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1.
Acta amaz ; 47(3): 203-212, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-885962

RESUMO

ABSTRACT The middle Rio Negro region is an interesting place to seek novel antimalarial compounds because of the traditional knowledge of the Amazon population in conjunction with the high biodiversity of the region. The objective of this work was to study the use of antimalarial plants in Barcelos, state of Amazonas, Brazil. Fifty-two local specialists from eight different communities were interviewed over one year. The identified plants were collected with the assistance of local specialists, classified to species level and deposited in herbarium. In total, 55 antimalarial plants were identified in use in the region, of which 16 had not been previously reported in other published studies. Many factors could be involved with the use of antimalarial plants by the Barcelos population, such as the accessibility of these medicinal plants, efficiency and safety of using these plants, the accessibility to drugs or other medical treatments, plant bitterness, and the gender of the interviewees. Our results indicate that the population of Barcelos possesses an extensive knowledge on the use of a diverse array of antimalarial plants, and may contribute to the development of novel antimalarial compounds.


RESUMO O conhecimento tradicional da população amazônica, associado à grande biodiversidade da região, faz do médio Rio Negro um lugar propício para a pesquisa de novos remédios antimaláricos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o uso de plantas antimaláricas no município de Barcelos, Amazonas, Brasil. Ao longo de um ano foram entrevistados 52 especialistas de oito comunidades de Barcelos. As plantas indicadas foram coletadas com o auxílio dos especialistas, identificadas e depositadas em herbário. Foram mencionadas 55 plantas antimaláricas, das quais 16 nunca foram citadas em outros trabalhos previamente publicados. Muitos fatores podem estar associados ao uso destas plantas antimaláricas, tais quais o acesso a estas plantas, sua eficiência e segurança, o acesso a outros tratamentos médicos, o amargor das plantas e o gênero das pessoas entrevistadas. Nossos resultados indicam que a população de Barcelos é detentora de um rico conhecimento sobre o uso de plantas medicinais antimaláricas e pode contribuir para o desenvolvimento de novas drogas antimaláricas.

2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 15(2): 128-135, mar. 2016. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-907527

RESUMO

A chronological review of botanical explorations in Colombian was made through the revision of notes and publications from early 1500 ́s to late 1990 ́s. Complementary, herbaria photographs of Lamiaceae collections from botanical explorations in Colombia, deposited in the New York Botanical Garden Herbarium were analyzed in order to have a clear idea about the researches that were involved with collections in Colombia during the last 150 years.


A través de la consulta a notas científicas y publicaciones de varios autores fue hecha una revisión de la historia botánica de Colombia desde los años de 1500 ́s hasta 1990 ́s. Complementariamente, fueron analizadas fotografías de ejemplares de herbario de las colecciones de LamiaceAE provenientes de Colombia, depositadas en el Herbario del Jardin Botanico de Nueva York. Las especies, nombres de los colectores y sus instituciones de afiliación fueron comparadas y son presentadas seguidas de una breve discusión relacionada con el legado botánico de Colombia.


Assuntos
História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Botânica/história , Expedições , Lamiaceae , Colômbia
3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 178: 188-98, 2016 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26656535

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: This is the first intercultural report of antimalarial plants in this region. The aim of this study was to document the medicinal plants used against malaria by indigenous people in the Upper Rio Negro region and to review the literature on antimalarial activity and traditional use of the cited species. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participant observation, semi-structured interviews, and ethnobotanical walks were conducted with 89 informants in five indigenous communities between April 2010 and November 2013 to obtain information on the use of medicinal plants against malaria. We reviewed academic databases for papers published in scientific journals up to January 2014 in order to find works on ethnopharmacology, ethnobotany, and antimalarial activity of the species cited. RESULTS: Forty-six plant species belonging to 24 families are mentioned. Fabaceae (17.4%), Arecaceae (13.0%) and Euphorbiaceae (6.5%) account together for 36.9% of these species. Only seven plant species showed a relatively high consensus. Among the plant parts, barks (34.0%) and roots (28.0%) were the most widely used. Of the 46 species cited, 18 (39.1%) have already been studied for their antimalarial properties according to the literature, and 26 species (56.5%) have no laboratory essays on antimalarial activity. CONCLUSIONS: Local traditional knowledge of the use of antimalarials is still widespread in indigenous communities of the Upper Rio Negro, where 46 plants species used against malaria were recorded. Our studies highlight promising new plants for future studies: Glycidendron amazonicum, Heteropsis tenuispadix, Monopteryx uaucu, Phenakospermum guianensis, Pouteria ucuqui, Sagotia brachysepala and notably Aspidosperma schultesii, Ampelozizyphus amazonicus, Euterpe catinga, E. precatoria, Physalis angulata, Cocos nucifera and Swartzia argentea with high-use consensus. Experimental validation of these remedies may help in developing new drugs for malaria.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Idoso , Arecaceae/química , Brasil , Etnofarmacologia/métodos , Euphorbiaceae/química , Fabaceae/química , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Africana/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plantas Medicinais/química , Características de Residência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 174: 238-52, 2015 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26216513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this article we present the plants used for the treatment of malaria and associated symptoms in Santa Isabel do Rio Negro in the Brazilian Amazon. The region has important biological and cultural diversities including more than twenty indigenous ethnic groups and a strong history in traditional medicine. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study are to survey information in the Baniwa, Baré, Desana, Piratapuia, Tariana, Tukano, Tuyuca and Yanomami ethnic communities and among caboclos (mixed-ethnicity) on (a) plant species used for the treatment of malaria and associated symptoms, (b) dosage forms and (c) distribution of these anti-malarial plants in the Amazon. METHODS: Information was obtained through classical ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological methods from interviews with 146 informants in Santa Isabel municipality on the upper Negro River, Brazil. RESULTS: Fifty-five mainly native neotropical plant species from 34 families were in use. The detailed uses of these plants were documented. The result was 187 records (64.5%) of plants for the specific treatment of malaria, 51 records (17.6%) of plants used in the treatment of liver problems and 29 records (10.0%) of plants used in the control of fevers associated with malaria. Other uses described were blood fortification ('dar sangue'), headache and prophylaxis. Most of the therapeutic preparations were decoctions and infusions based on stem bark, root bark and leaves. These were administered by mouth. In some cases, remedies were prepared with up to three different plant species. Also, plants were used together with other ingredients such as insects, mammals, gunpowder and milk. CONCLUSION: This is the first study on the anti-malarial plants from this region of the Amazon. Aspidosperma spp. and Ampelozizyphus amazonicus Ducke were the most cited species in the communities surveyed. These species have experimental proof supporting their anti-malarial efficacy. The dosage of the therapeutic preparations depends on the kind of plant, quantity of plant material available, the patient's age (children and adults) and the local expert. The treatment time varies from a single dose to up to several weeks. Most anti-malarial plants are domesticated or grow spontaneously. They are grown in home gardens, open areas near the communities, clearings and secondary forests, and wild species grow in areas of seasonally flooded wetlands and terra firme ('solid ground') forest, in some cases in locations that are hard to access. Traditional knowledge of plants was found to be falling into disuse presumably as a consequence of the local official health services that treat malaria in the communities using commercial drugs. Despite this, some species are used in the prevention of this disease and also in the recovery after using conventional anti-malarial drugs.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Etnobotânica/métodos , Índios Sul-Americanos/etnologia , Malária/etnologia , Plantas Medicinais , Rios , Ampelopsis , Antimaláricos/isolamento & purificação , Aspidosperma , Brasil/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 26(3): 291-296, jul.-set. 2005. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-429329

RESUMO

O presente estudo teve por objetivo levantar o conhecimento a respeito de plantas medicinais dos moradores da área urbana central do município de Bandeirantes-PR. Os dados foram coletados no período de fevereiro a dezembro de 2003, através de entrevistas feitas com mulheres, com idade acima de 40 anos, selecionadas pelo seu conhecimento sobre o uso medicinal de espécievegetais. As entrevistas foram realizadas através de formulários pré-estruturados, com questões referentes ao entrevistado e à planta citada. Cada entrevista foi registrada com o auxílio de gravador e fotografiaspara evitar perdas de informações. Foram coletadas amostras vegetais para montagem de exsicatas para posterior identificação botânica. Após a identificação, as exsicatas foram incorporadas ao herbário do Jardim Botânico da Faculdades Luiz Meneghel-FALM, Bandeirantes, PR. Foram registradas 31 espécies vegetais distribuídas em 19 famílias, sendo a Lamiaceae com maior número de espécies, seguida por Rosaceae, Asteraceae e Euphorbiaceae. A parte vegetal mais utilizada na preparação dos remédios foi a folha, e a forma de preparo mais comum foi a infusão. As indicações terapêuticas mais citadas nas entrevistas foram dor de cabeça, diarréia, febre, cólica e infecção.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional , Plantas Medicinais
6.
Life Sci ; 74(9): 1167-79, 2004 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14687657

RESUMO

The plants belonging to Pfaffia genus are used in folk medicine to treat gastric disturbances. This study examined the effects of an aqueous extract of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng) Pedersen (AEP) on the gastrointestinal tract. Wistar rats were pretreated orally (p.o.) with the AEP (125, 250, 500 and 1000 mg.kg(-1)) before induction of ulcers by hypothermic restraint stress (HRS, 3 h restraint stress at 4 degrees C), ethanol (ET, 70%; 0.5 ml/animal; p.o.) or indomethacin (IND, 20 mg.kg(-1); s.c.). Control animals received water (C) or ranitidine (60 mg.kg(-1)) p.o. The AEP protected rats against HRS and ET-induced ulcers, but was not able to protect the gastric mucosa against IND-induced ulcers. When injected into the duodenal lumen, the AEP reduced total acidity and both basal and histamine-stimulated acid secretion in pylorus-ligated rats. In addition, gastric secretion from AEP-treated animals exhibited increased concentrations of nitrite and nitrate. Treatment of animals with L-NAME (120 mg.kg(-1), p.o.) prevented both the reduction of total acidity and the increase in NOx levels promoted by AEP treatment. In conclusion, AEP effectively protected the gastric mucosa and inhibited gastric acid secretion in rats, probably by involving the histaminergic pathway and an enhanced production of nitric oxide in the stomach.


Assuntos
Amaranthaceae , Úlcera Duodenal/tratamento farmacológico , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Animais , Brasil , Úlcera Duodenal/etiologia , Úlcera Duodenal/metabolismo , Determinação da Acidez Gástrica , Hipotermia Induzida , Indometacina , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estresse Fisiológico/complicações
7.
Acta amaz ; 34(1): 97-105, 2004. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-393860

RESUMO

Extratos aquosos, etanólicos e metanólicos, representando principalmente espécies vegetais nativas encontradas na região Amazônica, foram preparados, respectivamente, por infusão, maceração e extração contínua líquido-sólido, seguida de evaporação e liofilização. Os extratos liofilizados foram testados para atividade contra larvas de Aedes aegypti, na concentração única de 500 mg / mL. Os extratos metanólicos foram, em geral, os que apresentaram maior atividade larvicida. Os seguintes 7 extratos metanólicos das (partes das) espécies vegetais indicadas foram os mais ativos, provocando 100% de mortalidade em larvas de A. aegypti: Tapura amazonica Poepp. (raiz), Piper aduncum L. (folha e raiz), P. tuberculatum Jacq. (folha, fruto e galho) e Simaba polyphylla (Cavalcante) W.W. Thomas (galho).

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