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2.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701683

RESUMO

AIM: To illustrate the pre-hospital management arsenals and protocols in different EMS units, and to estimate the perceived difficulty of diagnosing suspected acute heart failure (AHF) compared with other common pre-hospital conditions. METHODS AND RESULTS: A multinational survey included 104 emergency medical service (EMS) regions from 18 countries. Diagnostic and therapeutic arsenals related to AHF management were reported for each type of EMS unit. The prevalence and contents of management protocols for common medical conditions treated pre-hospitally was collected. The perceived difficulty of diagnosing AHF and other medical conditions by emergency medical dispatchers and EMS personnel was interrogated. Ultrasound devices and point-of-care testing were available in advanced life support and helicopter EMS units in fewer than 25% of EMS regions. AHF protocols were present in 80.8% of regions. Protocols for ST-elevation myocardial infarction, chest pain, and dyspnoea were present in 95.2, 80.8, and 76.0% of EMS regions, respectively. Protocolized diagnostic actions for AHF management included 12-lead electrocardiogram (92.1% of regions), ultrasound examination (16.0%), and point-of-care testings for troponin and BNP (6.0 and 3.5%). Therapeutic actions included supplementary oxygen (93.2%), non-invasive ventilation (80.7%), intravenous furosemide, opiates, nitroglycerine (69.0, 68.6, and 57.0%), and intubation 71.5%. Diagnosing suspected AHF was considered easy to moderate by EMS personnel and moderate to difficult by emergency medical dispatchers (without significant differences between de novo and decompensated heart failure). In both settings, diagnosis of suspected AHF was considered easier than pulmonary embolism and more difficult than ST-elevation myocardial infarction, asthma, and stroke. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of AHF protocols is rather high but the contents seem to vary. Difficulty of diagnosing suspected AHF seems to be moderate compared with other pre-hospital conditions.

3.
Emergencias ; 31(6): 377-384, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777208

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyze changes in the characteristics of consecutively treated patients attended in the chest pain unit of a hospital emergency department over a 10-year period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All patients presenting with nontraumatic chest pain (NTCP) were included. We analyzed changes over time in epidemiologic characteristics, initial diagnostic classification (on clinical and electrocardiographic evaluation), final diagnosis (on discharge), and time until these diagnoses. RESULTS: A total of 34 552 consecutive patients with a mean (SD) age of 59 (13) years were included; 42% were women. The annual number of visits rose over time. Visits were fewer in summer and more numerous on workdays and between the hours of 8 AM and 4 PM (P<.001, both comparisons). The number of women increased over time (up 0.29% annually, P<.05) as did the number of patients under the age of 50 years (up 0.92% annually, P<.001). With time, patients had fewer cardiovascular risk factors and less often had a history of ischemic heart disease. Fewer cases of NTCP had signs suggestive of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). ACS was ruled out at the time of initial and final diagnoses in 52.2% and 80.4%, respectively, and these percentages which rose over the 10-year period by 1.86% (P<.001) and 0.56% (P=.04). Time to initial diagnosis did not change. However, time to final diagnosis did increase (P<.001), and the delay was longer in patients diagnosed with ACS (P<.001). CONCLUSION: The chest pain unit was more active at the end of the period, in keeping with the increase in patients with NTCP whose characteristics were not typical of coronary disease. The percentages of patients initially and finally diagnosed with ACS decreased with time.

4.
Emergencias ; 31(6): 407-412, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777213

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the pattern of care usually given to patients with acute heart failure (AHF) who are taking sacubitril/valsartan (SV) and to explore the effects of care characteristics on clinical outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Exploratory study of AHF cases in patients taking SV who were included in the register for the Epidemiology of Acute Heart Failure in Emergency Departments during the sixth period of data collection (EAHFE-6). We extracted baseline and episode variables and information related to SV treatment. We also analyzed associations between the discontinuation of SV therapy and adverse events within 180 days (all-cause mortality) and after discharge (emergency revisits, admission for AHF, death from any cause, or a composite event). RESULTS: . Fifty patients on SV were included. The median time on SV therapy was 81 days (interquartile range, 43-284 days). SV was discontinued in 19 cases (38%; 5 in the emergency department and 14 on the ward). Sixteen records specified the reason for discontinuing SV: renal insufficiency, 4 cases; arterial hypotension, 3; weakness/dizziness, 3; and exacerbated AHF, 3. SV discontinuation was associated with older age, absence of treatment with a betablocker, and hyperkalemia. The EAHFE-6 cases did not reveal significant differences related to SV discontinuation with respect to the rates of adverse events within 180 days or on discharge after the index event. CONCLUSION: Long-term SV therapy is discontinued in over a third of patients who present with exacerbated AHF even though no association with clinical outcomes could be identified.

6.
Emergencias ; 31(5): 318-326, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625303

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether chest radiographs can contribute to prognosis in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Consecutive patients with AHF were enrolled by the participating emergency departments. Radiographic variables assessed were the presence or absence of evidence of cardiomegaly and pleural effusion and the pulmonary parenchymal pattern observed (vascular redistribution, interstitial edema, and/or alveolar edema). We gathered variables for the AHF episode and the patient's baseline state. Outcomes were in-hospital and 1-year mortality; hospital stay longer than 7 days, and a composite of events within 30 days of discharge (revisit, rehospitalization, and/or death). Crude and adjusted hazard ratios were calculated for the 3 categories of radiographic variables. The variables were also studied in combination. RESULTS: A total of 2703 patients with a mean (SD) age of 81 (19) years were enrolled; 54.5% were women. Cardiomegaly was observed in 1711 cases (76.8%) and pleural effusion in 992 (36.7%). A pulmonary parenchymal pattern was observed in all cases, as follows: vascular redistribution in 1672 (61.9%), interstitial edema in 629 (23.3%) and alveolar edema in 402 (14.9%). The adjusted hazard ratios showed that cardiomegaly lacked prognostic value. However, the presence of pleural effusion was associated with a 23% (95% CI, 2%-49%) higher rate of the 30- day composite outcome; in-hospital mortality was 89% (30%-177%) higher in the presence of alveolar edema, and 1-year mortality was 38% (14%-67%) higher in association with vascular redistribution. The results for the variables in combination were consistent with the results for individual variables. CONCLUSION: A diagnostic chest radiograph can also contribute to the prediction of adverse events. Pleural effusion is associated with a higher rate of events after discharge, and alveolar edema is associated with higher mortality.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has been associated with prolonged survival in older individuals. However, it is unknown whether adherence to MedDiet is associated with the prognosis in older patients scheduled to undergo cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between adherence to the MedDiet and clinical outcomes at 12 months follow-up after CRT implantation in older patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients adherents to the MedDiet, defined as ≥ 9 of 14 points using the PREDIMED (Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease with a Mediterranean Diet Study) questionnaire, was assessed before device implantation in patient's ≥ 70 years candidates for CRT. The primary outcome was a combined endpoint at 12 months follow-up after CRT implantation, defined as cardiovascular death, cardiac transplantation or decompensated heart failure. The cohort study consisted of 284 patients with a mean age of 73 ± 3 years. One hundred and fifty-nine (55.9%) patients were classified as adherent to the MedDiet. Seventy (24.6%) patients showed the combined endpoint at one year follow-up. Subjects who did not developed the combined endpoint had higher proportion of adherent patients to the MedDiet compared to patients who developed the combined endpoint (85% vs 67.1%, p = 0.002). After adjustment by possible confounders, the adherence to the MedDiet was a protective and significant predictor of the combined endpoint (HR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.22-0.81; p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Adherence to the MedDiet is inversely associated with outcome in older patients following CRT.

8.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 31(5): 297-299, oct. 2019. ^f297^l299
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: ibc-ET2-2591

RESUMO

No disponible

9.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 31(5): 318-326, oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: ibc-ET2-2596

RESUMO

Objetivos. Investigar si la radiografía de tórax en pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca aguda (ICA) puede contribuir a establecer el pronóstico. Método. Se incluyeron pacientes consecutivos diagnosticados de ICA en urgencias. Se valoró: cardiomegalia radiológica (CR), derrame pleural (DP) y el patrón parenquimatoso pulmonar (PPP: redistribución vascular, edema intersticial, edema alveolar). Se recogieron variables del estado basal del paciente y del episodio. Las variables de resultado evaluadas fueron mortalidad intrahospitalaria y al año, ingreso prolongado (> 7 días) y evento combinado (reconsulta, rehospitalización o muerte) a 30 días postalta, para las cuales se calcularon las hazard ratio crudas y ajustadas para las tres variables radiológicas y su combinación entre ellas. Resultados. Se incluyeron 2.703 pacientes con una edad media de 81 (DE 19) años; el 54,5% eran mujeres. Se observó CR en 1.711 casos (76,8%), DP en 992 (36,7%) y todos los pacientes mostraron PPP (redistribución vascular el 61,9%, edema intersticial el 23,3% y edema alveolar el 14,9%). El análisis ajustado mostró que la CR no tuvo valor pronóstico; el DP incrementó un 23% (IC 95% 2-49%) los eventos combinados a los 30 días postalta; y el PPP edema alveolar aumentó un 89% (30-177%) la mortalidad intrahospitalaria y un 38% (14-67%) la mortalidad al año respecto al PPP redistribución vascular (referencia). El estudio de la combinación de estos tres hallazgos radiológicos mostró resultados similares y congruentes con los hallazgos del estudio individualizado. Conclusiones. La radiografía de tórax, además de ayudar a establecer el diagnóstico de ICA, puede contribuir a estimar el pronóstico de eventos adversos. Así, el DP se asocia a un incremento de eventos adversos postalta y el PPP edema alveolar a una mayor mortalidad


Objective. To determine whether chest radiographs can contribute to prognosis in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). Methods. Consecutive patients with AHF were enrolled by the participating emergency departments. Radiographic variables assessed were the presence or absence of evidence of cardiomegaly and pleural effusion and the pulmonary parenchymal pattern observed (vascular redistribution, interstitial edema, and/or alveolar edema). We gathered variables for the AHF episode and the patient’s baseline state. Outcomes were in-hospital and 1-year mortality; hospital stay longer than 7 days, and a composite of events within 30 days of discharge (revisit, rehospitalization, and/or death). Crude and adjusted hazard ratios were calculated for the 3 categories of radiographic variables. The variables were also studied in combination. Results. A total of 2703 patients with a mean (SD) age of 81 (19) years were enrolled; 54.5% were women. Cardiomegaly was observed in 1711 cases (76.8%) and pleural effusion in 992 (36.7%). A pulmonary parenchymal pattern was observed in all cases, as follows: vascular redistribution in 1672 (61.9%), interstitial edema in 629 (23.3%) and alveolar edema in 402 (14.9%). The adjusted hazard ratios showed that cardiomegaly lacked prognostic value. However, the presence of pleural effusion was associated with a 23% (95% CI, 2%-49%) higher rate of the 30-day composite outcome; in-hospital mortality was 89% (30%-177%) higher in the presence of alveolar edema, and 1-year mortality was 38% (14%-67%) higher in association with vascular redistribution. The results for the variables in combination were consistent with the results for individual variables. Conclusions. A diagnostic chest radiograph can also contribute to the prediction of adverse events. Pleural effusion is associated with a higher rate of events after discharge, and alveolar edema is associated with higher mortality

10.
Clin Chem ; 65(11): 1426-1436, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to validate the clinical performance of the high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I [VITROS® Immunodiagnostic Products hs Troponin I (hs-cTnI-VITROS)] assay. METHODS: We enrolled patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Final diagnoses were centrally adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists considering all clinical information, including cardiac imaging: first, using serial hs-cTnT-Elecsys (primary analysis) and, second, using hs-cTnI-Architect (secondary analysis) measurements in addition to the clinically used (hs)-cTn. hs-cTnI-VITROS was measured at presentation and at 1 h in a blinded fashion. The primary objective was direct comparison of diagnostic accuracy as quantified by the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of hs-cTnI-VITROS vs hs-cTnT-Elecsys and hs-cTnI-Architect, and in a subgroup also hs-cTnI-Centaur and hs-cTnI-Access. Secondary objectives included the derivation and validation of an hs-cTnI-VITROS-0/1-h algorithm. RESULTS: AMI was the adjudicated final diagnosis in 158 of 1231 (13%) patients. At presentation, the AUC for hs-cTnI-VITROS was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.93-0.96); for hs-cTnT-Elecsys, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.92-0.95); and for hs-cTnI-Architect, 0.92 (95% CI, 0.90-0.94). AUCs for hs-cTnI-Centaur and hs-cTnI-Access were 0.95 (95% CI, 0.94-0.97). Applying the derived hs-cTnI-VITROS-0/1-h algorithm (derivation cohort n = 519) to the validation cohort (n = 520), 53% of patients were ruled out [sensitivity, 100% (95% CI, 94.1-100)] and 14% of patients were ruled in [specificity, 95.6% (95% CI, 93.4-97.2)]. Patients ruled out by the 0/1-h algorithm had a survival rate of 99.8% at 30 days. Findings were confirmed in the secondary analyses using the adjudication including serial measurements of hs-cTnI-Architect. CONCLUSIONS: The hs-cTnI-VITROS assay has at least comparable diagnostic accuracy with the currently best validated hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI assays. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER: NCT00470587.

11.
JACC Heart Fail ; 7(10): 834-845, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521676

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether systemic corticosteroids (new onset) administered to patients with acute heart failure (AHF) have any association with outcomes, with differentiated analyses for patients with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as a comorbidity. BACKGROUND: Patients with undiagnosed dyspnea frequently receive corticosteroids in emergency departments while determining a final diagnosis, but their effect on the outcomes of patients with AHF without overt COPD exacerbation is unknown. METHODS: We selected patients with AHF from the EAHFE (Epidemiology of Acute Heart Failure in the Emergency Departments) registry, recording key data (new-onset corticosteroid therapy, COPD condition). Patients with and without COPD were analyzed separately. We calculated unadjusted and adjusted ratios for corticosteroid-treated compared with corticosteroid-untreated patients for 2 coprimary endpoints: 90-day all-cause mortality (from index episode) and 90-day post-discharge combined endpoint (all-cause mortality or readmission for AHF), with intermediate time-point estimations. Other secondary endpoints were calculated, and some sensitive and stratified analyses were performed. RESULTS: We analyzed 11,356 patients: 8,635 without COPD (841 corticosteroid-treated, 9.7%) and 2,721 with COPD (753 corticosteroid-treated, 27.7%). There were several differences between treated and untreated patients, essentially because corticosteroid-treated patients were sicker. Although unadjusted outcomes were worse in corticosteroid-treated patients, especially in patients without COPD, these differences disappeared after adjustment: hazard ratios for 90-day mortality (without/with COPD) were 0.91 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76 to 1.10)/0.99 (95% CI: 0.78 to 1.26), and 1.09 (95% CI: 0.93 to 1.28)/1.02 (95% CI: 0.86 to 1.21) for the post-discharge combined endpoint. Analyses of intermediate time-point coprimary endpoints and secondary outcomes rendered similar estimations. Sensitivity and stratified analysis did not significantly modify these results. CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence of harm related to the new onset of systemic corticosteroid therapy during an episode of AHF, either in patients with or without concomitant COPD.

12.
Maturitas ; 129: 50-56, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547913

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine functional changes and factors affecting 180-day functional prognosis among older patients attending a hospital emergency department (ED) after a fall. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis from a prospective cohort study (FALL-ER Registry) spanning one year that included individuals aged ≥65 years attending four Spanish EDs after a fall. We collected 9 baseline and 6 fall-related factors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Barthel Index (BI) was measured at baseline, discharge and 30, 90 and 180 days after the index fall. Absolute and relative BI changes were calculated. Absolute difference of ≥10 points between BI at baseline and at 180 days was considered a clinically significant functional decline. RESULTS: 452 patients (mean age 80 ±â€¯8 years; 70.8% women) were included. Baseline BI was 79.3 ±â€¯23.1 points. Compared with baseline, functional status was significantly lower at the 4 follow-up time points (-8.7% at discharge; and -6.9%, -7.9% and -9.5% at 30, 90 and 180 days; p < 0.001 for all comparisons in relation to baseline; p = 0.001 for change over time). One hundred and thirty-three (29.6%) patients had a clinically significant functional decline at 180 days. Age ≥85 years (OR = 2.24, 95%CI 1.23-4.08; p = 0.008), fall-related fracture (OR = 2.45, 95%CI 1.43-4.28; p = 0.001), hospitalization (OR = 1.91; 95%CI 1.11-3.29; p = 0.019) and post-fall syndrome (OR = 1.77, 95%CI 1.13-2.77; p = 0.013) were independently associated with 180-day clinically significant functional decline. CONCLUSION: Patients ≥65 years attending EDs after a fall experience a consistent and persistent negative impact on their functional status. Several factors may help identify patients at increased risk of functional impairment.

13.
Eur J Intern Med ; 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451322

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between length of hospitalisation (LOH) and post-discharge outcomes in acute heart failure (AHF) patients and to ascertain whether there are different patterns according to department of initial hospitalisation. METHODS: Consecutive AHF patients hospitalised in 41 Spanish centres were grouped based on the LOH (<6/6-10/11-15/>15 days). Outcomes were defined as 90-day post-discharge all-cause mortality, AHF readmissions, and the combination of both. Hazard ratios (HRs), adjusted by chronic conditions and severity of decompensation, were calculated for groups with LOH >6 days vs. LOH <6 days (reference), and stratified by hospitalisation in cardiology, internal medicine, geriatrics, or short-stay units. RESULTS: We included 8563 patients (mean age: 80 (SD = 10) years, 55.5% women), with a median LOH of 7 days (IQR 4-11): 2934 (34.3%) had a LOH <6 days, 3184 (37.2%) 6-10 days, 1287 (15.0%) 11-15 days, and 1158 (13.5%) >15 days. The 90-day post-discharge mortality was 11.4%, readmission 32.2%, and combined endpoint 37.4%. Mortality was increased by 36.5% (95%CI = 13.0-64.9) when LOH was 11-15 days, and by 72.0% (95%CI = 42.6-107.5) when >15 days. Conversely, no differences were found in readmission risk, and the combined endpoint only increased 21.6% (95%CI = 8.4-36.4) for LOH >15 days. Stratified analysis by hospitalisation departments rendered similar post-discharge outcomes, with all exhibiting increased mortality for LOH >15 days and no significant increments in readmission risk. CONCLUSIONS: Short hospitalisations are not associated with worse outcomes. While post-discharge readmissions are not affected by LOH, mortality risk increases as the LOH lengthens. These findings were similar across hospitalisation departments.

15.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(10): 1231-1244, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389111

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the natural history of patients after a first episode of acute heart failure (FEAHF) requiring emergency department (ED) consultation, focusing on: the frequency of ED visits and hospitalisations, departments admitting patients during the first and subsequent hospitalisations, and factors associated with difficult disease control. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included consecutive patients diagnosed with FEAHF (either with or without previous heart failure diagnosis) in four EDs during 5 months in three different time periods (2009, 2011, 2014). Diagnosis was adjudicated by local principal investigators. The clinical characteristics of the index event were prospectively recorded, and all post-discharge ED visits and hospitalisations [related/unrelated to acute heart failure (AHF)], as well as departments involved in subsequent hospitalisations were retrospectively ascertained. 'Uncontrolled disease' during the first year after FEAHF was considered if patients were attended at ED (≥ 3 times) or hospitalised (≥ 2 times) for AHF or died. Overall, 505 patients with FEAHF were included and followed for a mean of 2.4 years. In-hospital mortality was 7.5%. Among 467 patients discharged alive, 288 died [median survival 3.9 years, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.5-4.4], 421 (90%) revisited the ED (2342 ED visits; 42.4% requiring hospitalisation, 34.0% AHF-related) and 357 (77%) were hospitalised (1054 hospitalisations; 94.1% through ED, 51.4% AHF-related). AHF-related hospitalisations were mainly in internal medicine (28.0%), short-stay unit (26.3%), cardiology (20.8%), and geriatrics (14.1%). Only 47.4% of AHF-related hospitalisations were in the same department as the FEAHF, and internal medicine involvement significantly increased with subsequent hospitalisations (P = 0.01). Uncontrolled disease was observed in 31% of patients, which was independently related to age > 80 years [odds ratio (OR) 1.80, 95% CI 1.17-2.77], systolic blood pressure < 110 mmHg at ED arrival (OR 2.61, 95% CI 1.26-5.38) and anaemia (OR 2.39, 95% CI 1.51-3.78). CONCLUSION: In the present aged cohort of AHF patients from Barcelona, Spain, the natural history after FEAHF showed different patterns of hospital department involvement. Advanced age, low systolic blood pressure and anaemia were factors related to uncontrolled disease during the year after debut.

16.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(7): 842-854, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early and accurate detection of short-term major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is an unmet clinical need. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that adding clinical judgment and electrocardiogram findings to the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) measurement at presentation and after 1 h (ESC hs-cTn 0/1 h algorithm) would further improve its performance to predict MACE. METHODS: Patients presenting to an emergency department with suspected AMI were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter diagnostic study. The primary endpoint was MACE, including all-cause death, cardiac arrest, AMI, cardiogenic shock, sustained ventricular arrhythmia, and high-grade atrioventricular block within 30 days including index events. The secondary endpoint was MACE + unstable angina (UA) receiving early (≤24 h) revascularization. RESULTS: Among 3,123 patients, the ESC hs-cTnT 0/1 h algorithm triaged significantly more patients toward rule-out compared with the extended algorithm (60%; 95% CI: 59% to 62% vs. 45%; 95% CI: 43% to 46%; p < 0.001), while maintaining similar 30-day MACE rates (0.6%; 95% CI: 0.3% to 1.1% vs. 0.4%; 95% CI: 0.1% to 0.9%; p = 0.429), resulting in a similar negative predictive value (99.4%; 95% CI: 98.9% to 99.6% vs. 99.6%; 95% CI: 99.2% to 99.8%; p = 0.097). The ESC hs-cTnT 0/1 h algorithm ruled-in fewer patients (16%; 95% CI: 14.9% to 17.5% vs. 26%; 95% CI: 24.2% to 27.2%; p < 0.001) compared with the extended algorithm, albeit with a higher positive predictive value (76.6%; 95% CI: 72.8% to 80.1% vs. 59%; 95% CI: 55.5% to 62.3%; p < 0.001). For 30-day MACE + UA, the ESC hs-cTnT 0/1 h algorithm had a higher positive predictive value for rule-in, whereas the extended algorithm had a higher negative predictive value for the rule-out. Similar findings emerged when using hs-cTnI. CONCLUSIONS: The ESC hs-cTn 0/1 h algorithm better balanced efficacy and safety in the prediction of MACE, whereas the extended algorithm is the preferred option for the rule-out of 30-day MACE + UA. (Advantageous Predictors of Acute Coronary Syndromes Evaluation [APACE]; NCT00470587).

17.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; 8(7): 667-680, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and prognostic value of the most common triggering factors in acute heart failure. METHODS: Patients with acute heart failure from 41 Spanish emergency departments were recruited consecutively in three time periods between 2011 and 2016. Precipitating factors were classified as: (a) unrecognized; (b) infection; (c) atrial fibrillation; (d) anaemia; (e) hypertension; (f) acute coronary syndrome; (g) non-adherence; and (h) two or more precipitant factors. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were used to assess the association between 30-day mortality and each precipitant factor. The risk of dying was further evaluated by week intervals over the 30-day follow-up to assess the period of higher vulnerability for each precipitant factor. RESULTS: Approximately 69% of our 9999 patients presented with a triggering factor and 1002 died within the first 30 days (10.0%). The most prevalent factors were infection and atrial fibrillation. After adjusting for 11 known predictors, acute coronary syndrome was associated with higher 30-day mortality (odds ratio (OR) 1.87; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-3.42), whereas atrial fibrillation (OR 0.75; 95% CI 0.56-0.94) and hypertension (OR 0.34; 95% CI 0.21-0.55) were significantly associated with better outcomes when compared to patients without precipitant. Patients with infection, anaemia and non-compliance were not at higher risk of dying within 30 days. These findings were consistent across gender and age groups. The 30-day mortality time pattern varied between and within precipitant factors. CONCLUSIONS: Precipitant factors in acute heart failure patients are prevalent and have a prognostic value regardless of the patient's gender and age. They can be managed with specific treatments and can sometimes be prevented.

18.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(6): 744-754, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients presenting with syncope to the emergency department (ED) is largely unknown. This information, however, is necessary to balance the potential medical benefit or harm of systematic PE screening in patients presenting with syncope to the ED. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the prevalence of PE in patients with syncope. METHODS: Unselected patients presenting with syncope to the ED were prospectively enrolled in a diagnostic multicenter study. Pre-test clinical probability for PE was assessed using the 2-level Wells score and the results of D-dimer testing using age-adapted cutoffs. Presence of PE was evaluated by imaging modalities, when ordered as part of the clinical assessment by the treating ED physician or by long-term follow-up data. RESULTS: Long-term follow-up was complete in 1,380 patients (99%) at 360 days and 1,156 patients (83%) at 720 days. Among 1,397 patients presenting with syncope to the ED, PE was detected at presentation in 19 patients (1.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.87% to 2.11%). The incidence of new PEs or cardiovascular death during 2-year follow-up was 0.9% (95% CI: 0.5% to 1.5%). In the subgroup of patients hospitalized (47%), PE was detected at presentation in 15 patients (2.3%; 95% CI: 1.4% to 3.7%). The incidence of new PEs or cardiovascular death during 2-year follow-up was 0.9% (95% CI: 0.4% to 2.0%). CONCLUSIONS: PE seems to be a rather uncommon cause of syncope among patients presenting to the ED. Therefore, systematic PE-screening in all patients with syncope does not seem warranted. (BAsel Syncope EvaLuation Study [BASEL IX]; NCT01548352).

19.
Eur J Intern Med ; 67: 89-96, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331793

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the outcomes of patients with acute heart failure (AHF) presenting renal dysfunction (RD) or hyperkalaemia (Hk) alone or in combination. METHOD: We analysed the data of the EAHFE registry, a multicentre, non interventionist cohort with prospective follow-up of patients with AHF. Four groups were defined based on the presence or not of RD or Hk alone or in combination. The primary endpoint was 30-day all-cause mortality. RESULTS: A total of 11,935 of the 13,791 patients included in the EAHFE registry were analysed. Of these, 5088 (42.6%) did not have RD or Hk (NoRD-NoHk), 150 (1.3%) had no RD but had Hk (NoRD-Hk), 6012 (50.4%) had RD but not Hk (RD-NoHk) and 685 (5.7%) had both RD and Hk (RD-Hk). Thirty-day all-cause mortality was greatest in the RD-Hk group with an adjusted Hazard Ratio (HR) of 2.44 (confidence interval 95% [CI95%] 1.67-3.55; p < 0.001) and in the RD-NoHk group with an adjusted HR of 1.34 (CI95% 1.04-1.71; p = 0.022). There were no significant differences in in-hospital mortality and reconsultation at 30 days for HF. For the combined endpoint of 30-day all-cause mortality the adjusted HR was 1.33 (CI95% 1.04-1.70); (p = 0.021) for the RD-Hk group. CONCLUSIONS: The association of 30-day all-cause mortality with the presence of RD and Hk in patients presenting AHF at admission is greater than in those without this combination.

20.
Int J Cardiol ; 293: 176-178, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353155
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