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1.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812571

RESUMO

Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) is associated with several disease syndromes in domestic pigs that have a significant impact on global pig production and health. Currently, little is known about the status of PCV-2 in Africa. In this study, a total of 408 archived DNA samples collected from pigs in Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Ethiopia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia between 2000 and 2018 were screened by PCR for the presence of PCV-2. Positive amplicons of the gene encoding the viral capsid protein (ORF2) were sequenced to determine the genotypes circulating in each country. Four of the nine currently known genotypes of PCV-2 were identified (i.e. PCV-2a, PCV-2b, PCV-2d and PCV-2 g) with more than one genotype being identified in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Mozambique, Senegal and Zambia. Additionally, a phylogeographic analysis which included 38 additional ORF2 gene sequences of PCV-2s previously identified in Mozambique, Namibia and South Africa from 2014 to 2016 and 2019 to 2020 and available in public databases, demonstrated the existence of several African-specific clusters and estimated the approximate time of introduction of PCV-2s into Africa from other continents. This is the first in-depth study of PCV-2 in Africa and it has important implications for pig production at both the small-holder and commercial farm level on the continent.

2.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(5): 2842-2852, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323385

RESUMO

African swine fever (ASF) has been endemic in sub-Saharan Africa since the 1960s. Following its introduction in Senegal, in 1957, ASF steadily progressed through West Africa, reaching Burkina Faso in 2003, and later Mali in 2016. Despite the heavy burden of disease on pig production, little information is available on the genetic diversity of Africa swine fever virus (ASFV) in Burkina Faso, Mali and Senegal. Here, we used real-time PCR ASFV to detect the ASFV genome in samples collected between 1989 and 2016, in Burkina Faso, Mali and Senegal, and conventional approaches for isolate characterization. The C-terminal end of the p72 protein gene, the full E183L gene and the central variable region (CVR) within the B602L gene in ASFV genome were sequenced and compared to publicly available sequences. ASFV genome was found in 27 samples, 19 from Burkina Faso, three from Mali and five from Senegal. The phylogenetic analyses showed that all viruses belong to genotype I, with the ASFVs from Burkina Faso and Mali grouping with genotype Ia and ASFV serogroup 4, and those from Senegal with genotype Ib and the ASFV serogroup 1. The analysis of the CVR tetrameric tandem repeat sequences (TRS) showed four TRS variants in Burkina Faso, two in Senegal and one in Mali. The three countries did not share any common TRS, and all CVRs of this study differed from previously reported CVRs in West Africa, except for Senegal. Three of the five isolates from Senegal fully matched with the CVR, p72 and p54 sequences from ASFV IC96 collected during the 1996 ASF outbreak in Ivory Coast. This study shows the spread of the same ASFV strains across countries, highlighting the importance of continuous monitoring of ASFV isolates. It also calls for an urgent need to establish a regional plan for the control and eradication of ASF in West Africa.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana , Febre Suína Africana , Doenças dos Suínos , Febre Suína Africana/epidemiologia , Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/genética , Animais , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Mali/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Senegal/epidemiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária , Suínos
3.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876579

RESUMO

Brucellosis is regarded as one of the highest burden zoonotic diseases to persist in many regions globally. While sustained vaccination against B. abortus in an endemic setting can markedly reduce the prevalence of large ruminant and human brucellosis and benefit local livelihoods, the implementation of effective and sustainable control programmes has often failed in the worst affected areas. In a cross-sectional study of 728 peri-urban dairy farmers in nine areas of six West and Central African countries, levels of commercialization and farm characteristics were examined alongside B. abortus seroprevalence estimates to hypothesize the most appropriate model for brucellosis vaccination delivery in each country. Demographic and economic data were collated and used to describe the farming systems currently in place. Furthermore, these data were utilized in a likelihood assessment to generate a quantitative score to hypothesize which of three private-public partnership (PPP) vaccine delivery models, that is 1) transformative, 2) transactional or 3) collaborative, would be most appropriate in each setting. The study sites had substantial differences in their levels of dairy commercialization and the farming practices employed; the heterogeneity across the study sites was evident in the conclusions of which models would be appropriate for vaccination delivery. While Lomé (Togo) had a strong indication for a transformative PPP model, Burkina Faso had strong indication for the collaborative PPP model. Of the remaining study sites, the scores were less dominant for any one model with Cameroon and Ivory Coast sites only just scoring highest on the transformative model and Senegal and Mali sites only just scoring highest on the collaborative model. Interestingly, none of the countries included in the study scored highest on the transactional model which currently is the most commonplace delivery model in the majority of sub-Saharan African countries.

4.
Pathogens ; 11(1)2021 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35055979

RESUMO

In this study, cattle farms located in Oudalan and Séno, two provinces in the Sahel region, northern Burkina Faso, were surveyed. Cattle owners were interviewed, cattle were examined for tick infestation, and ticks as well as blood samples were collected during the dry season (October). Blood DNA samples were tested for Babesia and Theileria infections using nested PCRs and sequencing. A total of 22 herds, 174 Zebu cattle were investigated at 6 different sites. Overall, 76 cattle (43.7 %) from 18 farms (81.8%) were found infested with ticks. Cattle in Séno, adult cattle (>5 years) and those owned by the Fulani ethnic group were significantly (p < 0.05) more likely to be tick-infested. A total of 144 adult ticks belonging to five species namely: Hyalomma impeltatum, Hyalomma impressum, Hyalomma rufipes, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, and Rhipicephalus guilhoni were collected from the animals. Piroplasms were detected in the blood DNA of 23 (13.2%) cattle. The cattle in Séno and adult cattle were significantly more likely to be piroplasm-positive. Five pathogens diversely distributed were identified. Theileria mutans (12/174), Babesia bigemina (5/174), Theileria annulata (3/174), and Theileria velifera (3/174) were detected for the first time in northern Burkina Faso, whereas Babesia occultans (1/174) was found for the first time in cattle in West Africa. The analysis of the sequences, including B. bigemina RAP-1a, T. annulata Tams1 genes, and the 18S rRNA genes of all the five protozoa, revealed identities ranging from 98.4 to 100% with previously published sequences. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 18S rRNA gene sequences located north Burkina Faso piroplasms in the same clade as isolates from Africa and other regions of the world. Notably, T. mutans sequences were distributed in two clades: the T. mutans Intona strain clade and the Theileria sp. (strain MSD)/ Theileria sp. B15a clade, suggesting the presence of at least two strains in the area. These findings indicate that the control of ticks and tick-borne diseases should be taken into account in strategies to improve animal health in the Sahel region.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5310, 2019 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757953

RESUMO

The role of Africa in the dynamics of the global spread of a zoonotic and economically-important virus, such as the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5Nx of the Gs/GD lineage, remains unexplored. Here we characterise the spatiotemporal patterns of virus diffusion during three HPAI H5Nx intercontinental epidemic waves and demonstrate that Africa mainly acted as an ecological sink of the HPAI H5Nx viruses. A joint analysis of host dynamics and continuous spatial diffusion indicates that poultry trade as well as wild bird migrations have contributed to the virus spreading into Africa, with West Africa acting as a crucial hotspot for virus introduction and dissemination into the continent. We demonstrate varying paths of avian influenza incursions into Africa as well as virus spread within Africa over time, which reveal that virus expansion is a complex phenomenon, shaped by an intricate interplay between avian host ecology, virus characteristics and environmental variables.


Assuntos
Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , África , África Ocidental , Animais , Humanos , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Aviária/economia , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Influenza Humana/economia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Filogenia , Aves Domésticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/economia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia
6.
Vet Anim Sci ; 7: 100059, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734080

RESUMO

Four major genotypes of Hepatitis E virus (HEV) have been documented worldwide (1-4) with genotypes 1 and 2 found in human in Sub-Saharan Africa. Human Hepatitis cases due to HEV genotype 3 and 4 are zoonotic with various animal identified as possible reservoirs. Recently, HEV genotype 3 was found in pigs and human beings in West Africa, which may change the epidemic in human. Here, we assessed the prevalence of HEV antibodies in various domestic and wild mammalians in Burkina Faso. Random sampling was performed between 2015 and 2017 to collect serum from 100 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), 19 hares (Lepus africana), 72 cattle (Bos taurus), 75 sheep (Ovis aries) and 81 goats (Capra aegagrus) in three provinces in Burkina Faso. A multi-species ELISA was performed on serum samples from 328 domestic animals and 19 hunting hares. HEV total antibodies were identified in 121 out of 347 specimens (34.9% CI95% [29.9-39.9]). Sera from rabbits (60% CI95% [50.4-69.6]), hares (52.6% CI95% [30.2-75.1]), cattle (26.4% CI95% [16.2-36.6]), sheep (12.0% CI95% [4.6-19.4]), and goats (28.4% CI95% [18.6-38.2]) tested positive for antibodies anti-HEV. In this study we evidence presence of HEV antibodies in various mammalians and highlight the importance of these species in the epidemiology of HEV infection in Burkina Faso.

9.
PLoS One ; 11(4): e0153688, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27123588

RESUMO

Respiratory infections, although showing common clinical symptoms like pneumonia, are caused by bacterial, viral or parasitic agents. These are often reported in sheep and goats populations and cause huge economic losses to the animal owners in developing countries. Detection of these diseases is routinely done using ELISA or microbiological methods which are being reinforced or replaced by molecular based detection methods including multiplex assays, where detection of different pathogens is carried out in a single reaction. In the present study, a one-step multiplex RT-qPCR assay was developed for simultaneous detection of Capripoxvirus (CaPV), Peste de petits ruminants virus (PPRV), Pasteurella multocida (PM) and Mycoplasma capricolum ssp. capripneumonia (Mccp) in pathological samples collected from small ruminants with respiratory disease symptoms. The test performed efficiently without any cross-amplification. The multiplex PCR efficiency was 98.31%, 95.48%, 102.77% and 91.46% whereas the singleplex efficiency was 93.43%, 98.82%, 102.55% and 92.0% for CaPV, PPRV, PM and Mccp, respectively. The correlation coefficient was greater than 0.99 for all the targets in both multiplex and singleplex. Based on cycle threshold values, intra and inter assay variability, ranged between the limits of 2%-4%, except for lower concentrations of Mccp. The detection limits at 95% confidence interval (CI) were 12, 163, 13 and 23 copies/reaction for CaPV, PPRV, PM and Mccp, respectively. The multiplex assay was able to detect CaPVs from all genotypes, PPRV from the four lineages, PM and Mccp without amplifying the other subspecies of mycoplasmas. The discriminating power of the assay was proven by accurate detection of the targeted pathogen (s) by screening 58 viral and bacterial isolates representing all four targeted pathogens. Furthermore, by screening 81 pathological samples collected from small ruminants showing respiratory disease symptoms, CaPV was detected in 17 samples, PPRV in 45, and PM in six samples. In addition, three samples showed a co-infection of PPRV and PM. Overall, the one-step multiplex RT-qPCR assay developed will be a valuable tool for rapid detection of individual and co-infections of the targeted pathogens with high specificity and sensitivity.


Assuntos
Capripoxvirus/genética , Coinfecção/virologia , Mycoplasma capricolum/genética , Pasteurella multocida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Animais , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras/virologia , Infecções por Pasteurella/virologia , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/virologia , Pleuropneumonia Contagiosa/virologia , Infecções por Poxviridae/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ovinos/virologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia
10.
Arch Virol ; 159(11): 3101-5, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25000900

RESUMO

A hemagglutinating virus (8KS0813) was isolated from a red-necked stint. Hemagglutination inhibition and neutralization tests indicated that 8KS0813 was antigenically related to a prototype strain, APMV-6/duck/Hong Kong/18/199/77, but with an 8- and 16-fold difference, respectively, in their titers. The full genome sequence of 8KS0813 showed 98.6 % nucleotide sequence identity to that of APMV-6/duck/Italy/4524-2/07, which has been reported to belong to an APMV-6 subgroup, and showed less similarity to that of the prototype strain (70.6 % similarity). The growth of 8KS0813 and the prototype strain in four different cell cultures was greatly enhanced by adding trypsin. Interestingly, this virus induced syncytia only in Vero cells. 8KS0813 was identified as APMV-6/red-necked stint/Japan/8KS0813/08, but it is antigenically and genetically distinguishable from the prototype strain, suggesting that variant APMV-6 is circulating in migratory birds.


Assuntos
Variação Antigênica , Antígenos Virais/genética , Infecções por Avulavirus/veterinária , Avulavirus/genética , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Migração Animal , Animais , Animais Selvagens/imunologia , Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Avulavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Avulavirus/imunologia , Avulavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Avulavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Avulavirus/virologia , Doenças das Aves/imunologia , Aves/fisiologia , Aves/virologia , Genoma Viral , Testes de Inibição da Hemaglutinação , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia
11.
Virology ; 423(1): 77-88, 2012 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22192630

RESUMO

H4N8 subtype avian influenza viruses were isolated from shorebirds in eastern Hokkaido. All the isolates shared >99.7% nucleotide homology, and all the viral genes except for PB1 were highly related to those of A/red-necked stint/Australia/1/04. Thus, the isolates were regarded as PB1 reassortants. The most similar PB1 gene was identified in A/mallard/New Zealand/1615-17/04 (H4N6) with nucleotide homology of 90.9%. BALB/c mice intranasally inoculated with the H4N8 isolates developed severe respiratory disease, which eventually led to death in some mice. The virus was isolated from the lungs, and viral antigen was detected in the lungs with pneumonia. Other H4 subtype viruses tested did not cause any symptoms in mice, although these viruses were also isolated from the lungs. The PB2 gene of the H4N8 isolates contains K482R, but not the E627K or D701N substitutions. The PB1-F2 gene of the isolates consists of a 101-amino acid unique sequence, but lacks the N66S mutation.


Assuntos
Aves/virologia , Vírus da Influenza A/enzimologia , Vírus da Influenza A/patogenicidade , Influenza Humana/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Proteínas Virais/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Linhagem Celular , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Japão , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Virulência
12.
J Vet Med Sci ; 73(2): 209-15, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20948168

RESUMO

The epidemiological information has obtained on avian influenza virus (AIV) in eastern Hokkaido, Japan, where AIV surveillance has not been performed. Cloacal or fecal samples obtained from migratory water birds were screened for AIV both by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to detect the influenza A virus matrix (M) gene and by egg inoculation. Between 2007 and 2009, a total of 2,488 samples were collected from various avian species in Abashiri, Kushiro, Nemuro and Tokachi districts of eastern Hokkaido. AIVs were isolated from 18 of those samples (0.7%). No AIV was isolated from the 1,449 samples collected in Abashiri, Kushiro and Nemuro districts, although 6 were positive for the M gene by RRT-PCR. In contrast, 52 (5.0%) of the 1,039 samples collected from ducks in Tokachi district were M gene positive; AIVs were isolated from 18 of those samples (1.7%). The isolates included H3N5 (1 isolate), H3N6 (1), H3N8 (9), H4N2 (1), H4N6 (2), H6N5 (1), H6N8 (1), and H11N3 (2) subtypes. H3N5 and H11N3 subtypes have not been frequently isolated, and our study is the first to report H3N5 and the second to report H11N3 in Japan. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the M genes of all isolates belonged to the Eurasian lineage.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Aves , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Filogenia , RNA Viral/química , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/veterinária , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/química , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/genética
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