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Br J Radiol ; 93(1107): 20190879, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804145


OBJECTIVE: Locally recurrent disease is of increasing concern in (non-)small cell lung cancer [(N)SCLC] patients. Local reirradiation with photons or particles may be of benefit to these patients. In this multicentre in silico trial performed within the Radiation Oncology Collaborative Comparison (ROCOCO) consortium, the doses to the target volumes and organs at risk (OARs) were compared when using several photon and proton techniques in patients with recurrent localised lung cancer scheduled to undergo reirradiation. METHODS: 24 consecutive patients with a second primary (N)SCLC or recurrent disease after curative-intent, standard fractionated radio(chemo)therapy were included in this study. The target volumes and OARs were centrally contoured and distributed to the participating ROCOCO sites. Remaining doses to the OARs were calculated on an individual patient's basis. Treatment planning was performed by the participating site using the clinical treatment planning system and associated beam characteristics. RESULTS: Treatment plans for all modalities (five photon and two proton plans per patient) were available for 22 patients (N = 154 plans). 3D-conformal photon therapy and double-scattered proton therapy delivered significantly lower doses to the target volumes. The highly conformal techniques, i.e., intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), CyberKnife, TomoTherapy and intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT), reached the highest doses in the target volumes. Of these, IMPT was able to statistically significantly decrease the radiation doses to the OARs. CONCLUSION: Highly conformal photon and proton beam techniques enable high-dose reirradiation of the target volume. They, however, significantly differ in the dose deposited in the OARs. The therapeutic options, i.e., reirradiation or systemic therapy, need to be carefully weighed and discussed with the patients. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Highly conformal photon and proton beam techniques enable high-dose reirradiation of the target volume. In light of the abilities of the various highly conformal techniques to spare specific OARs, the therapeutic options need to be carefully weighed and patients included in the decision-making process.

Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Órgãos em Risco/efeitos da radiação , Fótons/uso terapêutico , Terapia com Prótons/métodos , Reirradiação/métodos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Órgãos em Risco/diagnóstico por imagem , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radioterapia Conformacional/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
Acta Oncol ; 58(1): 57-65, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30474448


BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) have a prolonged survival expectancy due to better discriminative tumor classification and multimodal treatment. Consequently, long-term treatment toxicity gains importance. Contemporary radiotherapy techniques such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), tomotherapy (TOMO) and intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) enable high-dose irradiation of the target but they differ regarding delivered dose to organs at risk (OARs). The aim of this comparative in silico study was to determine these dosimetric differences in delivered doses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Imaging datasets of 25 LGG patients having undergone postoperative radiotherapy were included. For each of these patients, in silico treatment plans to a total dose of 50.4 Gy to the target volume were generated for the four treatment modalities investigated (i.e., IMRT, VMAT, TOMO, IMPT). Resulting treatment plans were analyzed regarding dose to target and surrounding OARs comparing IMRT, TOMO and IMPT to VMAT. RESULTS: In total, 100 treatment plans (four per patient) were analyzed. Compared to VMAT, the IMPT mean dose (Dmean) for nine out of 10 (90%) OARs was statistically significantly (p < .02) reduced, for TOMO this was true in 3/10 (30%) patients and for 1/10 (10%) patients for IMRT. IMPT was the prime modality reducing dose to the OARs followed by TOMO. DISCUSSION: The low dose volume to the majority of OARs was significantly reduced when using IMPT compared to VMAT. Whether this will lead to a significant reduction in neurocognitive decline and improved quality of life is to be determined in carefully designed future clinical trials.

Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Glioma/radioterapia , Órgãos em Risco/efeitos da radiação , Terapia com Prótons/métodos , Humanos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada
Radiother Oncol ; 83(1): 65-75, 2007 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17383761


BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To analyse the results of routine EPID measurements for individualised patient dosimetry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Calibrated camera-based EPIDs were used to measure the central field dose, which was compared with a dose prediction at the EPID level. For transit dosimetry, dose data were calculated using patient transmission and scatter, and compared with measured values. Furthermore, measured transit dose data were back-projected to an in vivo dose value at 5 cm depth in water (D(5)) and directly compared with D(5) from the treatment planning system. Dose differences per treatment session were calculated by weighting dose values with the number of monitor units per beam. Reported errors were categorised and analysed for approximately 37,500 images from 2511 patients during a period of 24 months. RESULTS: Pre-treatment measurements showed a mean dose difference per treatment session of 0.0+/-1.7% (1 SD). Transfer errors were detected and corrected prior to the first treatment session. An accelerator output variation of about 4% was found between two weekly QC measurements. Patient dosimetry showed mean transit and D(5) dose differences of -0.7+/-5.2% (1 SD) and -0.3+/-5.6% (1 SD) per treatment session, respectively. Dose differences could be related to set-up errors, organ motion, erroneous density corrections and changes in patient anatomy. CONCLUSIONS: EPIDs can be used routinely to accurately verify treatment parameter transfer and machine output. By applying transit and in vivo dosimetry, more insight can be obtained with respect to the different error sources influencing dose delivery to a patient.

Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Radioterapia/instrumentação , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Aceleradores de Partículas , Neoplasias Pélvicas/radioterapia , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Tecnologia Radiológica
Radiother Oncol ; 80(3): 288-95, 2006 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16916563


BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To determine the factors converting the reading of a MOSFET detector placed on the patient's skin without additional build-up to the dose at the depth of dose maximum (D(max)) and investigate their feasibility for in vivo dose measurements in electron beams. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Factors were determined to relate the reading of a MOSFET detector to D(max) for 4 - 15 MeV electron beams in reference conditions. The influence of variation in field size, SSD, angle and field shape on the MOSFET reading, obtained without additional build-up, was evaluated using 4, 8 and 15 MeV beams and compared to ionisation chamber data at the depth of dose maximum (z(max)). Patient entrance in vivo measurements included 40 patients, mostly treated for breast tumours. The MOSFET reading, converted to D(max), was compared to the dose prescribed at this depth. RESULTS: The factors to convert MOSFET reading to D(max) vary between 1.33 and 1.20 for the 4 and 15 MeV beams, respectively. The SSD correction factor is approximately 8% for a change in SSD from 95 to 100 cm, and 2% for each 5-cm increment above 100 cm SSD. A correction for fields having sides smaller than 6 cm and for irregular field shape is also recommended. For fields up to 20 x 20 cm(2) and for oblique incidence up to 45 degrees, a correction is not necessary. Patient measurements demonstrated deviations from the prescribed dose with a mean difference of -0.7% and a standard deviation of 2.9%. CONCLUSION: Performing dose measurements with MOSFET detectors placed on the patient's skin without additional build-up is a well suited technique for routine dose verification in electron beams, when applying the appropriate conversion and correction factors.

Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Elétrons/uso terapêutico , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Radiometria/instrumentação , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/instrumentação , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Calibragem , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Radiometria/normas , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Semicondutores , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Transistores Eletrônicos
Med Phys ; 33(7): 2426-34, 2006 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16898445


The verification of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is necessary for adequate quality control of the treatment. Pretreatment verification may trace the possible differences between the planned dose and the actual dose delivered to the patient. To estimate the impact of differences between planned and delivered photon beams, a three-dimensional (3-D) dose verification method has been developed that reconstructs the dose inside a phantom. The pretreatment procedure is based on portal dose images measured with an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) of the separate beams, without the phantom in the beam and a 3-D dose calculation engine based on the Monte Carlo calculation. Measured gray scale portal images are converted into portal dose images. From these images the lateral scattered dose in the EPID is subtracted and the image is converted into energy fluence. Subsequently, a phase-space distribution is sampled from the energy fluence and a 3-D dose calculation in a phantom is started based on a Monte Carlo dose engine. The reconstruction model is compared to film and ionization chamber measurements for various field sizes. The reconstruction algorithm is also tested for an IMRT plan using 10 MV photons delivered to a phantom and measured using films at several depths in the phantom. Depth dose curves for both 6 and 10 MV photons are reconstructed with a maximum error generally smaller than 1% at depths larger than the buildup region, and smaller than 2% for the off-axis profiles, excluding the penumbra region. The absolute dose values are reconstructed to within 1.5% for square field sizes ranging from 5 to 20 cm width. For the IMRT plan, the dose was reconstructed and compared to the dose distribution with film using the gamma evaluation, with a 3% and 3 mm criterion. 99% of the pixels inside the irradiated field had a gamma value smaller than one. The absolute dose at the isocenter agreed to within 1% with the dose measured with an ionization chamber. It can be concluded that our new dose reconstruction algorithm is able to reconstruct the 3-D dose distribution in phantoms with a high accuracy. This result is obtained by combining portal dose images measured prior to treatment with an accurate dose calculation engine.

Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Algoritmos , Dosimetria Fotográfica , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Método de Monte Carlo , Aceleradores de Partículas , Imagens de Fantasmas , Radiometria , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioterapia Assistida por Computador