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2.
Chest ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent reports of COVID-19 patients developing pneumothorax mainly correspond to case reports in mechanically-ventilated patients. The real incidence, clinical characteristics and outcome of spontaneous pneumothorax (SP) as a form of COVID presentation remains to be defined. RESEARCH QUESTION: Do the incidence, risk factors, clinical characteristics and outcomes of SP in COVID-19 patients attending emergency departments (ED) differ compared to COVID patients without SP and non-COVID patients with SP? STUDY DESIGN: and methods: This case-control study retrospectively reviewed all COVID patients diagnosed with SP(case group) in 61 Spanish EDs(20% of Spanish EDs) and compared them with two control groups: COVID patients without SP and non-COVID patients with SP. Relative frequencies of SP were estimated in COVID and non-COVID patients in the ED and annual standardized incidences were estimated for both populations. Comparisons between cases and controls included 52 clinical, analytical and radiological characteristics and 4 outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 40 SP in 71,904 patients with COVID-19 attending EDs(0.56‰, 95%CI=0.40-0.76‰). This relative frequency was higher than that of non-COVID patients(387/1,358,134, 0.28‰, 95%CI=0.26-0.32; OR=1.93, 95%CI=1.41-2.71). The standardized incidence of SP was also higher in COVID patients (34.2 versus 8.2/100,000/year; OR=4.19, 95%CI=3.64-4.81). Compared with COVID patients without SP, COVID patients developing SP more frequently had dyspnea and chest pain, low pulsioxymetry, tachypnea and increased leukocyte count. Compared to non-COVID patients with SP, cases differed in 19 clinical variables, the most prominent being a higher frequency of dysgeusia/anosmia, headache, diarrhea, fever and lymphopenia (all with OR>10). All the outcomes measured, including in-hospital death, were worse in cases than in both control groups. INTERPRETATION: SP as a form of COVID presentation at the ED is unusual (<1‰ cases) but is more frequent than in the non-COVID population and could be associated with worse outcomes than SP in non-COVID patients and COVID patients without SP.

3.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; 9(5): 375-398, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191763

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to systematically identify and summarise all risk scores evaluated in the emergency department setting to stratify acute heart failure patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: A systematic review of PubMed and Web of Science was conducted including all multicentre studies reporting the use of risk predictive models in emergency department acute heart failure patients. Exclusion criteria were: (a) non-original articles; (b) prognostic models without predictive purposes; and (c) risk models without consecutive patient inclusion or exclusively tested in patients admitted to a hospital ward. We identified 28 studies reporting findings on 19 scores: 13 were originally derived in the emergency department (eight exclusively using acute heart failure patients), and six in emergency department and hospitalised patients. The outcome most frequently predicted was 30-day mortality. The performance of the scores tended to be higher for outcomes occurring closer to the index acute heart failure event. The eight scores developed using acute heart failure patients only in the emergency department contained between 4-13 predictors (age, oxygen saturation and creatinine/urea included in six scores). Five scores (Emergency Heart Failure Mortality Risk Grade, Emergency Heart Failure Mortality Risk Grade 30 Day mortality ST depression, Epidemiology of Acute Heart Failure in Emergency department 3 Day, Acute Heart Failure Risk Score, and Multiple Estimation of risk based on Emergency department Spanish Score In patients with Acute Heart Failure) have been externally validated in the same country, and two (Emergency Heart Failure Mortality Risk Grade and Multiple Estimation of risk based on Emergency department Spanish Score In patients with Acute Heart Failure) further internationally validated. The c-statistic for Emergency Heart Failure Mortality Risk Grade to predict seven-day mortality was between 0.74-0.81 and for Multiple Estimation of risk based on Emergency department Spanish Score In patients with Acute Heart Failure to predict 30-day mortality was 0.80-0.84. CONCLUSIONS: There are several scales for risk stratification of emergency department acute heart failure patients. Two of them are accurate, have been adequately validated and may be useful in clinical decision-making in the emergency department i.e. about whether to admit or discharge.

4.
Europace ; 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038231

RESUMO

AIMS : The aim of this study is to characterize recurrent syncope, including sex-specific aspects, and its impact on death and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). METHODS AND RESULTS: We characterized recurrent syncope in a large international multicentre study, enrolling patients ≥40 years presenting to the emergency department (ED) with a syncopal event within the last 12 h. Syncope aetiology was centrally adjudicated by two independent cardiologists using all information becoming available during syncope work-up and long-term follow-up. Overall, 1790 patients were eligible for this analysis. Incidence of recurrent syncope was 20% [95% confidence interval (CI) 18-22%] within the first 24 months. Patients with an adjudicated final diagnosis of cardiac syncope (hazard ratio (HR) 1.50, 95% CI 1.11-2.01) or syncope with an unknown aetiology even after central adjudication (HR 2.11, 95% CI 1.54-2.89) had an increased risk for syncope recurrence. Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator regression fit on all patient information available early in the ED identified >3 previous episodes of syncope as the only independent predictor for recurrent syncope (HR 2.13, 95% CI 1.64-2.75). Recurrent syncope carried an increased risk for death (HR 1.87, 95% CI 1.26-2.77) and MACE (HR 2.69, 95% CI 2.02-3.59) over 24 months of follow-up, however, with a time-dependent effect. These findings were confirmed in a sensitivity analysis excluding patients with syncope recurrence or MACE before or during ED evaluation. CONCLUSION : Recurrence rates of syncope are substantial and vary depending on syncope aetiology. Importantly, recurrent syncope carries a time-dependent increased risk for death and MACE. TRIAL REGISTRATION: BAsel Syncope EvaLuation (BASEL IX, ClinicalTrials.gov registry number NCT01548352).

6.
Emergencias ; 32(5): 332-339, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006833

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify factors associated with worsening renal function (WRF) and explore associations with higher mortality in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seven emergency departments (EDs) in the EAHFE-EFRICA study (Spanish acronym for Epidemiology of AHF in EDs - WRF in AHF) consecutively included patients with AHF and creatinine levels determined in the ED and between 24 and 48 hours later. Patients with WRF were identified by an increase in creatinine level of 0.3 mg/dL or more. Forty-seven clinical characteristics were explored to identify those associated with WRF. To analyze for 30-day all-cause mortality we calculated odds ratios (ORs). To analyze mortality at the end of follow-up and by trimester, adjusted for between-group differences, we calculated hazard ratios (HRs). The data were analyzed by subgroups according to age, sex, baseline creatinine levels, AHF type, and risk group. RESULTS: A total of 1627 patients were included. The subgroup of 220 (13.5%) with WRF were older, had higher systolic blood pressure, were more often treated with morphine, and had chronic renal failure; there was also a higher rate of hypertensive crisis as the trigger for AHF in patients with WRF. However, only chronic renal failure was independently associated with WRF (adjusted OR, 1.695; 95% CI, 1.264-2.273). The rate of 30-day mortality was 13.1% overall but higher in patients with WRF (20.9% vs 11.8% in patients without WRF; adjusted OR, 1.793; 95% CI, 1.207-2.664). Accumulated mortality at 18 months (average follow-up time, 14 mo/patient) was 40.0% overall but higher in patients with WRF (adjusted HR, 1.275; 95% CI, 1.018-1.598). Increased risk was greater in the first trimester. Subgroup analyses revealed no differences. CONCLUSION: AHF with WRF in the first 48 hours after ED care is associated with higher mortality, especially in the first trimester after the emergency.

7.
J Cardiol ; 2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054989

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Experts recommended that direct discharge without hospitalization (DDWH) for emergency departments (EDs) able to observe acute heart failure (AHF) patients should be >40%, and these discharged patients should fulfil the following outcome standards: 30-day all-cause mortality <2% (outcome A); 7-day ED revisit due to AHF < 10% (outcome B); and 30-day ED revisit/hospitalization due to AHF < 20% (outcome C). We investigated these outcomes in a nationwide cohort and their relationship with the ED DDWH percentage. METHODS: We analyzed the EAHFE registry (includes about 15% of Spanish EDs), calculated DDWH percentage of each ED, and A/B/C outcomes of DDWH patients, overall and in each individual ED. Relationship between ED DDWH and outcomes was assessed by linear and quadratic regression models, non-weighted and weighted by DDWH patients provided by each ED. RESULTS: Among 17,420 patients, 4488 had DDWH (25.8%, median ED stay = 0 days, IQR = 0-1). Only 12.9% EDs achieved DDWH > 40%. Considering DDWH patients altogether, outcomes A/C were above the recommended standards (4.3%/29.4%), while outcome B was nearly met (B = 10.1%). When analyzing individual EDs, 58.1% of them achieved the outcome B standard, while outcomes A/C standards were barely achieved (19.3%/9.7%). We observed clinically relevant linear/quadratic relationships between higher DDWH and worse outcomes B (weighted R2 = 0.184/0.322) and C (weighted R2 = 0.430/0.624), but not with outcome A (weighted R2 = 0.002/0.022). CONCLUSIONS: The EDs of this nationwide cohort do not fulfil the standards for AHF patients with DDWH. High DDWH rates negatively impact ED revisit or hospitalization but not mortality. This may represent an opportunity for improvement in better selecting patients for early ED discharge and in ensuring early follow-up after ED discharge.

8.
Emergencias ; 32(5): 320-331, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006832

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the organization of Spanish hospital emergency departments (EDs). To explore differences between Spanish autonomous communities or according to hospital size and disease incidence in the area. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Survey of the heads of 283 EDs in hospitals belonging to or affiliated with Spain's public health service. Respondents evaluated the pandemic's impact on organization, resources, and staff absence from work in March and April 2020. Assessments were for 15-day periods. Results were analyzed overall and by autonomous community, hospital size, and local population incidence rates. RESULTS: A total of 246 (87%) responses were received. The majority of the EDs organized a triage system, first aid, and observation wards; areas specifically for patients suspected of having COVID-19 were newly set apart. The nursing staff was increased in 83% of the EDs (with no subgroup differences), and 59% increased the number of physicians (especially in large hospitals and locations where the COVID-19 incidence was high). Diagnostic tests for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 were the resource the EDs missed most: 55% reported that tests were scarce often or very often. Other resources reported to be scarce were FPP2 and FPP3 masks (38% of the EDs), waterproof protective gowns (34%), and space (32%). More than 5% of the physicians, nurses, or other emergency staff were on sick leave 20%, 19%, and 16% of the time. These deficiencies were greatest during the last half of March, except for tests, which were most scarce in the first 15 days. Large hospital EDs less often reported that diagnostic tests were unavailable. In areas where the COVID-19 incidence was higher, the EDs reported higher rates of staff on sick leave. Resource scarcity differed markedly by autonomous community and was not always associated with the incidence of COVID-19 in the population. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic led to organizational changes in EDs. Certain resources became scarce, and marked differences between autonomous communities were detected.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Absenteísmo , Adulto , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Surtos de Doenças , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Número de Leitos em Hospital , Hospitais Públicos/organização & administração , Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Alocação de Recursos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Triagem/organização & administração
10.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 32(5): 320-331, oct. 2020. mapas, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET2-7329

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Estimar el impacto del brote pandémico de COVID-19 en diversos aspectos organizativos de los servicios de urgencias hospitalarios (SUH) españoles e investigar si difirió en función de la comunidad autónoma, tamaño del hospital e incidencia local de la pandemia. MÉTODO: Encuesta a los responsables de los 283 SUH españoles de uso público, quienes valoraron el impacto de la pandemia en aspectos organizativos, disponibilidad de recursos, y bajas del personal durante marzo-abril de 2020, diferenciando dicho impacto por quincenas. Los resultados se analizaron en conjunto, por comunidad autónoma, según tamaño del hospital y según incidencia local de la pandemia. RESULTADOS: Se recibieron 246 encuestas (87% de los SUH españoles). La mayoría de SUH reorganizaron el triaje, primera asistencia y observación y habilitó nuevos espacios específicos para pacientes con sospecha de COVID-19. Un 83% aumentó dotación enfermera (sin diferencias entre grupos) y un 59% la dotación de médicos (más frecuente en hospitales grandes y zonas de alta incidencia). El recurso que más escaseó fue el test diagnóstico de SARS-CoV-2 (55% del tiempo insuficiente con cierta o mucha frecuencia), seguido de mascarillas FPP2-FPP3 (38%), batas impermeables (34%) y espacio asistencial (32%). Hubo más del 5% de médicos/enfermería/otro personal de baja el 20%/19%/16% del tiempo. Estos déficits fueron máximos la segunda quincena de marzo, excepto para los test diagnósticos (primera quincena de marzo). Los SUH de grandes centros tuvieron menos escasez de tests diagnósticos, y los de zonas de alta incidencia pandémica más profesionales de baja. Existieron marcadas diferencias en todas estos déficits entre comunidades autónomas, no siempre concordantes con el grado de afectación pandémica en cada comunidad. CONCLUSIONES: La pandemia COVID-19 generó cambios estructurales en los SUH, que sufrieron una escasez considerable en ciertos recursos, con diferencias marcadas entre comunidades autónomas


OBJECTIVE: To estimate the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the organization of Spanish hospital emergency departments (EDs). To explore differences between Spanish autonomous communities or according to hospital size and disease incidence in the area. METHODS: Survey of the heads of 283 EDs in hospitals belonging to or affiliated with Spain's public health service. Respondents evaluated the pandemic's impact on organization, resources, and staff absence from work in March and April 2020. Assessments were for 15-day periods. Results were analyzed overall and by autonomous community, hospital size, and local population incidence rates. RESULTS: A total of 246 (87%) responses were received. The majority of the EDs organized a triage system, first aid, and observation wards; areas specifically for patients suspected of having COVID-19 were newly set apart. The nursing staff was increased in 83% of the EDs (with no subgroup differences), and 59% increased the number of physicians (especially in large hospitals and locations where the COVID-19 incidence was high). Diagnostic tests for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 were the resource the EDs missed most: 55% reported that tests were scarce often or very often. Other resources reported to be scarce were FPP2 and FPP3 masks (38% of the EDs), waterproof protective gowns (34%), and space (32%). More than 5% of the physicians, nurses, or other emergency staff were on sick leave 20%, 19%, and 16% of the time. These deficiencies were greatest during the last half of March, except for tests, which were most scarce in the first 15 days. Large hospital EDs less often reported that diagnostic tests were unavailable. In areas where the COVID-19 incidence was higher, the EDs reported higher rates of staff on sick leave. Resource scarcity differed markedly by autonomous community and was not always associated with the incidence of COVID-19 in the population. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic led to organizational changes in EDs. Certain resources became scarce, and marked differences between autonomous communities were detected

11.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 32(5): 332-339, oct. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET2-7330

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Identificar los factores asociados con el empeoramiento de la función renal (EFR) y si este se asocia a mayor mortalidad en pacientes que presentan un episodio de insuficiencia cardiaca aguda (ICA). MÉTODO: Participaron 7 servicios de urgencias (SU) que incluyeron consecutivamente pacientes con ICA con determinación de creatinina en urgencias y a las 24-48 horas, y se identificaron aquellos con EFR (incremento de creatinina $ 0,3 mg/dL). Entre 47 características clínicas, se identificó las asociadas a EFR. Se investigó la mortalidad por cualquier causa a 30 días (OR) y al final del seguimiento (HR), esta última global y por periodos trimestrales, que se ajustó por las diferencias entre grupos. Se analizaron subgrupos según edad, sexo, creatinina basal, tipo de ICA y grupo de riesgo. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 1.627 pacientes, 220 (13,5%) con EFR, los cuales presentaban mayor edad, presión arterial sistólica, crisis hipertensiva como precipitante, tratamiento con morfina e insuficiencia renal crónica, aunque solo esta última se asoció independientemente a EFR (ORajustada = 1,695, IC 95% = 1,264-2,273). La mortalidad a 30 días fue de 13,1% (mayor en pacientes con EFR: 20,9% vs 11,8%, ORajustada = 1,793, IC 95% = 1,207-2,664) y la mortalidad acumulada a 18 meses (tiempo medio de seguimiento 14 meses/paciente) fue del 40,0% (mayor en pacientes con EFR: HRajustada = 1,275, IC 95% = 1,018-1,598). Este incremento de riesgo fue durante el primer trimestre. El análisis de subgrupos no mostró diferencias. CONCLUSIÓN: La ICA con EFR en las primeras 48 horas posteriores a la atención en el SU se asocia a mayor mortalidad, que se concentra durante el primer trimestre


OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with worsening renal function (WRF) and explore associations with higher mortality in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). METHODS: Seven emergency departments (EDs) in the EAHFE-EFRICA study (Spanish acronym for Epidemiology of AHF in EDs - WRF in AHF) consecutively included patients with AHF and creatinine levels determined in the ED and between 24 and 48 hours later. Patients with WRF were identified by an increase in creatinine level of 0.3 mg/dL or more. Forty-seven clinical characteristics were explored to identify those associated with WRF. To analyze for 30-day all-cause mortality we calculated odds ratios (ORs). To analyze mortality at the end of follow-up and by trimester, adjusted for between-group differences, we calculated hazard ratios (HRs). The data were analyzed by subgroups according to age, sex, baseline creatinine levels, AHF type, and risk group. RESULTS: A total of 1627 patients were included. The subgroup of 220 (13.5%) with WRF were older, had higher systolic blood pressure, were more often treated with morphine, and had chronic renal failure; there was also a higher rate of hypertensive crisis as the trigger for AHF in patients with WRF. However, only chronic renal failure was independently associated with WRF (adjusted OR, 1.695; 95% CI, 1.264-2.273). The rate of 30-day mortality was 13.1% overall but higher in patients with WRF (20.9% vs 11.8% in patients without WRF; adjusted OR, 1.793; 95% CI, 1.207-2.664). Accumulated mortality at 18 months (average follow-up time, 14 mo/patient) was 40.0% overall but higher in patients with WRF (adjusted HR, 1.275; 95% CI, 1.018-1.598). Increased risk was greater in the first trimester. Subgroup analyses revealed no differences. CONCLUSION: AHF with WRF in the first 48 hours after ED care is associated with higher mortality, especially in the first trimester after the emergency

12.
Eur J Emerg Med ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976310

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients with chest pain (CP) is more difficult based on the initial clinical and electrocardiogram (ECG) findings. METHODS: We included consecutive CP patients attended at a single emergency department (ED) during a 10-year period. CABG status and the final diagnosis of ACS were considered as stated in the ED discharge report. We evaluated the frequency of 21 CP characteristics (CPC) and four ECG signatures, their individual and collective association with ACS, and ED length of stay (LOS) in CABG and non-CABG patients. RESULTS: We included 34 429 patients [median age: 61 years; female: 41.8%; CABG: 2204 patients (6.4%)], and ACS was diagnosed in 6727 (19.5%; CABG/non-CABG 37.2%/18.3%; P < 0.001). CABG patients more frequently had CPC and ECG findings typically associated with ACS, but their final association with ACS was weaker than in non-CABG patients (only significant after adjustment for attendant diaphoresis, throat irradiation, ST-segment elevation and T-wave inversion). The collective discriminative capacity was significantly lower in CABG patients (area under the curve 0.710 vs. 0.793; P < 0.001), even after adjustment (0.708 vs. 0.790; P < 0.001). ED LOS was longer for CABG patients, overall (P < 0.001) and for patients diagnosed with ACS (P = 0.008) and non-ACS (P < 0.001), but these differences disappeared after adjustment. CONCLUSION: CABG substantially reduces the diagnostic performance of CPC and ECG findings to suggest ACS. A longer LOS in the ED in CABG patients is more related to their baseline characteristics than to CABG itself.

13.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959081

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify patients at risk of in-hospital mortality and adverse outcomes during the vulnerable post-discharge period after the first acute heart failure episode (de novo AHF) attended at the emergency department. METHODS: This is a secondary review of de novo AHF patients included in the prospective, multicentre EAHFE (Epidemiology of Acute Heart Failure in Emergency Department) Registry. We included consecutive patients with de novo AHF, for whom 29 independent variables were recorded. The outcomes were in-hospital all-cause mortality and all-cause mortality and readmission due to AHF within 90 days post-discharge. A follow-up check was made by reviewing the hospital medical records and/or by phone. RESULTS: We included 3422 patients. The mean age was 80 years, 52.1% were women. The in-hospital mortality was 6.9% and was independently associated with dementia (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.62-3.14), active neoplasia (1.97, 1.41-2.76), functional dependence (1.58, 1.02-2.43), chronic treatment with beta-blockers (0.62, 0.44-0.86) and severity of decompensation (6.38, 2.86-14.26 for high-/very high-risk patients). The 90-day post-discharge combined endpoint was observed in 19.3% of patients and was independently associated with hypertension (HR = 1.40, 1.11-1.76), chronic renal insufficiency (1.23, 1.01-1.49), heart valve disease (1.24, 1.01-1.51), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (1.22, 1.01-1.48), NYHA 3-4 at baseline (1.40, 1.12-1.74) and severity of decompensation (1.23, 1.01-1.50; and 1.64, 1.20-2.25; for intermediate and high-/very high-risk patients, respectively), with different risk factors for 90-day post-discharge mortality or rehospitalisation. CONCLUSIONS: The severity of decompensation and some baseline characteristics identified de novo AHF patients at increased risk of developing adverse outcomes during hospitalisation and the vulnerable post-discharge phase, without significant differences in these risk factors according to patient age at de novo AHF presentation.

14.
Int J Clin Pract ; : e13712, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955782

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The presence of anemia leads to a worse prognosis in patients with heart failure (HF). There are few data on the impact of anemia on mortality in patients with acute heart failiure (AHF), and the studies available are mainly retrospective, and include hospitalized patients. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the role of anemia on 30-day and one-year mortality in patients with AHF attended in hospital emergency departments (HEDs). METHODS: We performed a multicenter, observational study of prospective cohorts of patients with AHF. The study variables were: Anemia (hemoglobin <12g/dL in women and <13g/dL in men), mortality at 30 days and at one year, risk factors, comorbidity, functional impairment, basal functional grade for dyspnea, chronic and acute treatment, clinical and analytical data of the episode, and patient destination. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Bivariate analysis and survival analyses using Cox regression. RESULTS: A total of 13,454 patients were included, 7,662 (56.9%) of whom had anemia. Those with anemia were older, had more comorbidity, a worse functional status and New York Heart Association class, greater renal function impairment, and more hyponatremia. The mortality was higher in patients with anemia at 30 days and one year: 7.5% vs. 10.7% (p<0.001) and 21.2% vs. 31.4% (p<0.001), respectively. The crude and adjusted hazard ratios of anemia for 30-day mortality were: 1.46 (confidence interval [CI]95% 1.30-1.64); p<0.001 and 1.20 (CI95% 1.05-1.38); p=0.009, respectively, and 1.57 (CI95% 1.47-1.68) and 1.30 (CI95% 1.20-1.40) for mortality at one year. The weight of anemia on mortality was different in each follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: Anemia is an independent predictor of mortality at 30 days and one year in patients with AHF attended in HEDs. It is important to study the etiology of AHF since adequate treatment would reduce mortality.

16.
Acad Emerg Med ; 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There have been reports of procoagulant activity in patients with COVID-19. Whether there is an association between pulmonary embolism (PE) and COVID-19 in the emergency department (ED) is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess whether COVID-19 is associated with PE in ED patients who underwent a computed tomographic pulmonary angiogram (CTPA). METHODS: A retrospective study in 26 EDs from six countries. ED patients in whom a CTPA was performed for suspected PE during a 2-month period covering the pandemic peak. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of a PE on CTPA. COVID-19 was diagnosed in the ED either on CT or reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. A multivariable binary logistic regression was built to adjust with other variables known to be associated with PE. A sensitivity analysis was performed in patients included during the pandemic period. RESULTS: A total of 3,358 patients were included, of whom 105 were excluded because COVID-19 status was unknown, leaving 3,253 for analysis. Among them, 974 (30%) were diagnosed with COVID-19. Mean (±SD) age was 61 (±19) years and 52% were women. A PE was diagnosed on CTPA in 500 patients (15%). The risk of PE was similar between COVID-19 patients and others (15% in both groups). In the multivariable binary logistic regression model, COVID-19 was not associated with higher risk of PE (adjusted odds ratio = 0.98, 95% confidence interval = 0.76 to 1.26). There was no association when limited to patients in the pandemic period. CONCLUSION: In ED patients who underwent CTPA for suspected PE, COVID-19 was not associated with an increased probability of PE diagnosis. These results were also valid when limited to the pandemic period. However, these results may not apply to patients with suspected COVID-19 in general.

17.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e189, 2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843127

RESUMO

Despite SARS-CoV-19 infection has a stereotypical clinical picture, isolated cases with unusual manifestations have been reported, some of them being well-known to be triggered by viral infections. However, the real frequency in COVID-19 is unknown. Analysing data of 63 822 COVID patients attending 50 Spanish emergency department (ED) during the COVID outbreak, before hospitalisation, we report frequencies of (myo)pericarditis (0.71‰), meningoencephalitis (0.25‰), Guillain-Barré syndrome (0.13‰), acute pancreatitis (0.71‰) and spontaneous pneumothorax (0.57‰). Compared with general ED population, COVID patients developed more frequently Guillain-Barré syndrome (odds ratio (OR) 4.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.09-9.90), spontaneous pneumothorax (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.40-2.79) and (myo)pericarditis (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.07-1.97), but less frequently pancreatitis (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.33-0.60).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/complicações , Miocardite/complicações , Pancreatite/complicações , Pericardite/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumotórax/complicações , Betacoronavirus , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/virologia , Humanos , Miocardite/virologia , Pancreatite/virologia , Pandemias , Pericardite/virologia , Pneumotórax/virologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
18.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 32(4): 233-241, ago. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-190940

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Describir las características clínicas de los pacientes con COVID-19 atendidos en los servicios de urgencias hospitalarios (SUH) españoles y evaluar su asociación con los resultados de su evolución. MÉTODOS: Estudio multicéntrico, anidado en una cohorte prospectiva. Participaron 61 SUH que incluyeron pacientes seleccionados aleatoriamente de todos los diagnosticados de COVID-19 entre el 1 de marzo y el 30 de abril de 2020. Se recogieron características basales, clínicas, de exploraciones complementarias y terapéuticas del episodio en los SUH. Se calcularon las odds ratio (OR) asociadas a la mortalidad intrahospitalaria y al evento combinado formado por el ingreso en unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI), la intubación orotraqueal o ventilación mecánica invasiva (IOT/ VMI), crudas y ajustadas con modelos de regresión logística para tres grupos de variables independientes: basales, clínicas y de exploraciones complementarias. RESULTADOS: La edad media fue de 62 años (DE 18). La mayoría manifestaron fiebre, tos seca, disnea, febrícula y diarrea. Las comorbilidades más frecuentes fueron las enfermedades cardiovasculares, seguidas de las respiratorias y el cáncer. Las variables basales que se asociaron independientemente y de forma directa a peores resultados evolutivos (tanto a mortalidad como a evento combinado) fueron edad y obesidad; las variables clínicas fueron disminución de consciencia y crepitantes a la auscultación pulmonar, y de forma inversa cefalea; y las variables de resultados de exploraciones complementarias fueron infiltrados pulmonares bilaterales y cardiomegalia radiológicos, y linfopenia, hiperplaquetosis, dímero-D > 500 mg/dL y lactato-deshidrogenasa > 250 UI/L en la analítica. CONCLUSIONES: Conocer las características clínicas y la comorbilidad de los pacientes con COVID-19 atendidos en urgencias permite identificar precozmente a la población más susceptible de empeorar, para prever y mejorar los resultados


OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical characteristics of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treated in hospital emergency departments (EDs) in Spain, and to assess associations between characteristics and outcomes. METHODS: Prospective, multicenter, nested-cohort study. Sixty-one EDs included a random sample of all patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between March 1 and April 30, 2020. Demographic and baseline health information, including concomitant conditions; clinical characteristics related to the ED visit and complementary test results; and treatments were recorded throughout the episode in the ED. We calculated crude and adjusted odds ratios for risk of in-hospital death and a composite outcome consisting of the following events: intensive care unit admission, orotracheal intubation or mechanical ventilation, or in-hospital death. The logistic regression models were constructed with 3 groups of independent variables: the demographic and baseline health characteristics, clinical characteristics and complementary test results related to the ED episode, and treatments. RESULTS: The mean (SD) age of patients was 62 (18) years. Most had high- or low-grade fever, dry cough, dyspnea, and diarrhea. The most common concomitant conditions were cardiovascular diseases, followed by respiratory diseases and cancer. Baseline patient characteristics that showed a direct and independent association with worse outcome (death and the composite outcome) were age and obesity. Clinical variables directly associated with worse outcomes were impaired consciousness and pulmonary crackles; headache was inversely associated with worse outcomes. Complementary test findings that were directly associated with outcomes were bilateral lung infiltrates, lymphopenia, a high platelet count, a D-dimer concentration over 500 mg/dL, and a lactate-dehydrogenase concentration over 250 IU/L in blood. CONCLUSION: This profile of the clinical characteristics and comorbidity of patients with COVID-19 treated in EDs helps us predict outcomes and identify cases at risk of exacerbation. The information can facilitate preventive measures and improve outcomes


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Evolução Clínica/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Estudos Prospectivos , Razão de Chances , Intubação Intratraqueal , Respiração Artificial , Modelos Logísticos , Mortalidade Hospitalar
19.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 32(4): 253-257, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-190942

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Analizar las características clínicas, analíticas, radiológicas y los resultados finales de salud en una cohorte de pacientes con embolia pulmonar (EP) y COVID-19, y compararlas con un grupo de pacientes con EP sin COVID-19. MÉTODO: Estudio multicéntrico, observacional y retrospectivo realizado en cuatro servicios de urgencias hospitalarios (SUH) españoles del 15 de enero al 15 de abril de 2020. La detección de EP se hizo mediante la revisión de todas las angiografías por tomografía computarizada (angioTC) pulmonares solicitadas desde los SUH. Se han analizado dos grupos de pacientes con EP, con o sin enfermedad por COVID-19, y se comparan las características clínicas, analíticas, radiológicas, antecedentes y comorbilidad, factores de riesgo y resultados finales. RESULTADOS: Se realizaron 399 angioTC y se diagnosticaron 88 EP, 28 (32%) en pacientes con COVID-19. Estos pacientes fueron con más frecuencia hombres y tenían más antecedentes de enfermedad tromboembólica previa. No hubo diferencias en la presentación clínica, características analíticas o radiológicas ni en los resultados finales entre ambos grupos. La mortalidad intrahospitalaria fue del 7% (2 casos) en pacientes COVID y del 17% (10 casos) en pacientes sin COVID (OR de muerte en pacientes COVID con EP: 0,38, IC 95%: 0,08-1,89). CONCLUSIONES: No se han observado diferencias clínicamente relevantes en las características clínicas, analíticas, radiológicas y los resultados finales de salud en una cohorte de pacientes con EP y COVID-19 respecto a los pacientes con EP sin esta enfermedad atendidos en los SUH


OBJECTIVE: To analyze clinical, laboratory, and radiologic findings and final health outcomes in patients with pulmonary embolism and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To compare them to findings and outcomes in patients with pulmonary embolism without COVID-19. METHODS: Multicenter, observational, retrospective study in 4 Spanish hospital emergency departments (EDs) from January 15 to April 15, 2020. Cases were located by reviewing all ED requests for pulmonary computed tomography angiography (CTA) procedures. Clinical, laboratory, and radiologic findings; medical histories and comorbidity; risk factors; and outcomes were compared between the 2 groups of patients (with or without COVID-19). RESULTS: A total of 399 CTAs were ordered; 88 pulmonary embolisms were diagnosed, 28 of them (32%) in patients with COVID-19. This group had more men, and a history of thromboembolic disease was more common. We found no between-group differences in clinical presentation, laboratory, or radiologic findings; nor were there differences in final outcomes. In-hospital mortality was 7% (2 cases) in patients with COVID-19 and 17% (10 cases) in patients without the virus (odds ratio for death in patients with pulmonary embolism and COVID-19, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.08-1.89). CONCLUSIONS: We found no clinically important differences in the clinical, laboratory, or radiologic findings between patients with or without COVID-19 who were treated for pulmonary embolism in our hospital EDs. Final outcomes also did not differ


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Estudos de Coortes , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 32(4): 269-277, ago. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-190943

RESUMO

La investigación es una de las labores inalienables al ejercicio de la profesión médica. En el ámbito de la medicina de urgencias y emergencias (MUE), durante las últimas décadas se ha producido un aumento progresivo de esta actividad, liderada por los propios profesionales que trabajan en servicios de urgencias hospitalarios (SUH) y en los sistemas médicos de emergencias. No obstante, su producción científica se ha fundamentado más en la actividad de grupos unicéntricos que en redes de colaboración entre centros. Los últimos años, no obstante, han aparecido líneas de investigación exclusivamente dedicadas a la MUE en diversos institutos de investigación sanitaria españoles, reconocidos por el Instituto de Salud Carlos III, y también grupos de investigación de procesos específicos con una producción mantenida en el tiempo, muchos de ellos vinculados a la Sociedad Española de Medicina de Urgencias y Emergencias (SEMES). En el contexto de la pandemia de COVID-19 generada por el SARS-CoV-2, ha surgido la necesidad de que estos elementos investigadores unan sus fuerzas para hacer frente a los principales retos investigadores que supone esta pandemia desde la perspectiva de los SUH. Ello ha conducido a la fundación de la red de investigación SIESTA (Spanish Investigators on Emergency Situacions TeAm), cuyo primer reto es la realización del macroproyecto UMC-19 (Unusual Manifestations of Covid-19) en el plazo de un mes. A continuación se describen los pasos seguidos y los principales hitos de esta experiencia primigenia


Research is an inalienable part of medicine. The last few decades have seen a steady increase in research relevant to emergency medicine, led by professionals working in hospital emergency departments and related medical services. Most of the work has been done by groups in individual rather than networked centers. However, several Spanish institutions recognized by the Carlos III Health Institute (ISCIII) have developed lines of research that focus exclusively on emergency medicine. In addition, stable research groups - many of them associated with the Spanish Society of Emergency Medicine (SEMES) - have been engaged in ongoing studies of processes specific to our field. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2) created a need to focus all our efforts on the main challenges facing emergency departments. In response, the SIESTA (Spanish Investigators in Emergency Situations TeAm) network was created. The network's first challenge has been to complete the UMC-19 (Unusual Manifestations of COVID-19) macroproject within a single month. This paper describes the steps SIESTA followed and the main goals of this pioneering experience


Assuntos
Humanos , Colaboração Intersetorial , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/ética , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Planos e Programas de Saúde/organização & administração , Formulação de Projetos , Espanha/epidemiologia
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