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1.
J Cell Sci ; 135(5)2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000034

RESUMO

Membrane phase separation to form micron-scale domains of lipids and proteins occurs in artificial membranes; however, a similar large-scale phase separation has not been reported in the plasma membrane of the living cells. We show here that a stable micron-scale protein-depleted region is generated in the plasma membrane of yeast mutants lacking phosphatidylserine at high temperatures. We named this region the 'void zone'. Transmembrane proteins and certain peripheral membrane proteins and phospholipids are excluded from the void zone. The void zone is rich in ergosterol, and requires ergosterol and sphingolipids for its formation. Such properties are also found in the cholesterol-enriched domains of phase-separated artificial membranes, but the void zone is a novel membrane domain that requires energy and various cellular functions for its formation. The formation of the void zone indicates that the plasma membrane in living cells has the potential to undergo phase separation with certain lipid compositions. We also found that void zones were frequently in contact with vacuoles, in which a membrane domain was also formed at the contact site.

2.
Mol Biol Cell ; : mbcE20110699, 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038161

RESUMO

Sterols are important lipid components of the plasma membrane (PM) in eukaryotic cells, but it is unknown how the PM retains sterols at a high concentration. Phospholipids are asymmetrically distributed in the PM, and phospholipid flippases play an important role in generating this phospholipid asymmetry. Here, we provide evidence that phospholipid flippases are essential for retaining ergosterol in the PM of yeast. A mutant in three flippases, Dnf1-Lem3, Dnf2-Lem3, and Dnf3-Crf1, and a membrane protein, Sfk1, showed a severe growth defect. We recently identified Sfk1 as a PM protein involved in phospholipid asymmetry. The PM of this mutant showed high permeability and low density. Staining with the sterol probe filipin and the expression of a sterol biosensor revealed that ergosterol was not retained in the PM. Instead, ergosterol accumulated in an esterified form in lipid droplets. We propose that ergosterol is retained in the PM by the asymmetrical distribution of phospholipids and the action of Sfk1. Once phospholipid asymmetry is severely disrupted, sterols might be exposed on the cytoplasmic leaflet of the PM and actively transported to the endoplasmic reticulum by sterol transfer proteins.

3.
FASEB J ; 34(12): 16022-16033, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090522

RESUMO

Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that mediate the transport of intracellular molecules, including neurodegenerative agents. Exogenously administrated ceramides have been implicated in the acceleration of exosome production by neurons; however, the molecular machinery involved in this process is unknown. Here, we found that ceramides, especially those consisting of long fatty acids, were internalized into the endocytic pathway in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells to induce exosome secretion through lysosome-associated protein transmembrane 4B (LAPTM4B). Knockdown of LAPTM4B inhibited the ceramide-mediated increase in exosome release completely. Fluorescence microscopy observations indicated that exogenous ceramides promote the transport of multivesicular bodies to the plasma membranes in a LAPTM4B-dependent manner. Similarly, inhibition of acid ceramidase, which tends to induce intracellular ceramide accumulation, increased exosome production by SH-SY5Y cells in a LAPTM4B-dependent manner. Furthermore, the level of amyloid-ß protein (Aß) was decreased in neuronal cells following treatment with exogenous ceramide or inhibition of acid ceramidase, and this effect was attributed to the LAPTM4B-dependent efflux of Aß-containing exosomes. Overall, these findings reveal the novel machinery involved in exosome secretion regulated by ceramides and LAPTM4B, and may contribute to efforts to ameliorate the cellular accumulation of neurodegenerative agents such as Aß.

4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236520, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730286

RESUMO

In eukaryotic cells, phospholipid flippases translocate phospholipids from the exoplasmic to the cytoplasmic leaflet of the lipid bilayer. Budding yeast contains five flippases, of which Cdc50p-Drs2p and Neo1p are primarily involved in membrane trafficking in endosomes and Golgi membranes. The ANY1/CFS1 gene was identified as a suppressor of growth defects in the neo1Δ and cdc50Δ mutants. Cfs1p is a membrane protein of the PQ-loop family and is localized to endosomal/Golgi membranes, but its relationship to phospholipid asymmetry remains unknown. The neo1Δ cfs1Δ mutant appears to function normally in membrane trafficking but may function abnormally in the regulation of phospholipid asymmetry. To identify a gene that is functionally relevant to NEO1 and CFS1, we isolated a mutation that is synthetically lethal with neo1Δ cfs1Δ and identified ERD1. Erd1p is a Golgi membrane protein that is involved in the transport of phosphate (Pi) from the Golgi lumen to the cytoplasm. The Neo1p-depleted cfs1Δ erd1Δ mutant accumulated plasma membrane proteins in the Golgi, perhaps due to a lack of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate. The Neo1p-depleted cfs1Δ erd1Δ mutant also exhibited abnormal structure of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and induced an unfolded protein response, likely due to defects in the retrieval pathway from the cis-Golgi region to the ER. Genetic analyses suggest that accumulation of Pi in the Golgi lumen is responsible for defects in Golgi functions in the Neo1p-depleted cfs1Δ erd1Δ mutant. Thus, the luminal ionic environment is functionally relevant to phospholipid asymmetry. Our results suggest that flippase-mediated phospholipid redistribution and luminal Pi concentration coordinately regulate Golgi membrane functions.


Assuntos
Complexo de Golgi/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Mutação , Proteínas de Transferência de Fosfolipídeos/genética , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzimologia , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas
5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12474, 2020 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719316

RESUMO

Lipid asymmetry in biological membranes is essential for various cell functions, such as cell polarity, cytokinesis, and apoptosis. P4-ATPases (flippases) are involved in the generation of such asymmetry. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the protein kinases Fpk1p/Fpk2p activate the P4-ATPases Dnf1p/Dnf2p by phosphorylation. Previously, we have shown that a blue-light-dependent protein kinase, phototropin from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (CrPHOT), complements defects in an fpk1Δ fpk2Δ mutant. Herein, we investigated whether CrPHOT optically regulates P4-ATPase activity. First, we demonstrated that the translocation of NBD-labelled phospholipids to the cytoplasmic leaflet via P4-ATPases was promoted by blue-light irradiation in fpk1Δ fpk2Δ cells with CrPHOT. In addition, blue light completely suppressed the defects in membrane functions (such as endocytic recycling, actin depolarization, and apical-isotropic growth switching) caused by fpk1Δ fpk2Δ mutations. All responses required the kinase activity of CrPHOT. Hence, these results indicate the utility of CrPHOT as a powerful and first tool for optogenetic manipulation of P4-ATPase activity.

6.
J Biochem ; 164(2): 127-140, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29554278

RESUMO

It is commonly observed that freshwater fish contain lower amounts of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3), than marine fish species. In this study, we performed a detailed comparative analysis of phospholipids (PLs) and triacylglycerols (TAGs) from Gymnogobius isaza, a freshwater goby endemic to Lake Biwa inhabiting the lake bottom, and Gymnogobius urotaenia, a related goby that inhabits the shore of Lake Biwa. We found that tissues from G. isaza contain remarkably high amounts of omega-3 LC-PUFAs in both PLs and TAGs. Mass spectrometry analysis of TAGs demonstrated that the most abundant TAG molecular species were TAG (16:0/18:1/20:5), followed by TAG (14:0/18:1/20:5), in which EPA is incorporated into TAG at either the sn-1 or sn-3 positions. We isolated cDNAs encoding acyl-CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase designated as GiDGAT1 and GiDGAT2, from G. isaza. Expression studies using a neutral lipid-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain demonstrated that both GiDGAT1 and GiDGAT2 possessed diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity, and preferential incorporation of LC-PUFA into TAG was observed in the presence of GiDGAT1. This study revealed the novel lipid profiles of G. isaza and identified the enzymes that were involved in the production of PUFA-containing TAGs.


Assuntos
Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/biossíntese , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/química , Peixes , Japão , Lagos , Triglicerídeos/química
7.
Mol Biol Cell ; 29(10): 1203-1218, 2018 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29540528

RESUMO

Phospholipid flippase (type 4 P-type ATPase) plays a major role in the generation of phospholipid asymmetry in eukaryotic cell membranes. Loss of Lem3p-Dnf1/2p flippases leads to the exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) on the cell surface in yeast, resulting in sensitivity to PS- or PE-binding peptides. We isolated Sfk1p, a conserved membrane protein in the TMEM150/FRAG1/DRAM family, as a multicopy suppressor of this sensitivity. Overexpression of SFK1 decreased PS/PE exposure in lem3Δ mutant cells. Consistent with this, lem3Δ sfk1Δ double mutant cells exposed more PS/PE than the lem3Δ mutant. Sfk1p was previously implicated in the regulation of the phosphatidylinositol-4 kinase Stt4p, but the effect of Sfk1p on PS/PE exposure in lem3Δ was independent of Stt4p. Surprisingly, Sfk1p did not facilitate phospholipid flipping but instead repressed it, even under ATP-depleted conditions. We propose that Sfk1p negatively regulates transbilayer movement of phospholipids irrespective of directions. In addition, we showed that the permeability of the plasma membrane was dramatically elevated in the lem3Δ sfk1Δ double mutant in comparison with the corresponding single mutants. Interestingly, total ergosterol was decreased in the lem3Δ sfk1Δ mutant. Our results suggest that phospholipid asymmetry is required for the maintenance of low plasma membrane permeability.


Assuntos
Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transferência de Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Depsipeptídeos/farmacologia , Ergosterol/farmacologia , Bicamadas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Fluidez de Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Modelos Biológicos , Mutação/genética , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositóis/metabolismo , Fosfatidilserinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transferência de Fosfolipídeos/química , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
PLoS One ; 10(3): e0120108, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25781026

RESUMO

In eukaryotic cells, type 4 P-type ATPases function as phospholipid flippases, which translocate phospholipids from the exoplasmic leaflet to the cytoplasmic leaflet of the lipid bilayer. Flippases function in the formation of transport vesicles, but the mechanism remains unknown. Here, we isolate an arrestin-related trafficking adaptor, ART5, as a multicopy suppressor of the growth and endocytic recycling defects of flippase mutants in budding yeast. Consistent with a previous report that Art5p downregulates the inositol transporter Itr1p by endocytosis, we found that flippase mutations were also suppressed by the disruption of ITR1, as well as by depletion of inositol from the culture medium. Interestingly, inositol depletion suppressed the defects in all five flippase mutants. Inositol depletion also partially restored the formation of secretory vesicles in a flippase mutant. Inositol depletion caused changes in lipid composition, including a decrease in phosphatidylinositol and an increase in phosphatidylserine. A reduction in phosphatidylinositol levels caused by partially depleting the phosphatidylinositol synthase Pis1p also suppressed a flippase mutation. These results suggest that inositol depletion changes the lipid composition of the endosomal/TGN membranes, which results in vesicle formation from these membranes in the absence of flippases.


Assuntos
Inositol/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transferência de Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Endocitose , Endossomos/metabolismo , Inositol/deficiência , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositóis/metabolismo , Fosfatidilserinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transferência de Fosfolipídeos/genética , Transporte Proteico , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Transferases (Outros Grupos de Fosfato Substituídos)/genética , Transferases (Outros Grupos de Fosfato Substituídos)/metabolismo
9.
FEBS Lett ; 589(1): 84-8, 2015 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25436414

RESUMO

Elevated amyloid-ß peptide (Aß) in brain contributes to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. We demonstrated the presence of exosome-associated Aß in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of cynomolgus monkeys and APP transgenic mice. The levels of exosome-associated Aß notably decreased in the CSF of aging animals. We also determined that neuronal exosomes, but not glial exosomes, had abundant glycosphingolipids and could capture Aß. Infusion of neuronal exosomes into brains of APP transgenic mice decreased Aß and amyloid depositions, similarly to what reported previously on neuroblastoma-derived exosomes. These findings highlight the role of neuronal exosomes in Aß clearance, and suggest that their downregulation might relate to Aß accumulation and, ultimately, the development of AD pathology.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Exossomos/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/genética , Animais , Exossomos/genética , Exossomos/patologia , Humanos , Macaca fascicularis , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Neuroglia/patologia , Neurônios/patologia
10.
Microbiologyopen ; 3(5): 803-21, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25220349

RESUMO

In eukaryotic cells, phosphatidylserine (PS) is predominantly located in the cytosolic leaflet of the plasma membrane; this asymmetry is generated by an unknown mechanism. In this study, we used the PS-specific probe mRFP-Lact-C2 to investigate the possible involvement of type 4 P-type ATPases, also called phospholipid flippases, in the generation of this asymmetry in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PS was not found in the trans-Golgi Network in wild-type cells, but it became exposed when vesicle formation was compromised in the sec7 mutant, and it was also exposed on secretory vesicles (SVs), as reported previously. However, flippase mutations did not reduce the exposure of PS in either case, even at low levels that would only be detectable by quantitative analysis of mRFP-Lact-C2 fluorescence in isolated SVs. Furthermore, no reduction in the PS level was observed in a mutant with multiple flippase mutations. Because PS was not exposed in a mutant that accumulates ER or cis/medial-Golgi membranes, Golgi maturation seems to be a prerequisite for PS translocation. Our results suggest that an unknown mechanism, possibly a protein with flippase-like activity, acts in conjunction with known flippases to regulate PS translocation.


Assuntos
Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Fosfatidilserinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzimologia , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Transporte Biológico , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
11.
Neurochem Res ; 32(6): 988-1001, 2007 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17401678

RESUMO

Spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations are believed to contribute to the regulation of gene expression. Here we investigated whether and how the dynamics of Ca(2+) oscillations changed after sublethal preconditioning (PC) for PC-induced ischemic tolerance in neuron/astrocyte co-cultures. The frequency of spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations significantly decreased between 4 and 8 h after the end of PC in both neurons and astrocytes. Treatment with 2-APB, an inhibitor of IP3 receptors, decreased the oscillatory frequency, induced ischemic tolerance and a down-regulation of glutamate transporter GLT-1 contributing to the increase in the extracellular glutamate during ischemia. The expression of GLT-1 is known to be up-regulated by PACAP. Treatment with PACAP38 increased the oscillatory frequency, and antagonized both the PC-induced down-regulation of GLT-1 and ischemic tolerance. These results suggested that the PC suppressed the spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations regulating the gene expressions of various proteins, especially of astrocytic GLT-1, for the development of the PC-induced ischemic tolerance.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Sinalização do Cálcio/fisiologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Precondicionamento Isquêmico , Animais , Astrócitos/fisiologia , Western Blotting , Sobrevivência Celular , Técnicas de Cocultura , Colforsina/farmacologia , Regulação para Baixo/fisiologia , Transportador 2 de Aminoácido Excitatório/biossíntese , Transportador 2 de Aminoácido Excitatório/fisiologia , Glucose/deficiência , Ácido Glutâmico/toxicidade , Neurônios/fisiologia , Polipeptídeo Hipofisário Ativador de Adenilato Ciclase/farmacologia , Ratos
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