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1.
EJNMMI Res ; 9(1): 101, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vagus nerve activation impacts inflammation. Therefore, we hypothesized that vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) influenced arterial wall inflammation as measured by 18F-FDG uptake. RESULTS: Ten patients with left-sided VNS for refractory epilepsy were studied during stimulation (VNS-on) and in the hours after stimulation was switched off (VNS-off). In nine patients, 18F-FDG uptake was measured in the right carotid artery, aorta, bone marrow, spleen, and adipose tissue. Target-to-background ratios (TBRs) were calculated to normalize the respective standardized uptake values (SUVs) for venous blood pool activity. Median values are shown with interquartile range and compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Arterial SUVs tended to be higher during VNS-off than VNS-on [SUVmax all vessels 1.8 (1.5-2.2) vs. 1.7 (1.2-2.0), p = 0.051]. However, a larger difference was found for the venous blood pool at this time point, reaching statistical significance in the vena cava superior [meanSUVmean 1.3 (1.1-1.4) vs. 1.0 (0.8-1.1); p = 0.011], resulting in non-significant lower arterial TBRs during VNS-off than VNS-on. Differences in the remaining tissues were not significant. Insulin levels increased after VNS was switched off [55.0 pmol/L (45.9-96.8) vs. 48.1 pmol/L (36.9-61.8); p = 0.047]. The concurrent increase in glucose levels was not statistically significant [4.8 mmol/L (4.7-5.3) vs. 4.6 mmol/L (4.5-5.2); p = 0.075]. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term discontinuation of VNS did not show a consistent change in arterial wall 18F-FDG-uptake. However, VNS did alter insulin and 18F-FDG blood levels, possibly as a result of sympathetic activation.

2.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(20): 2466-2477, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and elevated high-sensitivity cardiac troponin levels often routinely undergo invasive coronary angiography (ICA), but many do not have obstructive coronary artery disease. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) or computed tomographic angiography (CTA) may serve as a safe gatekeeper for ICA. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial (NCT01559467) in 207 patients (age 64 years; 62% male patients) with acute chest pain, elevated high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T levels (>14 ng/l), and inconclusive electrocardiogram compared a CMR- or CTA-first strategy with a control strategy of routine clinical care. Follow-up ICA was recommended when initial CMR or CTA suggested myocardial ischemia, infarction, or obstructive coronary artery disease (≥70% stenosis). Primary efficacy and secondary safety endpoints were referral to ICA during hospitalization and 1-year outcomes (major adverse cardiac events and complications), respectively. RESULTS: The CMR- and CTA-first strategies reduced ICA compared with routine clinical care (87% [p = 0.001], 66% [p < 0.001], and 100%, respectively), with similar outcome (hazard ratio: CMR vs. routine, 0.78 [95% confidence interval: 0.37 to 1.61]; CTA vs. routine, 0.66 [95% confidence interval: 0.31 to 1.42]; and CMR vs. CTA, 1.19 [95% confidence interval: 0.53 to 2.66]). Obstructive coronary artery disease after ICA was found in 61% of patients in the routine clinical care arm, in 69% in the CMR-first arm (p = 0.308 vs. routine), and in 85% in the CTA-first arm (p = 0.006 vs. routine). In the non-CMR and non-CTA arms, follow-up CMR and CTA were performed in 67% and 13% of patients and led to a new diagnosis in 33% and 3%, respectively (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A novel strategy of implementing CMR or CTA first in the diagnostic process in non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction is a safe gatekeeper for ICA.

4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(14): e012602, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269858

RESUMO

Background Cardiac troponin T ( cTnT ) is seen in many other conditions besides myocardial infarction, and recent studies demonstrated distinct forms of cTnT . At present, the in vivo formation of these different cTnT forms is incompletely understood. We therefore performed a study on the composition of cTnT during the course of myocardial infarction, including coronary venous system sampling, close to its site of release. Methods and Results Baseline samples were obtained from multiple coronary venous system locations, and a peripheral artery and vein in 71 non- ST -segment-elevation myocardial infarction patients. Additionally, peripheral blood was drawn at 6- and 12-hours postcatheterization. cTnT concentrations were measured using the high-sensitivity- cTnT immunoassay. The cTnT composition was determined via gel filtration chromatography and Western blotting in an early and late presenting patient. High-sensitivity - cTnT concentrations were 28% higher in the coronary venous system than peripherally (n=71, P<0.001). Coronary venous system samples demonstrated cT n T-I-C complex, free intact cTnT , and 29 kD a and 15 to 18 kD a cTnT fragments, all in higher concentrations than in simultaneously obtained peripheral samples. While cT n T-I-C complex proportionally decreased, and disappeared over time, 15 to 18 kD a cTnT fragments increased. Moreover, cT n T-I-C complex was more prominent in the early than in the late presenting patient. Conclusions This explorative study in non- ST -segment-elevation myocardial infarction shows that cTnT is released from cardiomyocytes as a combination of cT n T-I-C complex, free intact cTnT , and multiple cTnT fragments indicating intracellular cTnT degradation. Over time, the cT n T-I-C complex disappeared because of in vivo degradation. These insights might serve as a stepping stone toward a high-sensitivity- cTnT immunoassay more specific for myocardial infarction.

6.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(17): 3709-3720, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980090

RESUMO

Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a widely established technology; however, in the cardiovascular research field, its use is still emerging. The technique has the advantage of analyzing multiple molecules without prior knowledge while maintaining the relation with tissue morphology. Particularly, MALDI-based approaches have been applied to obtain in-depth knowledge of cardiac (dys)function. Here, we discuss the different aspects of the MSI protocols, from sample handling to instrumentation used in cardiovascular research, and critically evaluate these methods. The trend towards structural lipid analysis, identification, and "top-down" protein MSI shows the potential for implementation in (pre)clinical research and complementing the diagnostic tests. Moreover, new insights into disease progression are expected and thereby contribute to the understanding of underlying mechanisms related to cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Espectrometria de Massas/tendências , Humanos , Lipídeos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Proteínas/análise
7.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 46(7): 1428-1438, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859432

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the influence of both hypothyroidism and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression on vascular inflammation, as assessed with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). METHODS: Ten thyroid carcinoma patients underwent an 18F-FDG PET/CT during post-thyroidectomy hypothyroidism and during thyrotropin (TSH) suppression after 131I (radioiodine) ablation therapy. We analysed the 18F-FDG uptake in the carotids, aortic arch, ascending, descending, and abdominal aorta to investigate the effects of thyroid hormone status on arterial inflammation. Target-to-background ratios (TBRs) corrected for blood pool activity were established for all arterial territories. Results were further compared to euthyroid historic control subjects. RESULTS: In general, there was a trend towards higher vascular TBRs during TSH suppression than during hypothyroidism (TBRmax all vessels = 1.6 and 1.8, respectively, p = 0.058), suggesting a higher degree of arterial inflammation. In concurrence with this, we found increased C-reactive protein (CRP) levels after levothyroxine treatment (CRP = 2.9 mg/l and 4.8 mg/l, p = 0.005). An exploratory comparison with euthyroid controls showed significant higher TBRs during TSH suppression for the carotids, aortic arch, thoracic descending aorta, and when all vascular territories were combined (TBRmaxp = 0.013, p = 0.016, p = 0.030 and p = 0.018 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Arterial inflammation is increased during TSH suppression. This finding sheds new light on the underlying mechanism of the suspected increased risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with TSH suppression.

8.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1622018 12 05.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30570937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Normal high sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays rule out acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with great accuracy, but additional non-invasive testing is frequently ordered. This observational study evaluates whether clinical characteristics can contribute to risk stratification and could guide referral for additional testing. METHODS: This observational study included 918 patients with acute chest pain and normal hs-cTnT values. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and non-invasive test results were assessed during one-year follow-up. Patients were classified as low and high risk based on clinical characteristics. RESULTS: In total, 6,4% of patients experienced MACE during follow-up and mainly comprised revascularisations (86%). Absence of both recent abnormal stress test and suspicious history identified 86% of patients. These patients were at very low risk for MACE (0,4% in 30-days). Despite this, the majority (287/345=83%) of additional tests were performed in low risk patients, with 8% abnormal test findings (positive predictive value for MACE was 17%). The diagnostic yield was significantly higher in the remaining higher risk patients, 40% abnormal test findings and a positive predictive value of 70% for MACE. CONCLUSION: Clinical characteristics can be used to identify low risk patients with acute chest pain and normal hs-cTnT levels. Current strategies in the emergency department result in numerous additional tests, which are mostly ordered in patients at very low risk and have a low diagnostic yield.


Assuntos
Dor no Peito/sangue , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/cirurgia , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Revascularização Miocárdica , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Procedimentos Desnecessários
9.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0203506, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30192899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Normal high sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays rule out acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with great accuracy, but additional non-invasive testing is frequently ordered. This observational study evaluates whether clinical characteristics can contribute to risk stratification and could guide referral for additional testing. METHODS: 918 serial patients with acute chest pain and normal hs-cTnT levels were prospectively included. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and non-invasive test results were assessed during one-year follow-up. Patients were classified as low and high risk based on clinical characteristics. RESULTS: MACE occurred in 6.1% of patients and mainly comprised revascularizations (86%). A recent abnormal stress test, suspicious history, a positive family history and higher baseline hs-cTnT levels were independent predictors of MACE with odds ratios of 16.00 (95%CI:6.25-40.96), 16.43 (6.36-42.45), 2.33 (1.22-4.42) and 1.10 (1.01-1.21), respectively. Absence of both recent abnormal stress test and suspicious history identified 86% of patients. These patients were at very low risk for MACE (0.4% in 30-days and 2.3% in one-year). Despite this, the majority (287/345 = 83%) of additional tests were performed in low risk patients, with <10% abnormal test findings. The diagnostic yield was significantly higher in the remaining higher risk patients, 40% abnormal test findings and a positive predictive value of 70% for MACE. Similar results were observed in patients without known coronary artery disease. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical characteristics can be used to identify low risk patients with acute chest pain and normal hs-cTnT levels. Current strategies in the emergency department result in numerous additional tests, which are mostly ordered in patients at very low risk and have a low diagnostic yield.


Assuntos
Dor no Peito/diagnóstico , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina T/análise , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1065: 545-564, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30051406

RESUMO

Biomarkers play an important role in the clinical management of cardiac care. In particular, cardiac troponins (cTn) and natriuretic peptides are the cornerstones for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and for the diagnosis of heart failure (HF), respectively. Current guidelines do not make a distinction between women and men. However, the commonly used "one size fits all" algorithms are topic of debate to improve assessment of prognosis, particularly in women. Due to the high-sensitivity assays (hs-cTn), lower cTn levels (and 99th percentile upper reference limits) were observed in women as compared with men. Sex-specific diagnostic thresholds may improve the diagnosis of AMI in women, though clinical relevance remains controversial and more trials are needed. Also other diagnostic aspects are under investigation, like combined biomarkers approach and rapid measurement strategies. For the natriuretic peptides, previous studies observed higher concentrations in women than in men, especially in premenopausal women who might benefit from the cardioprotective actions. Contrary to hs-cTn, natriuretic peptides are particularly incorporated in the ruling-out algorithms for the diagnosis of HF and not ruling-in. Clinical relevance of sex differences here seems marginal, as clinical research has shown that negative predictive values for ruling-out HF were hardly effected when applying a universal diagnostic threshold that is independent from sex or other risk factors. Apart from the diagnostic issues of AMI in women, we believe that in the future most sex-specific benefits of cardiac biomarkers can be obtained in patient follow-up (guiding therapy) and prognostic applications, fitting modern ideas on preventive and personalized medicine.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Cardiopatias/sangue , Peptídeos Natriuréticos/sangue , Troponina/sangue , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores/sangue , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores Sexuais
12.
Circulation ; 138(10): 989-999, 2018 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29691270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combining 2 signals of cardiomyocyte injury, cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and T (cTnT), might overcome some individual pathophysiological and analytical limitations and thereby increase diagnostic accuracy for acute myocardial infarction with a single blood draw. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of combinations of high-sensitivity (hs) cTnI and hs-cTnT for the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: The diagnostic performance of combining hs-cTnI (Architect, Abbott) and hs-cTnT (Elecsys, Roche) concentrations (sum, product, ratio, and a combination algorithm) obtained at the time of presentation was evaluated in a large multicenter diagnostic study of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. The optimal rule-out and rule-in thresholds were externally validated in a second large multicenter diagnostic study. The proportion of patients eligible for early rule-out was compared with the European Society of Cardiology 0/1 and 0/3 hour algorithms. RESULTS: Combining hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT concentrations did not consistently increase overall diagnostic accuracy as compared with the individual isoforms. However, the combination improved the proportion of patients meeting criteria for very early rule-out. With the European Society of Cardiology 2015 guideline recommended algorithms and cut-offs, the proportion meeting rule-out criteria after the baseline blood sampling was limited (6% to 24%) and assay dependent. Application of optimized cut-off values using the sum (9 ng/L) and product (18 ng2/L2) of hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT concentrations led to an increase in the proportion ruled-out after a single blood draw to 34% to 41% in the original (sum: negative predictive value [NPV] 100% [95% confidence interval (CI), 99.5% to 100%]; product: NPV 100% [95% CI, 99.5% to 100%]) and in the validation cohort (sum: NPV 99.6% [95% CI, 99.0-99.9%]; product: NPV 99.4% [95% CI, 98.8-99.8%]). The use of a combination algorithm (hs-cTnI <4 ng/L and hs-cTnT <9 ng/L) showed comparable results for rule-out (40% to 43% ruled out; NPV original cohort 99.9% [95% CI, 99.2-100%]; NPV validation cohort 99.5% [95% CI, 98.9-99.8%]) and rule-in (positive predictive value [PPV] original cohort 74.4% [95% Cl, 69.6-78.8%]; PPV validation cohort 84.0% [95% Cl, 79.7-87.6%]). CONCLUSIONS: New strategies combining hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT concentrations may significantly increase the number of patients eligible for very early and safe rule-out, but do not seem helpful for the rule-in of acute myocardial infarction. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL (APACE): https://www.clinicaltrial.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00470587. URL (ADAPT): www.anzctr.org.au . Unique identifier: ACTRN12611001069943.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Austrália , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diagnóstico Precoce , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Nova Zelândia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Regulação para Cima
13.
Clin Chem ; 63(3): 683-690, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28073901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We have found previously that in acute myocardial infarction (AMI), cardiac troponin T (cTnT) is degraded in a time-dependent pattern. We investigated whether cTnT forms differed in patients with chronic cTnT increases, as seen with renal dysfunction, from those in the acute phase of myocardial infarction. METHODS: We separated cTnT forms by gel filtration chromatography (GFC) in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients: prehemodialysis (pre-HD) and post-HD (n = 10) and 2 months follow-up (n = 6). Purified (cTnT) standards, quality control materials of the clinical cTnT immunoassay (Roche), and AMI patients' sera also were analyzed. Immunoprecipitation and Western blotting were performed with the original cTnT antibodies from the clinical assay and antibodies against the N- and C-terminal end of cTnT. RESULTS: GFC analysis revealed the retention of purified cTnT at 27.5 mL, identical to that for cTnT in quality controls. For all ESRD patients, one cTnT peak was found at 45 mL, pre- and post-HD, and stable over time. Western blotting illustrated that this peak corresponded to cTnT fragments <18 kDa missing the N- and C-terminal ends. AMI patients' sera revealed cTnT peaks at 27.5 and 45 mL, respectively, corresponding to N-terminal truncated cTnT of 29 kDa and N- and C-terminal truncated fragments of <18 kDa, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We found that cTnT forms in ESRD patients are small (<18 kDa) and different from forms seen in AMI patients. These insights may prove useful for development of a more specific cTnT immunoassay, especially for the acute and diagnostic phase of myocardial infarction.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Troponina T/química , Doença Aguda , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Diálise Renal
14.
Am Heart J ; 177: 102-11, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27297855

RESUMO

Management of patients with acute chest pain remains challenging. Cardiac biomarker testing reduces the likelihood of erroneously discharging patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Despite normal contemporary troponins, physicians have still been reluctant to discharge patients without additional testing. Nowadays, the extremely high negative predictive value of current high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays challenges this need. However, the decreased specificity of hs-cTn assays to diagnose AMI poses a new problem as noncoronary diseases (eg, pulmonary embolism, myocarditis, cardiomyopathies, hypertension, renal failure, etc) may also cause elevated hs-cTn levels. Subjecting patients with noncoronary diseases to unnecessary pharmacological therapy or invasive procedures must be prevented. Attempts to improve the positive predictive value to diagnose AMI by defining higher initial cutoff values or dynamic changes over time inherently lower the sensitivity of troponin assays. In this review, we anticipate a potential changing role of noninvasive imaging from ruling out myocardial disease when troponin values are normal toward characterizing myocardial disease when hs-cTn values are (mildly) abnormal.


Assuntos
Dor no Peito/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Troponina/sangue , Cardiomiopatias/sangue , Cardiomiopatias/complicações , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor no Peito/sangue , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio , Miocardite/sangue , Miocardite/complicações , Miocardite/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/sangue , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único
15.
Am J Cardiol ; 118(2): 281-7, 2016 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27282835

RESUMO

Prolonged endurance-type exercise is associated with elevated cardiac troponin (cTn) levels in asymptomatic recreational athletes. It is unclear whether exercise-induced cTn release mirrors a physiological or pathological underlying process. The aim of this study was to provide a direct comparison of the release kinetics of high-sensitivity cTnI (hs-cTnI) and T (hs-cTnT) after endurance-type exercise. In addition, the effect of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC), a cardioprotective strategy that limits ischemia-reperfusion injury, was investigated in a randomized controlled crossover manner. Twenty-five healthy volunteers completed an outdoor 30-km running trial preceded by RIPC (4 × 5 min 220 mm Hg unilateral occlusion) or control intervention. hs-cTnT, hs-cTnI, and sensitive cTnI (s-cTnI) concentrations were examined before, immediately after, 2 and 5 hours after the trial. The completion of a 30-km run resulted in a significant increase in circulating cTn (time: all p <0.001), with maximum hs-cTnT, hs-cTnI, and s-cTnI levels of 47 ± 27, 69 ± 62, and 82 ± 64 ng/L (mean ± SD), respectively. Maximum hs-cTnT concentrations were measured in 60% of the participants at 2 hours after exercise, compared with maximum hs-cTnI and s-cTnI concentrations at 5 hours in 84% and 80% of the participants. Application of an RIPC stimulus did not reduce exercise-induced cTn release (time × trial: all p >0.5). In conclusion, in contrast to acute myocardial infarction, maximum hs-cTnT levels after exercise precede maximum hs-cTnI levels. Distinct release kinetics of hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI and the absence of an effect of RIPC favors the concept that exercise-induced cTn release may be mechanistically distinct from cTn release in acute myocardial infarction.


Assuntos
Atletas , Precondicionamento Isquêmico Miocárdico/métodos , Resistência Física , Corrida , Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Adulto , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Creatina Quinase Forma MB/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue
16.
PLoS One ; 11(4): e0153300, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27096420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-sensitivity cardiac troponins (hs-cTn) are the preferred biomarkers to detect myocardial injury, making them promising risk-stratifying tools for patients with symptoms of chest pain. However, circulating hs-cTn are also elevated in other conditions like renal dysfunction, complicating appropriate interpretation of low-level hs-cTn concentrations. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was performed in 1864 patients with symptoms of chest discomfort from the cardiology outpatient department who underwent cardiac computed tomographic angiography (CCTA). Serum samples were analyzed using hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI assays. Renal function was measured by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), established from serum creatinine and cystatin C. On follow-up, the incidence of adverse events was assessed. RESULTS: Median hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI concentrations were 7.2(5.8-9.2) ng/L and 2.6(1.8-4.1) ng/L, respectively. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that both assay results were more strongly associated with eGFR (hs-cTnT:stß:-0.290;hs-cTnI:stß:-0.222) than with cardiac imaging parameters, such as coronary calcium score, CCTA plaque severity score and left ventricular mass (all p<0.01). Furthermore, survival analysis indicated lower relative risks in patients with normal compared to reduced renal function for hs-cTnT [HR(95%CI), 1.02(1.00-1.03) compared to 1.07(1.05-1.09)] and hs-cTnI [1.01(1.00-1.01) compared to 1.02(1.01-1.02)] (all p<0.001). CONCLUSION: In patients with chest discomfort, we identified an independent influence of renal function on hs-cTn concentrations besides CAD, that affected the association of hs-cTn concentrations with adverse events. Estimating renal function is therefore warranted when interpreting baseline hs-cTn concentrations.


Assuntos
Dor no Peito/sangue , Coração/fisiologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Troponina/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Creatinina/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Cistatina C/sangue , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Humanos , Testes de Função Renal/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue
17.
J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr ; 10(1): 82-8, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26481512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unstable plaque characteristics on coronary CT angiography (CTA), serum high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and N-terminal Pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP) concentrations are associated with cardiovascular events. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between coronary CTA defined quantifiable plaque characteristics, hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP. METHODS: 81 consecutive stable chest pain patients with an intermediate-to-high risk were analyzed. Coronary CTA was performed using a 64-slice multidetector-row CT-scanner. Total coronary plaque volume, calcified volume, non-calcified volume, plaque burden, remodeling index (RI) and number of plaques were measured using dedicated software. A total plaque score ("Sum plaque score") incorporating total plaque volume, RI, plaque burden and number of plaques was defined. Hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP concentrations were measured in serum samples before coronary CTA. RESULTS: Univariate regression analysis demonstrated significant associations of hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP with total plaque volume (r hs-cTnT = .256; r NT-proBNP = .270), calcified volume (r hs-cTnT = .344; r NT-proBNP = .344), RI (r hs-cTnT = .335; r NT-proBNP = .342) and number of plaques (r hs-cTnT = .355; r NT-proBNP = .301) (all P values ≤ .021). Non-calcified plaque volume showed no association with hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP (r hs-cTnT = .050; r NT-proBNP = .087; P value = .660 and P value = .442). The "Sum plaque score" showed the highest correlation compared to other plaque parameters (r hs-cTnT = .362; r NT-proBNP = .409; P value = .001 and P value ≤ .001). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that coronary plaque morphology parameters, derived by dedicated software, are associated with serum hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP concentrations.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/estatística & dados numéricos , Troponina T/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estatística como Assunto
18.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 16(10): 884-91, 2015 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26255708

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cardiac troponins T (cTnT) and I (cTnI) are the preferred biomarkers to detect myocardial damage. The present study explores the value of measuring cardiac troponins (cTn) in nursing home residents, by investigating its relation to heart failure and 1-year mortality using 1 cTnT and 2 cTnI assays that are widely used in clinical practice. DESIGN: All participants underwent extensive clinical examinations and echocardiographic assessment for the diagnosis of heart failure. cTn was measured using high-sensitive (hs)- cTnT (Roche), hs-cTnI (Abbott), and sensitive cTnI (Beckman) assays. The glomerular filtration rate was estimated (eGFR) using serum creatinine and cystatin C concentrations. Data on all-cause mortality were collected at 1-year follow-up. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Participants were 495 long-term nursing home residents, older than 65 years, of 5 Dutch nursing home organizations. RESULTS: Median (IQR) concentrations were 20.6 (17.8-30.6), 6.8 (4.1-12.5), and 4.0 (2.0-8.0) ng/L for hs-cTnT, hs-cTnI, and cTnI, respectively. In total, 79% had elevated hs-cTnT concentrations, whereas only 9% and 5% of hs-cTnI and cTnI concentrations were elevated. Most important and independent determinants for higher hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI concentrations were heart failure and renal dysfunction. Whereas both heart failure (odds ratio [OR] 3.4) and eGFR lower than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (OR 3.6) were equal contributors to higher hs-cTnT concentrations (all P < .001), hs-cTnI and cTnI were less associated with renal dysfunction (OR of, respectively, 1.9 and 2.1; P < .01) in comparison with heart failure (OR 4.3 and 4.7, respectively, P < .001). Furthermore, residents with higher hs-cTnT or hs-cTnI concentrations (fourth quartile) had respectively 4 versus 2 times more risk of 1-year mortality compared with lower concentrations. CONCLUSION: Regardless of their cardiac health, hs-cTnT but not hs-cTnI concentrations were elevated in almost all aged nursing home residents, questioning the use of the current diagnostic cutoff in elderly with high comorbidity. Nonetheless, measuring cardiac troponins, especially hs-cTnT, had a promising role in assessing future risk of mortality.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Casas de Saúde , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Cistatina C/sangue , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Nefropatias/sangue , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Troponina I/sangue
20.
Invest Radiol ; 49(4): 217-23, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24442161

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Iodinated contrast media (CM) in computed tomographic angiography is characterized by its concentration and, consecutively, by its viscosity. Viscosity itself is directly influenced by temperature, which will furthermore affect injection pressure. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to systematically evaluate the viscosity of different CM at different temperatures and to assess their impact on injection pressure in a circulation phantom. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Initially, viscosity of different contrast media concentrations (240, 300, 370, and 400 mgI/mL) was measured at different temperatures (20°C-40°C) with a commercially available viscosimeter. In the next step, a circulation phantom with physical conditions was used. Contrast media were prepared at different temperatures (20°C, 30°C, 37°C) and injected through a standard 18-gauge needle. All other relevant parameters were kept constant (iodine delivery rate, 1.9 g I/s; total amount of iodine, 15 g I). Peak flow rate (in milliliter per second) and injection pressure (psi) were monitored. Differences in significance were tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences). RESULTS: Viscosities for iodinated CM of 240, 300, 370, and 400 mg I/mL at 20°C were 5.1, 9.1, 21.2, and 28.8 mPa.s, respectively, whereas, at 40°C, these were substantially lower (2.8, 4.4, 8.7, and 11.2 mPa.s). In the circulation phantom, mean (SD) peak pressures for CM of 240 mg I/mL at 20°C, 30°C, and 37°C were 107 (1.5), 95 (0.6), and 92 (2.1) psi; for CM of 300 mg I/mL, 119 (1.5), 104 (0.6), and 100 (3.6) psi; for CM of 370 mg I/mL, 150 (0.6), 133 (4.4), and 120 (3.5) psi; and for CM of 400 mg I/mL, 169 (1.0), 140 (2.1), and 135 (2.9) psi, respectively, with all P values less than 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Low concentration, low viscosity, and high temperatures of CM are beneficial in terms of injection pressure. This should also be considered for individually tailored contrast protocols in daily routine scanning.


Assuntos
Angiografia/métodos , Iodo/administração & dosagem , Iodo/química , Imagens de Fantasmas , Intensificação de Imagem Radiográfica/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Angiografia/instrumentação , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Meios de Contraste/química , Humanos , Injeções Intra-Arteriais/métodos , Pressão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Temperatura Ambiente , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/instrumentação , Viscosidade
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