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1.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 546, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168100

RESUMO

The Companion Vector-Borne Diseases (CVBD) World Forum is a working group of leading international experts who meet annually to evaluate current scientific findings and future trends concerning the distribution, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis and prevention of vector-borne infections of dogs and cats. At the 14th Symposium of the CVBD World Forum in Trieste, Italy (March 25-28, 2019), we identified the need to (i) bring attention to the potential spread of parasites and vectors with relocated dogs, and (ii) provide advice to the veterinary profession regarding the importance of surveillance and treatment for parasites and vector-borne infections when rehoming dogs. This letter shares a consensus statement from the CVBD World Forum as well as a summary of the problem faced, including the role of veterinary professionals in parasite surveillance, causal issues, and the importance of interdisciplinary cooperation in addressing the problem. To limit opportunities for dissemination of parasites and vectors, whenever possible, underlying problems creating the need for dog rehoming should be addressed. However, when it is necessary to rehome dogs, this should ideally take place in the country and national region of origin. When geographically distant relocation occurs, veterinary professionals have a vital role to play in public education, vigilance for detection of exotic vectors and infections, and alerting the medical community to the risk(s) for pathogen spread. With appropriate veterinary intervention, dog welfare needs can be met without inadvertently allowing global spread of parasites and their vectors.

2.
Int J Parasitol ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091413

RESUMO

This study examines the therapeutic and year-round prophylactic efficacy of different formulations used in dogs in three Spanish areas where canine thelaziosis is endemic. The study was conducted as a Good Clinical Practice, multicentre, randomised field study in privately owned outdoor dogs naturally infected with Thelazia callipaeda. The active pharmaceutical ingredients tested were: an oral formulation of milbemycin oxime 12.5 mg combined with praziquantel 125 mg (A), a subcutaneous sustained-release formulation of moxidectin 10 g (B), a moxidectin 2.5% weight/volume (w/v) spot-on formulation combined with imidacloprid 10% w/v (C), and an eye drop formulation (6 µg) of ivermectin 10 mg/ml diluted 10% in propylene glycol (D). Infected dogs were randomly allocated to treatment Groups A, B, C and D. Dogs testing negative for T. callipaeda inspection in two visits (Day 7/Day 14 and D30) were enrolled in the prophylaxis trial and reallocated to the corresponding study group (A, B, C or D). Treatment efficacy ranged from 70.4% recorded in Group A 1 week after treatment, to 100% recorded in Group C on Day 30 and in Group B on Day 60. Treatment was more efficacious in Group D (85.7% 1 week after treatment) than A, but was never 100% efficacious as in Groups B and C. Year-round prophylactic efficacy was 83.3% in Group A, 100% in Group B, 93.5% in Group C and 87.5% in Group D. In conclusion, products containing moxidectin were highly efficacious both in treating and preventing canine thelaziosis. Milbemycin also emerged as a good option. However, the off-label use of topical or subcutaneous ivermectin should be avoided due to possible adverse reactions such as pruritus, irritation or redness. In endemic areas, monthly prophylaxis to limit the spread of T. callipaeda to new areas across Europe and reduce zoonotic risks is essential.

3.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(9)2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825496

RESUMO

Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), two of the most important pathogens of cats, produce chronic systemic diseases with progressive death of cells involved in the immune response, ultimately leading to death. Immunostimulants is one of the few alternatives to the symptomatic treatment. In this study, 27 naturally FeLV-infected (FeLV+) and 31 naturally FIV-infected (FIV+) cats were administered orally by their owners 60 IU/day of recombinant human interferon alpha (rHuIFN-α) for four months in alternate weeks. Clinical status was evaluated and blood samples collected at four different visits or months (M): pretreatment (M0), mid-treatment (M2), end of treatment (M4), and 4-8 months after end of treatment (M10). Most cats ostensibly improved their clinical status, and many became asymptomatic. rHuIFN-α treatment improved the anemic processes observed at M0 (at least in cats with mild or moderate anemia) and leukocyte counts, including a more favorable CD4+/CD8+ ratio. An increase in the serum gammaglobulin concentration was seen in 80% of the cats. Despite observing an obvious favorable progress in the clinical, biopathological, and CD4+/CD8+ values during treatment, almost invariably all the parameters analyzed worsened after treatment discontinuation (M10), which suggests that the interferon-α protocol should be either extended or include additional cycles for a long-lasting benefit in FeLV+ and FIV+ cats.

4.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 205, 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is a parasitic zoonotic disease, endemic in the Mediterranean basin including Spain. While knowledge about CanL, its management, treatment, prevention and control mounts, it remains unclear whether all clinical veterinarians follow the same international recommendations, such as those of the LeishVet group. This study was thus designed to assess recent trends in the clinical management of CanL in veterinary clinics across Spain through a questionnaire-based survey. Results were compared with those of a prior national multicenter questionnaire administered by our research team in 2005. METHODS: A questionnaire consisting of 28 questions about CanL was developed using Google Forms and distributed by email to 1428 veterinary clinics in Spain. Questions were designed to obtain data on common clinical signs, techniques and complementary exams used to diagnose the disease, and on its monitoring, treatment and control measures. Data were collected in a database for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Completed questionnaires were returned by 295 clinics. Compared to the situation in 2005, responses indicate that clinical signs of CanL have not changed significantly, cutaneous lesions being still the most prevalent sign observed by practitioners. Quantitative serological techniques are considered an adequate approach to diagnosis, provided their results are supported by the findings of a thorough physical exam, as well as complementary tests (complete blood count, biochemical profile, plasma protein electrophoretogram and complete urinalysis). Treatment protocols and check-ups follow international recommendations. Finally, a multimodal approach is being endorsed to adequately control CanL including preventive measures such as annual serological check-ups and the combination of repellents and vaccines. Additionally, owners are being better informed about CanL by veterinarians, which translates to the improved control of this zoonosis. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical management of CanL has recently undergone significant changes owing to improvements in clinical knowledge of the disease, more unified international criteria, improved diagnostic techniques and their adequate interpretation, as well as a greater awareness of the disease transmitted to owners.

5.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 204, 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This report describes L. infantum infection seroprevalence in dogs in Spain through data obtained from peer-reviewed literature and a cross-sectional serological survey assessing epidemiological and habitat variables as risk factors for infection. The study also provides preliminary sand fly species distribution data and indicates factors affecting their distribution and density. METHODS: Three different studies were conducted in Spain: (i) a peer-reviewed literature seroprevalence survey (1985-2019); (ii) a cross-sectional serological survey (2011-2016); and (iii) a preliminary entomological survey (2013-2014). In the cross-sectional serological survey, 1739 dogs from 74 different locations including 25 Spanish provinces were tested for L. infantum by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) (antibody titre ≥ 1:100). Seroprevalence of L. infantum infection was analysed by province and bioclimatic zone. Statistics were used to analyse relationships between several dog- and environment-related variables and L. infantum seroprevalence. In parallel, during 2013-2014, sand flies were collected across the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands using CDC light traps to examine relationships between habitat-related factors and sand fly species densities (number of sand flies per trap per hour). RESULTS: The literature review revealed that the provinces showing the highest seroprevalence were Balearic Islands (57.1%), Ourense (35.6%), Málaga (34.6%) and Cáceres (34.2%), and those showing the lowest seroprevalence were Vizcaya (0%), Cantabria (2.0%) and Álava (3.3%). In our survey, anti-Leishmania IgG antibodies were detected in 176 of the 1739 dogs rendering a seroprevalence of 10.12%. Percentage seroprevalence distributions significantly varied among bioclimatic belts. Seropositivity for L. infantum was related to size (large breed dogs versus small) and were significantly higher in younger dogs (≤ 1 years-old). In the entomological survey, 676 sand flies of five species were captured: 562 (83.13%) Phlebotomus perniciosus; 64 (9.47%) Sergentomyia minuta; 38 (5.62%) P. ariasi: 6 (0.89%) P. sergenti; and 6 (0.89%) P. papatasi. Phlebotomus perniciosus showed a greater density in the thermo-Mediterranean than in the meso-Mediterranean zone. Densities of S. minuta and P. ariasi were significantly higher in rural habitats. CONCLUSIONS: This updated seroprevalence map of L. infantum infection in dogs in Spain defines non-endemic, hypoendemic, endemic and hyperendemic areas, and confirms P. perniciosus as the most abundant sand fly vector in Spain.

6.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302466

RESUMO

Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are ubiquitous intestinal protozoa that parasitize domestic and wild animals, as well as human beings. Due to their zoonotic potential, the objective of the present study was to determine the presence of these pathogens in the fox population (Vulpes vulpes) located in Northwest Spain. A total of 197 faecal samples from legally hunted foxes were collected in the autonomous region of Galicia. The presence of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. was investigated by PCR-based methods amplifying the small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssu rRNA) gene of the parasites. Attempts to genotype obtained positive samples were subsequently conducted at the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and ß-giardin (bg) genes of G. duodenalis, and the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene of Cryptosporidium. Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. were identified in 19 (9.6%) and 12 (6.1%) of the investigated samples, respectively. However, five Cryptosporidium species were detected at the ssu rRNA locus: C. hominis (33.4%, 4/12), C. canis (25.0%, 3/12), C. parvum (16.7%, 2/12), C. ubiquitum (8.3%, 1/12) and C. suis (8.3%, 1/12). An additional Cryptosporidium-positive sample was identified at the genus level only. Typing and subtyping of Giardia- and Cryptosporidium-positive samples were unsuccessful. The detection of C. hominis in wild foxes indicates the probable overlapping of sylvatic and domestic cycles of this parasite in rural settings. Besides, this finding raises the question of whether red foxes may act as natural reservoirs of C. hominis. The detection of C. parvum and C. suis is suggestive of active transmission events between farm and wild animals, opening up the possibility of transmission to human beings.

7.
Int J Parasitol ; 50(3): 171-176, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126240

RESUMO

Prevention of canine Leishmania infantum infection is critical to management of visceral leishmaniasis in people living in endemic areas of Brazil. A bill (PL 1738/11), currently under consideration, proposes to establish a national vaccination policy against canine leishmaniasis in Brazil. However, there is no solid scientific evidence supporting the idea that this could reduce transmission from infected vaccinated dogs to sand flies to a level that would significantly reduce the risk of L. infantum infection or visceral leishmaniasis in humans. Thus, we advocate that insecticide-impregnated collars should the first line protective measure for public health purposes and that vaccines are applied on a case-by-case, optional basis for individual dog protection.


Assuntos
Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Piretrinas/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/veterinária , Administração Tópica , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Vacinas contra Leishmaniose , Leishmaniose Visceral/prevenção & controle , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Psychodidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Piretrinas/farmacologia
8.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 89, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The drosophilid Phortica variegata is known as vector of Thelazia callipaeda, the oriental eyeworm native to Asia that has become an emergent zoonotic agent in several European regions. Unlike almost all other arthropod vectors of pathogens, only P. variegata males feed of lachrymal secretions of animals, ingesting first-stage larvae (L1) of the worm living in the orbital cavities of the host, and allowing with the same behaviour the introduction of infective L3. Despite the increased detection of T. callipaeda in many European countries, information about the length of the lachryphagous activity period of P. variegata and a deep knowledge of the environmental and climatic variables involved are still limited. METHODS: We herein present the results of a multicentre study involving five sites from four different countries (Italy, Spain, UK and USA) where canine thelaziosis is endemic and/or where it has already been ascertained the presence of P. variegata. Field data have been obtained on a fortnightly basis from mid-April to the end of November 2018 from a contemporary standardized sampling (same sampling effort and time of collection in all sites) of lachryphagous flies collected around the eyes of a human bait using an entomological net. These data have been associated to data collection of local climatic variables (day length, temperature, wind speed, barometric pressure and relative humidity). RESULTS: Overall, a total of 4862 P. variegata flies (4637 males and 224 females) were collected, with high differences in densities among the different sampling sites. Significant positive correlations were found between P. variegata male density and temperature and wind speed, while negative correlations were observed for barometric pressure and relative humidity. However, the above significant differences are confirmed in each sampling site separately only for the temperature. CONCLUSIONS: This multicentre study highlights that temperature is the major common environmental driver in describing the lachryphagous activity of P. variegata in Europe and USA and, therefore, the transmission risk of thelaziosis.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Clima , Drosophilidae/fisiologia , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Temperatura , Thelazioidea/fisiologia , Animais , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Olho/parasitologia , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Larva/fisiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Infecções por Spirurida/epidemiologia
9.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 101, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pets may be carriers of infectious agents including parasites. As part of a larger-scale study covering the whole of Europe, this study examines deworming measures reported by Spanish pet owners and identifies risk factors. METHODS: An online questionnaire was administered to cat and dog owners in Spain. The replies provided were used to obtain information about the pets' living conditions and to accordingly classify each pet into one of the four ESCCAP infection risk categories (A, B, C or D) for which different deworming frequencies are recommended. Questions were also asked about pet care and owners' attitude toward their pets. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to correlate risk groups with deworming frequencies. RESULTS: Completed questionnaires were returned by 500 cat owners and 501 dog owners. According to responses, 96.21% of dogs were assigned to risk category D (maximum risk), and only 1.2%, 2.2% and 0.4% to A, B and C, respectively. Almost all cats were assigned to the minimum risk category A (indoor cats, 62%) or maximum risk category D (outdoor cats, 32.8%); only 3.4% and 1.8% of cats were classified as risk B and C respectively. More dogs were allocated to the higher risk group compared to cats, which were more frequently kept indoors. Cats were reportedly dewormed less frequently than dogs (2.56 and 3.13 times per year respectively), consistent with their different infestation risk. Thus, pets in the lower risk group A were either adequately dewormed or treated more often than necessary. Only a small proportion of cats were not dewormed at all (n = 14). Alarmingly, almost all pets in risk groups B, C or D (representing 95% of dogs and 39% of cats) were dewormed less often than recommended. CONCLUSIONS: More effective health education is required for the management of zoonotic endoparasite diseases under the umbrella of One Health targeted at owners, veterinarians, general practitioners, and health authorities. To align deworming frequency with infection risk, pet owners should be provided with clear, compelling instructions.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/prevenção & controle , Animais de Estimação/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parasitos/fisiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Fatores de Risco , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
10.
Prev Vet Med ; 175: 104883, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935667

RESUMO

Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) causes ocular infection in carnivorous animals and humans. While growing numbers of companion dogs and sometimes cats are being diagnosed with thelaziosis, little is known about its real spread. As it has been also diagnosed in wild animals and human beings, it is considered a potential emerging zoonotic disease. This study provides information about the spread of the parasite in dogs in Spain since its initial description in 2010 until 2018. The first detection of T. callipaeda in the Principality of Andorra in 2017 is also reported. Two different studies were conducted: a) a survey in which clinical cases from veterinary practices were collected and b) a prevalence study in two endemic areas in western and central Spain (Site 1 La Vera region, Cáceres, and Site 2 El Escorial municipality, Madrid). In total, 1114 cases of thelaziosis were detected in 121 municipalities of Spain and 6 municipalities of Andorra. In 92 out these 127 municipalities, reports were of autochthonous cases. Six hundred twenty-three out of 1114 presented data collection sheet and were included in the statistical analysis: 510 cases identified by veterinarians in Spain and Andorra in Study 1, and 113 cases detected among the 234 dogs (48.3 %) examined in the prevalence study (Study 2). Prevalences were 61.3 % (84/137) for Cáceres and 29.9 % (29/97) for Madrid, being Site 1 significantly more risky (P <  0.0001, odds ratio: 3.72, CI: 2.14-4.47 %) compared to Site 2. Our study updates data for canine thelaziosis reported in the last decade in Spain and Andorra. Results highlight the urgent need for prevention strategies to control the spread of this potential zoonotic disease.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Thelazioidea/fisiologia , Animais , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Prevalência , Espanha/epidemiologia , Infecções por Spirurida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Spirurida/parasitologia
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(12): 1-4, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742505

RESUMO

Dogs are the main reservoir of Leishmania infantum and in some countries have been regularly culled as part of government policy to control visceral leishmaniasis. At the 13th Symposium of the Companion Vector-Borne Diseases World Forum in Windsor, UK, March 19-22, 2018, we consolidated a consensus statement regarding the usefulness of dog culling as a means of controlling visceral leishmaniasis. The statement highlighted the futility of culling infected dogs, whether healthy or sick, as a measure to control the domestic reservoir of L. infantum and reduce the risk for visceral leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Animais , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária
12.
Viruses ; 11(9)2019 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514435

RESUMO

Specific treatments for the long-life infections by feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are either toxic, expensive or not too effective. Interferon α (IFN-α) is an immunomodulatory molecule which has been shown in vitro to decrease the release of infective particles. The aim of this study was to follow the progress of the clinical score and viral parameters of FeLV- and FIV-naturally infected privately owned cats treated with recombinant human IFN-α (rHuIFN-α, Roferon-A). Twenty-seven FeLV-infected cats (FeLV+) and 31 FIV-infected cats (FIV+) were enrolled in the study. Owners were instructed to orally administer 1 mL/day of 60 IU rHuIFN-α/mL in alternating weeks for four months. Blood samples were taken at the beginning of the study (M0), mid-treatment (M2), end of treatment (M4), and 6-10 months later (M10). Clinical status at these time points improved notably with rHuIFN-α treatment, regardless of the initial severity of the disease, an effect which lasted throughout the study in most animals (15 of the 16 FeLV+ symptomatic cats; 20 of the 22 FIV+ symptomatic cats) improved markedly their clinical situation. In FeLV+ cats plasma antigenemia (p27CA), reverse transcriptase (RT) activity, and proviral load decreased at M2 and M4 but increased again at M10 ("rebound effect"). The level of antigenemia or RT activity was below the detection limits in FIV+ cats, and the effect on proviral load was less marked than in FeLV+ cats. Taken together, these results indicate that rHuIFN-α is a good candidate for treating FeLV+ cats, but the "rebound effect" seen when treatment was discontinued suggests that additional studies should be conducted to clarify its effect on progression of the infection in cats.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida Felina/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/efeitos dos fármacos , Interferon alfa-2/administração & dosagem , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucemia Felina/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Animais , Antígenos Virais/sangue , Gatos/virologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida Felina/imunologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Leucemia Felina/imunologia , Masculino , Animais de Estimação/virologia , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por RNA/metabolismo , Carga Viral
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(7): e0007594, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306417

RESUMO

Though scantly investigated, Leishmania infantum infection and clinical cases of leishmaniasis in cats have been recently reported in several countries of the Mediterranean basin, with large variability in prevalence data. A major limitation in the comparability of the data available is attributed to the differences in diagnostic techniques employed and cat populations sampled. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of L. infantum infection in owned cats across Italy by serological and molecular tests and the identification of potential risk factors. Blood samples from 2,659 cats from northern (n = 1,543), central (n = 471) and southern (n = 645) Italy were tested for antibodies against L. infantum, by an immunofluorescence antibody test and for the parasites' DNA, by real-time PCR. Samples were additionally screened for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) proviral DNAs. An overall cumulative L. infantum prevalence of 3.9% was recorded by serology (3.3%) and/or qPCR (0.8%), with a higher rate (10.5%) in southern Italy. The risk of L. infantum infection in cats was significantly associated to the geographical areas (South vs North and Centre; p<0.0001), age class (from 19 months to 6 years old vs ≤18 months old, p = 0.0003), neutering status (not neutered vs neutered, p = 0.0028) and FIV infection (p = 0.0051).Though the role of cats in the epidemiology of L. infantum is still debated, our findings indicate that cats are exposed to and/or infected by this protozoan, mainly in endemic regions of Italy. Hence, a standardization of procedures for a prompt diagnosis of L. infantum infection in cats and for screening cat population is crucial for a better understanding of the epidemiology of feline leishmaniasis, and of the potential role of cats in the transmission cycle of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Gatos , Feminino , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/genética , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/isolamento & purificação , Itália/epidemiologia , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/genética , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/veterinária , Análise Multivariada , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 127, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While in Europe Babesia canis has been traditionally held responsible for canine piroplasmosis, Babesia microti-like piroplasm (Bml) infection is being ever more observed in dogs, with the first clinical cases reported in northwestern Spain. This study examines the epidemiological role of healthy dogs living in endemic areas of Bml infection in Spain. The data obtained were used to describe the clinical status and map the geographical distribution of Bml infection in healthy dogs in northwestern Spain. RESULTS: Blood samples and ticks were taken from 756 healthy dogs representatively across the whole Galicia region (northwestern Spain): stray (n = 211), hunting dogs (n = 333) and pets (n = 212). Blood samples were tested by microscopy parasite observation, nested PCR-RFLP and sequencing. Piroplasm infection prevalences in healthy dogs from northwestern Spain were 17.1% (129/756) by PCR and 3.4% (26/756) by microscopy observation. The species found by PCR were: 2.2% (17/756) for B. canis and 15.1% (114/756) for Bml. Co-infection with B. canis and Bml was noted in 2 dogs. The higher prevalences detected were Bml in hunting dogs (25.5%; 85/333) and B. canis in stray dogs (6.6%; 14/211). In fox-hunting dogs from any area and dogs from the A Coruña Province, significantly higher prevalences of Bml infection were detected (P < 0.001). Upon physical examination, tick infestation was observed: 130 ticks in 18 hunting and three pet dogs. These were subsequently identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus (s.l.) (49.2%), Ixodes hexagonus (38.5%), Ixodes ricinus (6.9%) and Dermacentor reticulatus (5.4%). Among the more prevalent ticks infesting healthy carrier dogs were I. hexagonus, followed by D. reticulatus and I. ricinus. CONCLUSIONS: Babesia canis and Bml were the only piroplasm species found infecting healthy dogs in Galicia, the prevalence of Bml being higher than of B. canis. Factors correlated with a higher Bml infection risk were being a hunting dog and living in the A Coruña Province. Healthy dogs travelling to other countries could act as carriers and probably contribute to the spread of Bml infection in dogs and wild carnivores throughout Europe.


Assuntos
Babesia microti , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Animais , Babesiose/transmissão , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Tipagem Molecular , Prevalência , Espanha/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Carrapatos/parasitologia
15.
Trends Parasitol ; 35(2): 97-101, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554966

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania infantum, is a zoonosis, and culling seropositive dogs has been recommended to control the disease in some endemic countries. However, no scientific evidence supports the effectiveness of this strategy to reduce the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis. Economic and ethical issues concerning dog culling are discussed.


Assuntos
Eutanásia Animal/ética , Leishmaniose Visceral/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Animais , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Humanos , Leishmania infantum , Política Pública/tendências
16.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(11): e180301, 2018 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30365645

RESUMO

A pivotal strategy to decrease the risk of visceral leishmaniasis in humans is to control the infection and disease progression in dogs, the domestic reservoir of Leishmania infantum (L. chagasi). Immunotherapy is a viable approach to treat sick dogs because cell-mediated immunity is the principal defense mechanism against L. infantum. Domperidone is an immune-stimulatory drug increasingly used in veterinary medicine as a prophylactic or immunotherapeutic agent. Domperidone treatment has shown to prevent overt disease or improve the clinical condition of infected dogs. However, veterinarians should be aware of the potential cardiotoxicity of domperidone when given together with drugs that inhibit CYP450s liver enzymes or those that prolong the QT interval. On the other hand, learning whether domperidone treatment significantly decreases dog infectivity to sand fly vectors is of capital importance since this result should have a palpable impact on the infection risk of humans living in regions endemic for visceral leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Domperidona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Dopamina/uso terapêutico , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Leishmania infantum/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Fatores de Risco
17.
Vet Parasitol ; 254: 151-159, 2018 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29657002

RESUMO

The initiative One World, "One Health" tries to rapidly detect emerging or reemerging human and animal infectious diseases and prevent epidemiological situations such as deforestation, some agricultural practices or the appearance of new foci of leishmaniosis due to Leishmania infantum with alternative reservoirs. With this objective in mind, we here consider leishmaniosis in the Mediterranean basin and compare its current clinical management from two perspectives: that of a veterinarian specialized in infectious and parasitic diseases, and that of a physician specialized in infectious tropical diseases. We thus prepared a list of 10 key questions from epidemiology to control of the disease in both species: dogs and humans. This issue requires a concise and clear response to help animal and human health clinicians to improve their clinical management and understanding of this important zoonosis. Our ultimate aim is to update and bring together the information available backed by sound scientific evidence.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Leishmania infantum/fisiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/prevenção & controle , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , África do Norte , Animais , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Humanos , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Região do Mediterrâneo , Oriente Médio , Saúde Única
18.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 195, 2018 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29558995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The fruit fly Phortica variegata (Drosophilidae: Steganinae) feeds on the ocular secretions of animals and humans, and has been described as an intermediate host of the eye worm Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida: Thelaziidae) in Italy. Despite the increased detection of T. callipaeda in many European countries, information about its vector role in natural conditions is still limited. In the Iberian Peninsula, thelaziosis caused by T. callipaeda has been reported in dogs, cats, red foxes, wild rabbits and humans. METHODS: In the last seven years, we have detected increased numbers of cases of canine thelaziosis at three locations in mainland Spain: Site 1, La Vera region (Cáceres Province, central-western Spain; 51 cases); Site 2, El Escorial municipality (Madrid Community, central Spain; 23 cases); and Site 3, Miraflores de la Sierra municipality (Madrid Community, central Spain; 41 cases). Site 1 is considered endemic for T. callipaeda while the other two sites have been recently recognised as risk zones for T. callipaeda infection. RESULTS: From June 2016 to September 2017, 2162 flies were collected and morphologically identified as Phortica spp. (Site 1, n = 395; Site 2, n = 1544; and Site 3, n = 223). Upon dissection, third-stage T. callipaeda larvae were found in two out of 155 flies examined from Site 1, and both these larvae tested molecularly positive for the eye worm. Of the 395 flies collected from Site 1, 371 were molecularly processed for arthropod species identification and T. callipaeda detection. All 371 flies were identified as P. variegata and 28 (7.5%; 95% CI: 4.8-10%) tested positive for T. callipaeda DNA haplotype 1. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that T. callipaeda circulates among dogs and P. variegata in Spain, where zoonotic cases have been also reported. The co-existence of canine thelaziosis and Phortica spp. in geographical areas previously considered free of the eye worm indicates a risk of infection for both animals and humans living in this region.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Drosophilidae/parasitologia , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/veterinária , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Thelazioidea/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/transmissão , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Larva/genética , Espanha , Infecções por Spirurida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Spirurida/parasitologia , Infecções por Spirurida/transmissão , Thelazioidea/genética , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
19.
Vet Parasitol ; 252: 22-28, 2018 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29559146

RESUMO

Piroplasmosis is caused by several species of protozoa such as the Babesia microti-like piroplasm (Bml), an emerging blood protozoan also known as Theileria annae or Babesia vulpes. Infection by Bml was first reported in dogs in Spain where it is endemic today. Recently, a high prevalence of Bml has been increasingly detected in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in European countries. The objective of this study was to determine infection levels of this parasite in foxes from Galicia, NW Spain, and ticks species infestation in these carnivores, where they are so far unknown. Samples of blood, spleen and ticks (if present) were taken from 237 hunted red foxes in the Galicia region. Blood smears were prepared for direct parasite observation, and spleen and tick samples were examined by nested PCR. Prevalences of Bml infection in Galician red foxes were estimated at 72% (171/237) by PCR and 38.23% (26/68) by direct observation. Among 837 ticks collected, the main tick identified was Ixodes hexagonus (present in 82.4% of the foxes) followed by Ixodes ricinus (12.3%), Dermacentor reticulatus (12.3%) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (3.5%). From 34 foxes testing positive for Bml, 616 ticks were collected: positive Bml PCR results were obtained in 55.6% (227/408) of ticks collected from 9 foxes, while the 208 ticks from the remaining 25 infected foxes returned negative PCR results. Given that canine piroplasmosis is endemic in this area, our observations point to the red fox as the main reservoir for Bml infection and the high proportion of I. hexagonus among ticks collected from red foxes suggests its likely role as vectors of B. microti-like piroplasm in this region. Further studies are needed for a better understanding of the link between the wild and domestic life cycles of this piroplasm.


Assuntos
Babesia microti/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Raposas/parasitologia , Ixodes/parasitologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos/parasitologia , Babesia microti/genética , Babesia microti/fisiologia , Babesiose/sangue , Babesiose/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário , Dermacentor/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária , Espanha/epidemiologia
20.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 185, 2018 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29554944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some wild animals have been recognized as potential reservoirs of Leishmania infantum infection (e.g. carnivores, lagomorphs, rodents, etc.). Leishmania infantum was also identified infecting humans and lagomorphs (i.e. hares and rabbits) over the period of 2009-2016, with the latter acting as the main reservoirs involved in the human leishmaniosis outbreak in Madrid. RESULTS: Two cases of clinical leishmaniosis are reported in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) housed at two different centres in Madrid. The first is the case of a 36-year-old male orangutan with severe weight loss and apathy. A complete blood count and biochemical profile revealed anaemia, neutropenia, hypoalbuminaemia and elevated transaminases. Hepato-splenomegaly was also observed. Four months later, due to worsening of clinical signs (mainly bilateral epistaxis), blood and bone marrow samples were collected. Amastigotes of L. infantum were detected in macrophages from a bone marrow aspirate and by specific polymerase chain reaction. The second case was a 34-year-old female orangutan with severe weight loss and apathy and no other apparent clinical signs. A complete blood count and biochemical profile revealed anaemia, pancytopenia and hypoalbuminaemia. Splenomegaly and pericardial effusion were also observed. As leishmaniosis was included in the differential diagnosis, both blood and bone marrow samples were collected. Leishmania infantum infection was confirmed by microscopy, molecular diagnosis and serology (immunofluorescence antibody test). Both animals were treated daily with oral miltefosine for 28 days; allopurinol was also given uninterruptedly in Case 2 for at least 6 months. During follow-up, though good clinical recovery was clear, a lack of parasitological cure was confirmed molecularly in both blood and bone marrow samples from the two orangutans. In both habitats, the presence of the sand fly vector identified as Phlebotomus perniciosus was confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report of L. infantum infection in great apes and in the endangered species P. p. pygmaeus. We are presently looking for L. infantum in other non-human primates living in the same peri-urban areas. If detected, we will examine the impacts of this serious disease on these critically endangered species.


Assuntos
Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Pongo pygmaeus/parasitologia , Alopurinol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Surtos de Doenças , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Feminino , Leishmania infantum/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fosforilcolina/análogos & derivados , Fosforilcolina/uso terapêutico , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
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