of progressive muscle disease. We report a 15-year-old girl with FKBP14-kEDS as a result of the recurrent c.362dupC variant, who also showed severe involvement of the lower limb muscles. She never attained autonomous walking and presented significant lower limb weakness. Lower limb magnetic resonance imaging showed a pattern of multiple muscle involvement. Further musculoskeletal assessment revealed significant bone mass density reduction of the spine, unilateral congenital hip dysplasia, and occipitoatlantoaxial instability. This patient points out the existence of a wider phenotypic spectrum of FKBP14-kEDS to include early onset muscle disease.

9.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(6): 1011-1021, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552836

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the expression of type I interferon (IFNα/ß)- and type II IFN (IFNγ)-inducible genes in muscle biopsy specimens from patients with juvenile dermatomyositis (DM) and to correlate their expression levels with histologic and clinical features. METHODS: Expression levels of IFN-inducible genes and proinflammatory cytokines were assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in muscle biopsy specimens from patients with juvenile DM (n = 39), patients with Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD), and healthy controls. Muscle biopsy sections were stained and scored for severity of histopathologic features. The charts of patients with juvenile DM were reviewed for clinical features at the time of sampling and long-term outcomes. RESULTS: Muscle expression levels of IFNα/ß-inducible genes (type I IFN score), IFNγ, IFNγ-inducible genes (type II IFN score), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were significantly higher in juvenile DM patients not receiving glucocorticoid therapy before muscle biopsy (n = 27) compared to DMD patients (n = 24) (type I IFN score, P < 0.0001; type II IFN score, P < 0.001; TNF, P < 0.05) and healthy controls (n = 4) (type I IFN score, P < 0.01; type II IFN score, P < 0.01; TNF, P < 0.05). Immunofluorescence staining of muscle biopsy sections from untreated juvenile DM patients showed increased immunoreactivity for IFNγ and HLA class II molecules compared to controls. Type I and type II IFN scores were correlated with typical histopathologic features of juvenile DM muscle biopsy samples, such as infiltration of endomysial CD3+ cells (type I IFN score, r = 0.68; type II IFN score, r = 0.63), perimysial CD3+ cells (type I IFN score, r = 0.59; type II IFN score, r = 0.66), CD68+ cells (type II IFN score, r = 0.46), and perifascicular atrophy (type I IFN score, r = 0.61; type II IFN score, r = 0.77). Juvenile DM patients with a high type I IFN score, a high type II IFN score, and high TNF expression levels showed more severe disease activity at biopsy (P < 0.05). In addition, juvenile DM patients with a high type II IFN score at biopsy reached clinically inactive disease significantly later than patients with low type II IFN score (log rank chi-square value 13.53, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The increased expression of IFN-inducible genes in the muscle in juvenile DM patients and their association with histologic and clinical features further support a pathogenic role for both type I and type II IFNs in juvenile DM.

10.
DNA Cell Biol ; 2018 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388038

RESUMO

Mandibular hypoplasia, deafness, and progeroid features, with concomitant lipodystrophy, define a multisystem disorder named MDPL syndrome. MDPL has been associated with heterozygous mutations in POLD1 gene resulting in loss of DNA polymerase δ activity. In this study, we report clinical, genetic, and cellular studies of a 13-year-old Pakistani girl, presenting growth retardation, sensorineural deafness, altered distribution of subcutaneous adipose tissue, and insulin resistance. We performed Sanger sequencing of POLD1 gene in the proband and the healthy parents. Fibroblasts obtained from dermal biopsy were evaluated for the specific hallmarks of cellular senescence and for their response to the DNA-induced damage. Patient carried the recurrent heterozygous de novo in frame deletion (c.1812_1814delCTC, p.Ser605del ) within POLD1 gene, previously detected in 16 MDPL patients. In patient's fibroblasts we observed severe nuclear envelope anomalies, presence of micronuclei, accumulation of prelamin A, altered cell growth, and cellular senescence. In addition, we observed a persistence of DNA damage after cisplatin exposure, compared to control cells. In conclusion, the MDPL nuclear and cellular findings resemble features observed in other progeroid syndromes and familial lipodystrophies. Although further investigations will be necessary, these information could be used to establish targeted therapeutic approaches.

12.
Am J Pathol ; 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30448410

RESUMO

In muscular dystrophies the muscle membrane fragility results in a tissue-specific increase of danger-associated molecules (DAMPs) and infiltration of inflammatory cells. The DAMP extracellular adenosine triphosphate (eATP) released by dying myofibers steadily activates muscle and immune purinergic receptors exerting dual negative effects: a direct damage linked to altered intracellular calcium homeostasis in muscle cells and an indirect toxicity through the "triggering" of the immune response and inhibition of regulatory T cells. Accordingly, pharmacological and genetic inhibition of eATP signaling improves the phenotype in models of chronic inflammatory diseases. In α-sarcoglycanopathy (LGMD2D), eATP effects may be further amplified since α-sarcoglycan extracellular domain binds eATP and displays an ecto-ATPase activity, thus controlling eATP concentration at the cell surface and attenuating the magnitude and/or the duration of eATP-induced signals. Here we show that in vivo blockade of the eATP/P2X purinergic pathway by a broad spectrum P2XR-antagonist delayed the progression of the dystrophic phenotype in α-sarcoglycan null mice. eATP blockade dampened the muscular inflammatory response and enhanced the recruitment of Foxp3+ immunosuppressive regulatory CD4+ T cells. The improvement of the inflammatory features was associated with increased strength, reduced necrosis and limited expression of pro-fibrotic factors, suggesting that pharmacologic purinergic antagonism, altering the innate and adaptive immune component in the muscle infiltrates, might provide a therapeutic approach to slow disease progression in LGMD2D.

13.
Genes (Basel) ; 9(11)2018 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30373198

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have led to an increase in the diagnosis of heterogeneous genetic conditions. However, over 50% of patients with a genetically inherited disease are still without a diagnosis. In these cases, different hypotheses are usually postulated, including variants in novel genes or elusive mutations. Although the impact of copy number variants (CNVs) in neuromuscular disorders has been largely ignored to date, missed CNVs are predicted to have a major role in disease causation as some very large genes, such as the dystrophin gene, have prone-to-deletion regions. Since muscle tissues express several large disease genes, the presence of elusive CNVs needs to be comprehensively assessed following an accurate and systematic approach. In this multicenter cohort study, we analyzed 234 undiagnosed myopathy patients using a custom array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) that covers all muscle disease genes at high resolution. Twenty-two patients (9.4%) showed non-polymorphic CNVs. In 12 patients (5.1%), the identified CNVs were considered responsible for the observed phenotype. An additional ten patients (4.3%) presented candidate CNVs not yet proven to be causative. Our study indicates that deletions and duplications may account for 5⁻9% of genetically unsolved patients. This strongly suggests that other mechanisms of disease are yet to be discovered.

14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(3): 431-439, 2018 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30100084

RESUMO

ADP-ribosylation, the addition of poly-ADP ribose (PAR) onto proteins, is a response signal to cellular challenges, such as excitotoxicity or oxidative stress. This process is catalyzed by a group of enzymes referred to as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). Because the accumulation of proteins with this modification results in cell death, its negative regulation restores cellular homeostasis: a process mediated by poly-ADP ribose glycohydrolases (PARGs) and ADP-ribosylhydrolase proteins (ARHs). Using linkage analysis and exome or genome sequencing, we identified recessive inactivating mutations in ADPRHL2 in six families. Affected individuals exhibited a pediatric-onset neurodegenerative disorder with progressive brain atrophy, developmental regression, and seizures in association with periods of stress, such as infections. Loss of the Drosophila paralog Parg showed lethality in response to oxidative challenge that was rescued by human ADPRHL2, suggesting functional conservation. Pharmacological inhibition of PARP also rescued the phenotype, suggesting the possibility of postnatal treatment for this genetic condition.

15.
Neuromuscul Disord ; 28(7): 586-591, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29880332

RESUMO

Mutations in the GAA gene may cause a late onset Pompe disease presenting with proximal weakness without the characteristic muscle pathology, and therefore a test for GAA activity is the first tier analysis in all undiagnosed patients with hyperCKemia and/or limb-girdle muscular weakness. By using MotorPlex, a targeted gene panel for next generation sequencing, we analyzed GAA and other muscle disease-genes in a large cohort of undiagnosed patients with suspected inherited skeletal muscle disorders (n = 504). In this cohort, 275 patients presented with limb-girdle phenotype and/or an isolated hyperCKemia. Mutational analysis identified GAA mutations in ten patients. Further seven affected relatives were identified by segregation studies. All the patients carried the common GAA mutation c.-32-13T >G and a second, previously reported mutation. In the subcohort of 275 patients with proximal muscle weakness and/or hyperCKemia, we identified late-onset Pompe disease in 10 patients. The clinical overlap between Pompe disease and LGMDs or other skeletal muscle disorders suggests that GAA and the genes causing a metabolic myopathy should be analyzed in all the gene panels used for testing neuromuscular patients. However, enzymatic tests are essential for the interpretation and validation of genetic results.

16.
J Telemed Telecare ; : 1357633X18778479, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29865934

RESUMO

Introduction Tele-monitoring (TM) has proved effective in the home management of adult ventilator-dependent neuromuscular disease (NMD) patients. We aimed to evaluate a 2-year longitudinal multicentre TM trial designed for young ventilated NMD patients in terms of feasibility, home management of exacerbations and caregivers' burden. Methods The TM trial protocol included patients' weekly scheduled overnight home-recording of SpO2, heart rate and ventilation and their transmission to each TM centre the following morning. Overnight data were reviewed by non-physicians and calls to families made to assess clinical condition. If clinical conditions (assessed by a scoring system) or overnight parameters worsened, either unscheduled transmissions or calls were activated and managed by non-physicians or medical team according to severity. Hospitalisations were compared with those of TM patients prior to TM start and with those of age-disease-severity-matched controls. Scores from the Caregiver Burden Inventory (CBI) questionnaire pre- and post-TM were compared. Results Forty-eight patients were enrolled, 30 males, median age 16.4 years (interquartile range (IQR) 8.9-22.1), median ventilation/day 10.5 h (IQR 8-16). Exacerbations in TM patients did not differ (59 versus 53; p = 0.15) from controls. Hospitalisations were significantly reduced in TM patients when compared with those prior to TM (11 versus 24, p = 0.04) and to controls (11 versus 21, p = 0.03). Median hospitalisation length was significantly lower in TM patients than controls (6 versus 7 days, p = 0.03 ). Caregivers satisfaction was excellent whereas no significant changes in CBI were seen (32.5 versus 35.5, p = 0.06). Discussion TM was effective in improving the home management of respiratory exacerbations in young ventilated NMD patients and overall well tolerated.

18.
J Hum Genet ; 63(6): 761-764, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29556034

RESUMO

We present a 13-year-old patient with persistent increase of serum Creatine Kinase (CK) and myalgia after exertion. Skeletal muscle biopsy showed marked reduction of dystrophin expression leading to genetic analysis of DMD gene by MLPA, which detected a single deletion of exon 78. To the best of our knowledge, DMD exon 78 deletion has never been described in literature and, according to prediction, it should lead to loss of reading frame in the dystrophin gene. To further assess the actual effect of exon 78 deletion, we analysed cDNA from muscle mRNA. This analysis confirmed the absence of 32 bp of exon 78. Exclusion of exon 78 changes the open reading frame of exon 79 and generate a downstream stop codon, producing a dystrophin protein of 3703 amino acids instead of 3685 amino acids. Albeit loss of reading frame usually leads to protein degradation and severe phenotype, in this case, we demonstrated that deletion of DMD exon 78 can be associated with a functional protein able to bind DGC complex and a very mild phenotype. This study adds a novel deletion in DMD gene in human and helps to define the compliance between maintaining/disrupting the reading frame and clinical form of the disease.


Assuntos
Creatina Quinase/sangue , Distrofina/genética , Éxons , Deleção de Genes , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Biópsia , Códon de Terminação , DNA Complementar/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/genética , Mialgia/fisiopatologia , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Fenótipo , RNA Mensageiro/genética
19.
Seizure ; 57: 63-65, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29571056

RESUMO

The Publisher regrets that this article is an accidental duplication of an article that has already been published in Seizure 50 (2017) 80-82, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2017.06.011. The duplicate article has therefore been withdrawn. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal.

20.
JAMA Neurol ; 75(5): 557-565, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29435569

RESUMO

Importance: Mutations in the titin gene (TTN) cause a wide spectrum of genetic diseases. The interpretation of the numerous rare variants identified in TTN is a difficult challenge given its large size. Objective: To identify genetic variants in titin in a cohort of patients with muscle disorders. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this case series, 9 patients with titinopathy and 4 other patients with possibly disease-causing variants in TTN were identified. Titin mutations were detected through targeted resequencing performed on DNA from 504 patients with muscular dystrophy, congenital myopathy, or other skeletal muscle disorders. Patients were enrolled from 10 clinical centers in April 2012 to December 2013. All of them had not received a diagnosis after undergoing an extensive investigation, including Sanger sequencing of candidate genes. The data analysis was performed between September 2013 and January 2017. Sequencing data were analyzed using an internal custom bioinformatics pipeline. Main Outcomes and Measures: The identification of novel mutations in the TTN gene and novel patients with titinopathy. We performed an evaluation of putative causative variants in the TTN gene, combining genetic, clinical, and imaging data with messenger RNA and/or protein studies. Results: Of the 9 novel patients with titinopathy, 5 (55.5%) were men and the mean (SD) age at onset was 25 (15.8) years (range, 0-46 years). Of the 4 other patients (3 men and 1 woman) with possibly disease-causing TTN variants, 2 (50%) had a congenital myopathy and 2 (50%) had a slowly progressive distal myopathy with onset in the second decade. Most of the identified mutations were previously unreported. However, all the variants, even the already described mutations, require careful clinical and molecular evaluation of probands and relatives. Heterozygous truncating variants or unique missense changes are not sufficient to make a diagnosis of titinopathy. Conclusions and Relevance: The interpretation of TTN variants often requires further analyses, including a comprehensive evaluation of the clinical phenotype (deep phenotyping) as well as messenger RNA and protein studies. We propose a specific workflow for the clinical interpretation of genetic findings in titin.

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