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Food Chem ; 305: 125458, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505416


The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the effects of feeding flaxseed meal (FSM) and turmeric rhizome powder (TRP) supplementation on tissue lipid profile, lipid metabolism, health indices, oxidative stability, and physical properties of broiler chicken meat. The 100 g FSM along with 10.0 g TRP supplementation significantly increased the ω-3 PUFA, particularly ALA, EPA, DPA, and DHA of broiler chicken meat due to the corresponding increase ∆9 and Δ5 + Δ6 desaturase activities. The increased activities of the desaturases resulted in significantly better health indices of the broiler chicken meat. The feeding of 100 g FSM along with 10.0 g TRP supplementation reduced the atherogenic and thrombogenic indices of broiler chicken meat. The 100 g FSM feeding reduced the oxidative stability, water holding capacity, extract release volume of broiler chicken meat and increased drip loss, whereas, 10.0 g TRP supplementation reversed these negative effects of FSM.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701396


A feeding trial of 10 weeks duration was undertaken on laying hens (n = 240) to evaluate feeding value of rice distiller's dried grains with soluble (rDDGS) with or without enzyme supplementation (α-amylase, ß-glucanase, xylanase, carboxymethylcellulase, pectinase, proteinase, α-galactosidase, ß-galactosidase, lipase, and phytase), following 4 × 2 factorial design, on egg production, nutrient utilization, and cost economics of egg production. The birds were randomly assigned to eight dietary treatments with 30 birds/treatment. The birds were housed individually in layer cages and each bird was taken as an experimental unit. Eight experimental diets were prepared by incorporating four levels (0, 50, 75, and 100 g/kg) of rDDGS with and without enzyme supplementation. The results revealed a significant (P < 0.01) increase of egg mass, feed intake, egg production, and body weight gain in dietary treatments with up to 75 g rDDGS though the values were statistically similar to the hens fed 100 g rDDGS. Enzyme supplementation resulted in significant (P < 0.01) improvement of egg mass, egg production, feed conversion ratio (FCR) per dozen eggs, FCR per kilogramme egg mass, and net FCR. The significantly (P < 0.01) higher yolk index was observed at 100 g rDDGS level, while shell thickness improved significantly (P < 0.01) up to 75 g rDDGS level. No significant effect of rDDGS inclusion was observed on shape index, albumin index, and Haugh unit. Enzyme supplementation significantly improved the shell thickness and yolk colour of eggs. Nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus retention and dry matter metabolizability did not show any significant treatment effects. There was significant (P < 0.01) reduction in feed-cost per kilogramme egg mass or per dozen eggs with the increased DDGS levels and dietary enzyme supplementation. It was concluded that rDDGS can be used up to 100 g/kg diet of laying hens along with enzyme supplementation for better productivity of layer hens.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 103(6): 1800-1809, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483533


This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary soapnut (Sapindus mukorossi) shell powder (SSP), a cheap source of saponins, on growth performance, immunity, serum biochemistry and gut health of broiler chickens. The experimental design was 4×2, employing four saponin levels (0, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg diet), each provided for two time durations (0-42 day and 21-42 day) resulting into eight dietary treatments. Results revealed no significant effect of dietary saponins on body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio of birds. The abdominal fat percentage, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels, faecal total plate count, coliform count and E. coli count decreased (p < .05) progressively with increasing saponin levels and lower values were observed at 150 mg and 200 mg saponin levels. Significant improvement of cell-mediated and humoral immune response was observed in birds fed 150 mg and 200 mg saponin compared to control. The serum glucose concentration was significantly (p < .05) higher in control group compared to other groups. No significant effects of dietary saponin were observed on carcass characteristics, faecal Lactobacillus count, intestinal histomorphometry and cost economics of broiler chicken production. Thus, dietary saponins at 150 mg/kg diet as SSP for three weeks (21-42 days) was optimum for better immunity and welfare of birds without adverse effects on the growth performance.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 103(2): 493-500, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723948


This experiment was conducted to identify the suitable replacer of broiler feed antibiotics with prebiotics (mannan oligosaccharides-MOS or fructooligosaccharide-FOS). Two hundred and forty (240)-day-old chicks were randomly divided into 30 groups (6 treatments x 5 replicates/treatment x 8 chicks/replicate). Six experimental diets T1 , T2 , T3 , T4 , T5 and T6 were formulated to contain an additional 0, antibiotic, that is, bacitracin methylene di-salicylate (BMD) @20 mg/kg, MOS (0.1% and 0.2%) and FOS (0.1% and 0.2%) respectively. Body weight gain was significantly (p < 0.05) increased in MOS-0.2% supplemented group at 0-21 d and 0-42 d of broiler chicken. Humoral and in vivo cell-mediated immune response were significantly improved (p < 0.05) in BMD, MOS @0.1% or 0.2% treated group. Significant (p < 0.05) increase was recorded in total protein (except 21 d), albumin and aspartate amino transferase (AST) and decrease (p < 0.05) in alanine amino transferase (except 42 d), cholesterol and uric acid concentration. The weight of breast, thigh, back, drumstick bursa of Fabricius and thymus were higher (p < 0.05) in the birds given the MOS @0.2% (T4 ). It is concluded that MOS @0.2% may be suitable replacer of antibiotic growth promoter, and it has a beneficial effect on production performance, immune responses, blood biochemical parameters and cut up parts in broiler chickens.

Ração Animal/análise , Galinhas/sangue , Dieta/veterinária , Prebióticos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Galinhas/imunologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ganho de Peso
J Food Sci Technol ; 54(12): 3899-3907, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29085132


A total of 240 broiler chicken of same hatch with uniform weight were used in a biological experiment with completely randomized design to investigate the effects of incorporating organic chromium (Cr) in flaxseed meal based diet on the fatty acid profile, oxidative stability and functional properties of broiler chicken meat. Five diets were formulated as per the recommendations of BIS (Nutrient requirements for poultry 13: 9863, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, 1992) in which flaxseed meal was used to replace 10% of soyabean in basal diet and four levels of Cr (0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mg/kg diet) as Cr-picolinate were used. The results revealed that flaxseed feeding significantly increased the percentage of unsaturated fatty acids, including MUFA, PUFA, ω-3, ω-6 fatty acids and ω-3:ω-6 and PUFA:SFA ratios, whereas, significant decline was seen in saturated fatty acids and no effect of Cr was observed on the fatty acid profile of broiler chicken. Flaxseed feeding significantly reduced the cholesterol and fat percentage of meat, whereas, significant progressive reduction was observed with increasing Cr levels. The combination of 10% flaxseed with 1.0 mg Cr/kg diet increased the final pH of broiler meat. The addition of flaxseed significantly reduced water holding capacity, extract release volume and antioxidant potential of broiler meat, whereas, increasing Cr supplementation progressively increased them. Flaxseed feeding significantly increased the drip loss and lipid peroxidation of broiler meat, whereas, Cr supplementation decreased them. It was concluded that inclusion of 10% flaxseed and 1.5 mg Cr/kg diet results in desirable fatty acid profile, oxidative stability and functional properties of broiler chicken meat.

J Food Sci Technol ; 54(10): 2997-3009, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28974784


Broiler production at mass level has already been achieved and now emphasis is being laid on increasing meat quality by altering various characteristics of broiler meat. Appearance, texture, juiciness, wateriness, firmness, tenderness, odor and flavor are the most important and perceptible meat features that influence the initial and final quality judgment by consumers before and after purchasing a meat product. The quantifiable properties of meat such as water holding capacity, shear force, drip loss, cook loss, pH, shelf life, collagen content, protein solubility, cohesiveness, and fat binding capacity are indispensable for processors involved in the manufacture of value added meat products. Nutrition of birds has a significant impact on poultry meat quality and safety. It is well known that dietary fatty acid profiles are reflected in tissue fatty acid. Management of poultry meat production is reflected mostly on consumption features (juiciness, tenderness, flavour) of meat. After slaughter, biochemical changes, causing the conversion of muscle to meat, determine final meat quality. Postmortem carcass temperature has profound effect on rigor mortis and the physicochemical changes observed in PSE muscles are attributed to postmortem glycolysis, temperature, and pH. Primary processing and further processing have become a matter of concern with respect to nutritional quality of broiler meat. Genetic variation among birds could contribute to large differences in the rate of rigor mortis completion and meat quality. Heritability estimates for meat quality traits in broilers are amazingly high (0.35-0.81), making genetic selection a best tool for improvement of broiler meat quality.