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Fitoterapia ; 140: 104434, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760067


Fritillaria cirrhosa bulbus is a Chinese folk herb famous for its antitussive, expectorant, anti-asthma and anti-inflammatory properties, and is widely used to treat respiratory diseases. However, the impacts of F. cirrhosa bulbus on oxidative stress are still unkown. In the present study, we investigated the potential effect and mechanism of six isosteroid alkaloids with different chemical structures from F. cirrhosa bulbus on protection against cigarette smoke-induced oxidative stress in RAW264.7 macrophages. The results showed that six isosteroid alkaloids reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, elevated glutathione (GSH) level and promoted heme oxygenase (HO-1) expression, which is in association with induction of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation and up-regulation of Nrf2 expression. Among these alkaloids, verticinone, verticine, imperialine-3-ß-D-glucoside, delavine and peimisine exhibited more potent effect against CSE-induced oxidative stress than that of imperialine. These findings for the first time demonstrated that F. cirrhosa bulbus may play a protective role in cellular oxidative stress by activating Nrf2-mediated antioxidant pathway. Furthermore, the differences in antioxidant effects of these alkaloids were compared, as well as the corresponding structure-activity relationships were preliminarily elucidated. This suggested that F. cirrhosa bulbus might be a promising therapeutic treatment for the prevent of oxidative stress-related diseases.

Alcaloides/farmacologia , Fritillaria/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Glutationa/metabolismo , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Produtos do Tabaco
Int Immunopharmacol ; 78: 106047, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816576


Isosteroid alkaloids, natural products from Fritillariae Cirrhosae Bulbus, are well known for its antitussive, expectorant, anti-asthmatic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the anti-inflammatory effect and its mechanism have not been fully explored. In this study, the anti-inflammatory activitives and the potential mechanisms of five isosteroid alkaloids from F. Cirrhosae Bulbus were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 macrophage cells. The pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines were measured by Griess reagent, ELISA and qRT-PCR. The expression of MAPKs was investigated by western blotting. Treatment with the five isosteroid alkaloids in appropriate concentrations could reduce the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in supernatant, and suppressed the mRNA expressions of TNF-α and IL-6. Meanwhile, the five isosteroid alkaloids significantly inhibited the phosphorylated activation of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK). These results demonstrated that isosteroid alkaloids from F. Cirrhosae Bulbus exert anti-inflammatory effects by down-regulating the level of inflammatory mediators via mediation of MAPK phosphorylation in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages, thus could be candidates for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases.

J Ethnopharmacol ; 238: 111853, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954613


ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Fritillariae Bulbus ("Beimu" in Chinese) is a famous traditional Chinese medicine used to treat cough, expectoration and asthma for more than 2000 years, which belongs to the Fritillaria genus in Liliaceae family. Bulbs of Fritillaria cirrhosa D.Don (BFC) and bulbs of Fritillaria pallidiflora Schrenk (BFP) are two important drugs of Beimu. Due to the significant similarities in their outward appearance characters and chemical profiles, BFC has often been adulterated with BFP in Chinese Traditional Medicine markets. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aims to compare the oral acute toxicity and the traditional pharmacological activities including antitussive, expectorant and anti-inflammatory effects between the extract of BFC and BFP, to clear and definite if the BFP can be used as a substitute of the BFC in the application of traditional medicine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The extracts were prepared through refluxing with 80% ethanol solvent. For the acute toxicity tests, graded doses of BFP extracts and the maximum dose of BFC extracts were administered orally to mice. The animals were observed for toxic symptoms and mortality daily for 14 days. For the pharmacological activities tests, graded doses of BFP and BFC extracts were administered orally to mice. To observe the effects relieving cough, expelling phlegm and lessening the ear swelling of BFC extracts and BFP extracts through ammonia liquor inducing cough, phenol red apophlegmating in mice and the xylene-induced auricular swelling of mouse, respectively. RESULTS: In the acute toxicity study, the LD50 value of BFP in mice was calculated to be 213.57 g/kg body weight, and the maximum feasible dose (MFD) value of BFC in mice was 452.14 g/kg. Histopathological analysis has shown inflammatory cells infiltration and cells edema in liver, multinucleated giant cell proliferation in spleen, perivascular exudate and hemorrhage in lung, glomerulus atrophy in kidney of mice after oral administrations of BFP extracts. But only liver cells edema was observed in BFC group. Both BFC extract and BFP extract significantly increased latent period of cough and inhibited cough frequency in mice induced by ammonia. Besides, the two extracts also obviously enhanced mice's tracheal phenol red output in expectorant assessment and inhibited the development of ear edema in anti-inflammatory evaluation assay. CONCLUSION: To summarize, the BFP has the significant similarities in morphological characteristics, chemical profiles and traditional pharmacological activities compared with the BFC. The result of this study provide some valid scientific support for using BFP as a plant substitute of the BFC, but considering the toxicity of BFP is much higher than BFC, we don't recommend long-term oral administration of BFP or exceeding recommended dosage of Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2015.

Anti-Inflamatórios , Antitussígenos , Tosse/tratamento farmacológico , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Expectorantes , Fritillaria , Extratos Vegetais , Administração Oral , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/toxicidade , Antitussígenos/uso terapêutico , Antitussígenos/toxicidade , Expectorantes/uso terapêutico , Expectorantes/toxicidade , Feminino , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Raízes de Plantas , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/patologia , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda