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1.
JAMA Intern Med ; 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841577

RESUMO

Importance: The role of herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivation on morbidity and mortality in patients in the intensive care unit requiring mechanical ventilation remains unknown. Objective: To determine whether preemptive treatment with intravenous acyclovir reduces the duration of mechanical ventilation in patients with HSV oropharyngeal reactivation. Design, Setting, and Participants: A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial was conducted in 16 intensive care units in France. Participants included 239 adults (age, >18 years) who received mechanical ventilation for at least 96 hours and continued to receive mechanical ventilation for 48 hours or more, with HSV oropharyngeal reactivation. Patients were enrolled between February 2, 2014, and February 22, 2018. Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive intravenous acyclovir, 5 mg/kg, 3 times daily for 14 days or a matching placebo. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was ventilator-free days from randomization to day 60. Prespecified secondary outcomes included mortality at 60 days. Main analyses were conducted on an intention-to-treat basis. Results: Of 239 patients enrolled and randomized, 1 patient withdrew consent, leaving 238 patients, with 119 patients in both the acyclovir and placebo (control) groups (median [IQR] age, 61 [50-70] years; 76 [32%] women) available for primary outcome measurement. On day 60, the median (IQR) numbers of ventilator-free days were 35 (0-53) for acyclovir recipients and 36 (0-50]) for controls (P = .17 for between-group comparison). Among secondary outcomes, 26 patients (22%) and 39 patients (33%) had died at day 60 (risk difference, 0.11, 95% CI, -0.004 to 0.22, P = .06). The adverse event frequency was similar for both groups (28% in the acyclovir group and 23% in the placebo group, P = .40), particularly acute renal failure post randomization affecting 3 acyclovir recipients (3%) and 2 controls (2%). Four patients (3%) in the acyclovir group vs none in the placebo group stopped the study drug for treatment-related adverse events. Conclusions and Relevance: In patients receiving mechanical ventilation for 96 hours or more with HSV reactivation in the throat, use of acyclovir, 5 mg/kg, 3 times daily for 14 days, did not increase the number of ventilator-free days at day 60, compared with placebo. These findings do not appear to support routine preemptive use of acyclovir in this setting. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02152358.

2.
Transfusion ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platelet transfusion is aimed at increasing platelet counts to prevent or treat bleeding. Critically ill cancer patients with hypoproliferative thrombocytopenia are high consumers of blood products. We herein described their post-transfusion platelet responses in the intensive care unit (ICU) and analyzed the determinants of poor post-transfusion increments. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a single-center 9-year (2009-2017) retrospective observational study. Patients with malignancies and presumed or proven hypoproliferative thrombocytopenia who had received at least one platelet transfusion in the ICU were included. Poor post-transfusion platelet increments were defined as body surface-adjusted corrected count increment (CCI) <7, or alternatively as weight-adjusted platelet transfusion recovery (PTR) <0.2. Patients were deemed refractory to platelet transfusions when two consecutive ABO-compatible transfusions resulted in poor platelet increments. RESULTS: A total of 1470 platelet transfusions received by 326 patients were analyzed. Indications for platelet transfusions were distributed into prophylactic (44.5%), peri-procedural (18.1%) and therapeutic (37.4%). Regardless of indications, 54.6% and 55.4% of transfusion episodes were associated with a CCI <7 or a PTR <0.2. Factors independently associated with poor post-transfusion increments were lower body mass index, spleen enlargement, concurrent severity of clinical condition, fever ≥39°C, antibiotic therapy and increased storage duration of platelet concentrates. Eventually, 48 patients developed refractoriness to platelet transfusion, which was associated increased incidence of bleeding events. CONCLUSION: Platelet transfusions are often associated with poor increments in critically ill cancer patients with hypoproliferative thrombocytopenia. The findings suggest amenable interventions to improve the platelet transfusion practices in this setting.

3.
Oncoimmunology ; 8(11): e1641391, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646090

RESUMO

Sepsis-induced immune dysfunctions are likely to impact on malignant tumor growth. Sequential sepsis-then-cancer models of tumor transplantation in mice recovering from sepsis have shown that the post-septic immunosuppressive environment was able to promote tumor growth. We herein addressed the impact of sepsis on pre-established malignancy in a reverse cancer-then sepsis experimental model. Mice previously inoculated with MCA205 fibrosarcoma cells were subjected to septic challenges by polymicrobial peritonitis induced by cecal ligation and puncture or endotoxinic shock. The anti-tumoral immune response was assessed through the distribution of tumor-infiltrating immune cells, as well as the functions of cytotoxic cells. As compared to sham surgery, polymicrobial sepsis dampened malignant tumor growth in wild-type (WT) mice, but neither in Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4)-/- nor in Myd88-/- mice. Similar tumor growth inhibition was observed following a LPS challenge in WT mice, suggesting a regulatory role of Tlr4 in this setting. The low expression of MHC class 1 onto MCA205 cells suggested the involvement of Natural Killer (NK) cells in sepsis-induced tumor inhibition. Septic insults applied to mice with cancer promoted the main anti-tumoral NK functions of IFNγ production and degranulation. The anti-tumoral properties of NK cells obtained from septic mice were exacerbated when cultured with MHC1low MCA205 or YAC-1 cells. These results suggest that sepsis may harbor dual effects on tumor growth depending on the sequential experimental model. When applied in mice with cancer, sepsis prevents tumor growth in a Tlr4-dependent manner by enhancing the anti-tumoral functions of NK cells.

4.
JAMA ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577035

RESUMO

Importance: Norepinephrine, the first-line vasopressor for septic shock, is not always effective and has important catecholaminergic adverse effects. Selepressin, a selective vasopressin V1a receptor agonist, is a noncatecholaminergic vasopressor that may mitigate sepsis-induced vasodilatation, vascular leakage, and edema, with fewer adverse effects. Objective: To test whether selepressin improves outcome in septic shock. Design, Setting, and Participants: An adaptive phase 2b/3 randomized clinical trial comprising 2 parts that included adult patients (n = 868) with septic shock requiring more than 5 µg/min of norepinephrine. Part 1 used a Bayesian algorithm to adjust randomization probabilities to alternative selepressin dosing regimens and to trigger transition to part 2, which would compare the best-performing regimen with placebo. The trial was conducted between July 2015 and August 2017 in 63 hospitals in Belgium, Denmark, France, the Netherlands, and the United States, and follow-up was completed by May 2018. Interventions: Random assignment to 1 of 3 dosing regimens of selepressin (starting infusion rates of 1.7, 2.5, and 3.5 ng/kg/min; n = 585) or to placebo (n = 283), all administered as continuous infusions titrated according to hemodynamic parameters. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary end point was ventilator- and vasopressor-free days within 30 days (deaths assigned zero days) of commencing study drug. Key secondary end points were 90-day mortality, kidney replacement therapy-free days, and ICU-free days. Results: Among 868 randomized patients, 828 received study drug (mean age, 66.3 years; 341 [41.2%] women) and comprised the primary analysis cohort, of whom 562 received 1 of 3 selepressin regimens, 266 received placebo, and 817 (98.7%) completed the trial. The trial was stopped for futility at the end of part 1. Median study drug duration was 37.8 hours (IQR, 17.8-72.4). There were no significant differences in the primary end point (ventilator- and vasopressor-free days: 15.0 vs 14.5 in the selepressin and placebo groups; difference, 0.6 [95% CI, -1.3 to 2.4]; P = .30) or key secondary end points (90-day mortality, 40.6% vs 39.4%; difference, 1.1% [95% CI, -6.5% to 8.8%]; P = .77; kidney replacement therapy-free days: 18.5 vs 18.2; difference, 0.3 [95% CI, -2.1 to 2.6]; P = .85; ICU-free days: 12.6 vs 12.2; difference, 0.5 [95% CI, -1.2 to 2.2]; P = .41). Adverse event rates included cardiac arrhythmias (27.9% vs 25.2% of patients), cardiac ischemia (6.6% vs 5.6%), mesenteric ischemia (3.2% vs 2.6%), and peripheral ischemia (2.3% vs 2.3%). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with septic shock receiving norepinephrine, administration of selepressin, compared with placebo, did not result in improvement in vasopressor- and ventilator-free days within 30 days. Further research would be needed to evaluate the potential role of selepressin for other patient-centered outcomes in septic shock. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02508649.

5.
JAMA ; 322(3): 229-239, 2019 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310299

RESUMO

Importance: Keeping a diary for patients while they are in the intensive care unit (ICU) might reduce their posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Objectives: To assess the effect of an ICU diary on the psychological consequences of an ICU hospitalization. Design, Setting, and Participants: Assessor-blinded, multicenter, randomized clinical trial in 35 French ICUs from October 2015 to January 2017, with follow-up until July 2017. Among 2631 approached patients, 709 adult patients (with 1 family member each) who received mechanical ventilation within 48 hours after ICU admission for at least 2 days were eligible, 657 were randomized, and 339 were assessed 3 months after ICU discharge. Interventions: Patients in the intervention group (n = 355) had an ICU diary filled in by clinicians and family members. Patients in the control group (n = 354) had usual ICU care without an ICU diary. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was significant PTSD symptoms, defined as an Impact Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) score greater than 22 (range, 0-88; a higher score indicates more severe symptoms), measured in patients 3 months after ICU discharge. Secondary outcomes, also measured at 3 months and compared between groups, included significant PTSD symptoms in family members; significant anxiety and depression symptoms in patients and family members, based on a Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale score greater than 8 for each subscale (range, 0-42; higher scores indicate more severe symptoms; minimal clinically important difference, 2.5); and patient memories of the ICU stay, reported with the ICU memory tool. Results: Among 657 patients who were randomized (median [interquartile range] age, 62 [51-70] years; 126 women [37.2%]), 339 (51.6%) completed the trial. At 3 months, significant PTSD symptoms were reported by 49 of 164 patients (29.9%) in the intervention group vs 60 of 175 (34.3%) in the control group (risk difference, -4% [95% CI, -15% to 6%]; P = .39). The median (interquartile range) IES-R score was 12 (5-25) in the intervention group vs 13 (6-27) in the control group (difference, -1.47 [95% CI, -1.93 to 4.87]; P = .38). There were no significant differences in any of the 6 prespecified comparative secondary outcomes. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients who received mechanical ventilation in the ICU, the use of an ICU diary filled in by clinicians and family members did not significantly reduce the number of patients who reported significant PTSD symptoms at 3 months. These findings do not support the use of ICU diaries for preventing PTSD symptoms. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02519725.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/psicologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Respiração Artificial/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Família/psicologia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Registros
6.
Resuscitation ; 141: 81-87, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185259

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: After out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) associated with obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), the risk of recurrence during the early period is unclear and the indication for anti-arrhythmic treatment is debated. We assessed the incidence and predisposing factors for severe cardiac arrhythmias in this population. DESIGN: Retrospective study in a cardiac arrest center. SETTINGS: The primary endpoint was the occurrence of major cardiac arrhythmias from hospital admission to intensive care unit (ICU) discharge in patients admitted after an OHCA associated with obstructive CAD. A major arrhythmia was defined as any arrhythmic event (auricular or ventricular) associated with cardiac arrest recurrence and/or severe arterial hypotension. Secondary outcomes were time from ICU admission to arrhythmia occurrence and all-cause in-ICU mortality. Risk factors for recurrence of a major arrhythmia were assessed using multivariate analysis. PATIENTS: We included all consecutive OHCA patients resuscitated from ventricular fibrillation (VF) or pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VT) as initial rhythm associated with obstructive CAD, and who had a successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention. INTERVENTION: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Among 256 patients, a major arrhythmia occurred in 29 (11.3%), within the first 24 h in 79.3% of cases and were mostly VF (44.8%). Mortality rate was significantly increased in patients with major arrhythmia recurrence (69% vs 41%; p = 0.006). Factor significantly associated with recurrence of severe arrhythmia was male gender (OR 0.32 [0.12-0.92]; p = 0.034). Treatment with prophylactic anti-arrhythmic in the ICU was not associated with a change in the risk of recurrence (OR 0.85 [0.21-3.65], p = 0.82). CONCLUSION: An early recurrence of major arrhythmia was observed in more than 10% of post-cardiac arrest patients. These events happened mostly within the first 24 h. The interest of prophylactic anti-arrhythmic treatment remains to be evaluated in this population.

7.
Resuscitation ; 142: 168-174, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211949

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the predictive value of EEG reactivity assessment and confounders for neurological outcome after cardiac arrest. METHODS: All consecutive patients admitted in a tertiary cardiac arrest center between 2007 and 2016 still alive 48 h after admission with at least one EEG recorded during coma. EEG reactivity was defined as a reproducible waveform change in amplitude or frequency following standardized stimulation. Each EEG was classified based on American Clinical Neurophysiology Society nomenclatures and classified in highly malignant (including status epilepticus), malignant, or benign EEG. We assessed the predictive values of EEG reactivity and sedation effect for neurologic outcome at ICU discharge using the Cerebral Performance Category scale (with CPC 1-2 assumed as favorable outcome and CPC 3-4-5 considered as poor outcome). RESULTS: Among 428 patients, a poor outcome was observed in 80% patients. The median time to EEG recording was 3 (1-4) days and 51% patients had a non-reactive EEG. The positive predictive value (PPV) of a non-reactive EEG to predict an unfavorable outcome was 97.1% (IC95% 93.6-98.9), increasing to 98.3% (IC95 94.1-99.8) when the EEG had been performed without sedation. In multivariate analysis, a non-reactive EEG was associated with poor outcome (OR 12.6 IC95% 4.7-33.6; p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, concomitant sedation was not statistically associated with EEG non-reactivity. The PPV of a benign EEG to predict favorable outcome was 49.7% (IC95% 41.5-57.9), increasing to 66.2% (IC95% 54.3-76.8) when EEG was recorded earlier, with ongoing sedation. CONCLUSIONS: After cardiac arrest, absence of EEG reactivity was predictive of unfavorable outcome. By contrast, a benign EEG was slightly predictive of a favorable outcome. Reactivity assessment may have important implications in the neuroprognostication process after cardiac arrest and could be influenced by sedation.

8.
Ann Intensive Care ; 9(1): 54, 2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether the recommended mean arterial pressure (MAP) target of 65 mmHg during initial resuscitation of septic shock is sufficient to maintain cerebral perfusion. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that a higher MAP target in patients with septic shock may improve level of arousal. METHODS: We performed a post hoc exploratory analysis of the SEPSISPAM trial, which assessed the effect of a "high-target" level of MAP (80-85 mmHg) versus the recommended "low-target" MAP (65-70 mm Hg) on mortality in patients with septic shock. Among the 776 patients originally recruited in SEPSISPAM trial, we selected those who were mechanically ventilated and sedated and with available evaluation of arousal level assessed by the Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale (RASS). RESULTS: We restricted our analysis to the period in which patients were treated with vasoactive drugs. Cumulative sedative drugs were assessed daily. A total of 532 patients were included in this study: 253 (47.6%) in the low-target group and 279 (52.4%) in the high-target group. Daily cumulative sedative drugs were similar in both groups. Compared to the low-target group, minimal and maximal RASS were significantly higher in the high-target group at day 2, 4 and 5. Furthermore, in order to consider the fact that multiple measures were done for each patient and to consider the global effect of time on these measures, we used a mixed linear regression and multivariate models: we confirmed that maximal RASS values were significantly higher in the high-target group. CONCLUSION: In patients with septic shock who were mechanically ventilated and sedated, resuscitation with MAP target between 80 and 85 mmHg was associated with higher arousal level as compared to a MAP target between 65 and 70 mmHg.

9.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 200(8): 1002-1012, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144997

RESUMO

Rationale: Current practices regarding mechanical ventilation in patients treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for acute respiratory distress syndrome are unknown.Objectives: To report current practices regarding mechanical ventilation in patients treated with ECMO for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and their association with 6-month outcomes.Methods: This was an international, multicenter, prospective cohort study of patients undergoing ECMO for ARDS during a 1-year period in 23 international ICUs.Measurements and Main Results: We collected demographics, daily pre- and per-ECMO mechanical ventilation settings and use of adjunctive therapies, ICU, and 6-month outcome data for 350 patients (mean ± SD pre-ECMO PaO2/FiO2 71 ± 34 mm Hg). Pre-ECMO use of prone positioning and neuromuscular blockers were 26% and 62%, respectively. Vt (6.4 ± 2.0 vs. 3.7 ± 2.0 ml/kg), plateau pressure (32 ± 7 vs. 24 ± 7 cm H2O), driving pressure (20 ± 7 vs. 14 ± 4 cm H2O), respiratory rate (26 ± 8 vs. 14 ± 6 breaths/min), and mechanical power (26.1 ± 12.7 vs. 6.6 ± 4.8 J/min) were markedly reduced after ECMO initiation. Six-month survival was 61%. No association was found between ventilator settings during the first 2 days of ECMO and survival in multivariable analysis. A time-varying Cox model retained older age, higher fluid balance, higher lactate, and more need for renal-replacement therapy along the ECMO course as being independently associated with 6-month mortality. A higher Vt and lower driving pressure (likely markers of static compliance improvement) across the ECMO course were also associated with better outcomes.Conclusions: Ultraprotective lung ventilation on ECMO was largely adopted across medium- to high-case volume ECMO centers. In contrast with previous observations, mechanical ventilation settings during ECMO did not impact patients' prognosis in this context.

10.
JAMA ; 321(20): 1993-2002, 2019 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104069

RESUMO

Importance: Previous research suggested that soluble human recombinant thrombomodulin may reduce mortality among patients with sepsis-associated coagulopathy. Objective: To determine the effect of human recombinant thrombomodulin vs placebo on 28-day all-cause mortality among patients with sepsis-associated coagulopathy. Design, Setting, and Participants: The SCARLET trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational, multicenter phase 3 study conducted in intensive care units at 159 sites in 26 countries. All adult patients admitted to one of the participating intensive care units between October 2012 and March 2018 with sepsis-associated coagulopathy and concomitant cardiovascular and/or respiratory failure, defined as an international normalized ratio greater than 1.40 without other known etiology and a platelet count in the range of 30 to 150 × 109/L or a greater than 30% decrease in platelet count within 24 hours, were considered for inclusion. The final date of follow-up was February 28, 2019. Interventions: Patients with sepsis-associated coagulopathy were randomized and treated with an intravenous bolus or a 15-minute infusion of thrombomodulin (0.06 mg/kg/d [maximum, 6 mg/d]; n = 395) or matching placebo (n = 405) once daily for 6 days. Main Outcome and Measures: The primary end point was 28-day all-cause mortality. Results: Among 816 randomized patients, 800 (mean age, 60.7 years; 437 [54.6%] men) completed the study and were included in the full analysis set. In these patients, the 28-day all-cause mortality rate was not statistically significantly different between the thrombomodulin group and the placebo group (106 of 395 patients [26.8%] vs 119 of 405 patients [29.4%], respectively; P = .32). The absolute risk difference was 2.55% (95% CI, -3.68% to 8.77%). The incidence of serious major bleeding adverse events (defined as any intracranial hemorrhage; life-threatening bleeding; or bleeding event classified as serious by the investigator, with administration of at least 1440 mL [typically 6 units] of packed red blood cells over 2 consecutive days) was 23 of 396 patients (5.8%) in the thrombomodulin group and 16 of 404 (4.0%) in the placebo group. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with sepsis-associated coagulopathy, administration of a human recombinant thrombomodulin, compared with placebo, did not significantly reduce 28-day all-cause mortality. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01598831.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/complicações , Trombomodulina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/etiologia , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Injeções Intravenosas , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Falha de Tratamento
11.
Intensive Care Med ; 45(7): 948-956, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143999

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The effects of the route of nutrition on the gut mucosa of patients with shock are unclear. Plasma citrulline concentration is a marker of enterocyte mass, and plasma intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) concentration is a marker of enterocyte damage. We aimed to study the effect of the route of nutrition on plasma citrulline concentration measured at day 3 of nutrition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ancillary study of the NUTRIREA-2 trial. Ventilated adults with shock were randomly assigned to receive enteral or parenteral nutrition. Enterocyte biomarkers were measured at baseline, day 3, and day 8 of nutrition. RESULT: A total of 165 patients from 13 French ICUs were included in the study: 85 patients in the enteral group and 80 patients in the parenteral group. At baseline, plasma citrulline was low without difference between groups (12.2 µmol L-1 vs 13.3 µmol L-1). At day 3, plasma citrulline concentration was higher in the enteral group than in the parenteral group (18.7 µmol L-1 vs 15.3 µmol L-1, p = 0.01). Plasma I-FABP concentration was increased at baseline, without difference between groups (245 pg mL-1 vs 244 pg mL-1). Plasma I-FABP concentration was higher in the enteral group than in the parenteral group at day 3 and day 8 (158 pg mL-1 vs 50 pg mL-1, p = 0.005 and 225 pg mL-1 vs 50 pg mL-1, p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Plasma citrulline concentration was higher after 3 days of enteral nutrition than after 3 days of parenteral nutrition. This result raises the question of the possibility that enteral nutrition is associated with a more rapid restoration of enterocyte mass than parenteral nutrition.

12.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 111, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microaspiration of gastric and oropharyngeal secretions is the main mechanism of entry of bacteria into the lower respiratory tract in intubated critically ill patients. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of enteral nutrition, as compared with parenteral nutrition, on abundant microaspiration of gastric contents and oropharyngeal secretions. METHODS: Planned ancillary study of the randomized controlled multicenter NUTRIREA2 trial. Patients with shock receiving invasive mechanical ventilation were randomized to receive early enteral or parenteral nutrition. All tracheal aspirates were collected during the 48 h following randomization. Abundant microaspiration of gastric contents and oropharyngeal secretions was defined as the presence of significant levels of pepsin (> 200 ng/ml) and salivary amylase (> 1685 UI/ml) in > 30% of tracheal aspirates. RESULTS: A total of 151 patients were included (78 and 73 patients in enteral and parenteral nutrition groups, respectively), and 1074 tracheal aspirates were quantitatively analyzed for pepsin and amylase. Although vomiting rate was significantly higher (31% vs 15%, p = 0.016), constipation rate was significantly lower (6% vs 21%, p = 0.010) in patients with enteral than in patients with parenteral nutrition. No significant difference was found regarding other patient characteristics. The percentage of patients with abundant microaspiration of gastric contents was significantly lower in enteral than in parenteral nutrition groups (14% vs 36%, p = 0.004; unadjusted OR 0.80 (95% CI 0.69, 0.93), adjusted OR 0.79 (0.76, 0.94)). The percentage of patients with abundant microaspiration of oropharyngeal secretions was significantly higher in enteral than in parenteral nutrition groups (74% vs 54%, p = 0.026; unadjusted OR 1.21 (95% CI 1.03, 1.44), adjusted OR 1.23 (1.01, 1.48)). No significant difference was found in percentage of patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia between enteral (8%) and parenteral (10%) nutrition groups (HR 0.78 (0.26, 2.28)). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that enteral and parenteral nutrition are associated with high rates of microaspiration, although oropharyngeal microaspiration was more common with enteral nutrition and gastric microaspiration was more common with parenteral nutrition. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03411447 . Registered 18 July 2017. Retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Vias de Administração de Medicamentos , Terapia Nutricional/normas , Choque/dietoterapia , Idoso , Secreções Corporais , Estado Terminal/terapia , Feminino , Suco Gástrico , Humanos , Inalação/fisiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Nutricional/instrumentação , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 302, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus has emerged as a leading cause of invasive severe diseases with a high rate of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and outcome observed in staphylococcal illness may be a consequence of both microbial factors and variability of the host immune response. CASE PRESENTATION: A 14-years old child developed limb ischemia with gangrene following S. aureus bloodstream infection. Histopathology revealed medium-sized arterial vasculitis. The causing strain belonged to the emerging clone CC1-MSSA and numerous pathogenesis-related genes were identified. Patient's genotyping revealed functional variants associated with severe infections. A combination of virulence and host factors might explain this unique severe form of staphylococcal disease. CONCLUSION: A combination of virulence and genetic host factors might explain this unique severe form of staphylococcal disease.


Assuntos
Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Vasculite/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Amputação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cefotaxima/farmacologia , Cefotaxima/uso terapêutico , Clindamicina/farmacologia , Clindamicina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Perna (Membro)/cirurgia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Meticilina/farmacologia , Choque Séptico/diagnóstico , Choque Séptico/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/complicações , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Vasculite/complicações , Vasculite/microbiologia
14.
Resuscitation ; 140: 170-177, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After resuscitation of cardiac arrest (CA), an acute circulatory failure occurs in about 50% of cases, which shares many characteristics with septic shock. Most frequently, supportive treatments are poorly efficient to prevent multiple organ failure and death. We evaluated whether an early plasma removal of inflammatory mediators using high cut-off continuous veno-venous hemodialysis (HCO-CVVHD) could improve hemodynamic status and outcome of these patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a randomized open-label trial. Patients with post-cardiac arrest shock (defined as requirement of norepinephrine or epinephrine infusion > 1 mg/h) were included. The experimental group received 2 distinct sessions of HCO-CVVHD during the first 48 h following ICU admission. The control group received continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) with standard membranes if needed. The primary endpoint was the delay to shock resolution asssessed by the length of catecholamine infusion. Number of vasopressors-free days at day 28, arterial blood pressure measures every 6-hours, daily fluid balance and mortality (ICU and day-28) were evaluated as secondary endpoints. RESULTS: 35 patients were included: 17 (median age 68.4, 59% male) in the HCO-CVVHD group and 18 (median age 66.3, 83% male) in the control group. Baseline characteristics did not differ between the two groups. Day-28 mortality rate was 64.7% and 72.2% in the HCO-CVVHD and control group, respectively (p = 0.72). Probability of vasopressors discontinuation over time was similar in the two groups (p for logrank test = 0.67). Number of day-28 catecholamine-free days was 25.1 [0, 26.5] and 24.5 [0, 26.2] in the HCO-CVVHD and control group, respectively (p = 0.65). No difference was observed regarding the daily-dose of vasopressors, arterial pressure profile and fluid balance. CONCLUSION: In cardiac arrest patients, HCO-CVVHD did not decrease the lenght of post-resuscitation shock and had no significant effect on hemodynamic profile. REGISTRATION: NCT00780299.

15.
Lancet Respir Med ; 7(4): 303-312, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-invasive ventilation has never been compared with high-flow oxygen to determine whether it reduces the risk of severe hypoxaemia during intubation. We aimed to determine if preoxygenation with non-invasive ventilation was more efficient than high-flow oxygen in reducing the risk of severe hypoxaemia during intubation. METHODS: The FLORALI-2 multicentre, open-label trial was done in 28 intensive care units in France. Adult patients undergoing tracheal intubation for acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure (a partial pressure of arterial oxygen [PaO2] to fraction of inspired oxygen [FiO2] ratio of ≤300 mm Hg) were randomly assigned (1:1; block size, four participants) to non-invasive ventilation or high-flow oxygen during preoxygenation, with stratification by PaO2/FiO2 ratio (≤200 mm Hg vs >200 mm Hg). Key exclusion criteria were intubation for cardiac arrest, altered consciousness (defined as a Glasgow coma score of less than eight points), other contraindications to non-invasive ventilation (recent laryngeal, oesophageal, or gastric surgery, and substantial facial fractures), pulse oximetry not available, pregnant or breastfeeding women, and refusal to participate. The primary outcome was the occurrence of severe hypoxaemia (pulse oximetry <80%) during the procedure, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02668458. FINDINGS: Between April 15, 2016, and Jan 8, 2017, 2079 patients were intubated in the 28 participating units, and 322 were enrolled. We excluded five patients with no recorded data, two who withdrew consent or were under legal protection, one who was not intubated, and one who had a cardiac arrest. Of the 313 patients included in the intention-to-treat analysis, 142 were assigned to non-invasive ventilation and 171 to high-flow oxygen therapy. Severe hypoxaemia occurred in 33 (23%) of 142 patients after preoxygenation with non-invasive ventilation and 47 (27%) of 171 with high-flow oxygen (absolute difference -4·2%, 95% CI -13·7 to 5·5; p=0·39). In the 242 patients with moderate-to-severe hypoxaemia (PaO2/FiO2 ≤200 mm Hg), severe hypoxaemia occurred less frequently after preoxygenation with non-invasive ventilation than with high-flow oxygen (28 [24%] of 117 patients vs 44 [35%] of 125; adjusted odds ratio 0·56, 0·32 to 0·99, p=0·0459). Serious adverse events did not differ between treatment groups, with the most common immediate complications being systolic arterial hypotension (70 [49%] patients in the non-invasive ventilation group vs 86 [50%] patients in the high-flow oxygen group) and chest infiltrate on x-ray (28 [20%] vs 33 [19%]), and the most common late complications being death at day 28 (53 [37%] vs 58 [34%]) and ventilator-associated pneumonia during ICU stay (31 [22%] vs 35 [20%]). INTERPRETATION: In patients with acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure, preoxygenation with non-invasive ventilation or high-flow oxygen therapy did not change the risk of severe hypoxaemia. Future research should explore the effect of preoxygenation method in patients with moderate-to-severe hypoxaemia at baseline. FUNDING: French Ministry of Health.

16.
Ann Intensive Care ; 9(1): 39, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877607

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the determinants and the prognosis of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired pneumonia in patients with septic shock. METHODS: This single-center retrospective study was conducted in a medical ICU in a tertiary care center from January 2008 to December 2016. All consecutive patients diagnosed for septic shock within the first 48 h of ICU admission were included. Patients were classified in three groups: no ICU-acquired infections (no ICU-AI), ICU-acquired pneumonia and non-pulmonary ICU-AI. The determinants of ICU-acquired pneumonia and death were investigated by multivariate competitive risk analysis. RESULTS: A total of 1021 patients were admitted for septic shock, and 797 patients were alive in the ICU after 48 h of management. The incidence of a first episode of ICU-AI was 31%, distributed into pulmonary (17%) and non-pulmonary ICU-AI (14%). Patients with septic shock caused by pneumonia were at increased risk of further pulmonary ICU-AI with a cumulated incidence of 34.4%. A pulmonary source of the initial septic shock was an independent risk factor for subsequent ICU-acquired pneumonia (cause-specific hazard 2.33, 95% confidence interval [1.55-3.52], p < 0.001). ICU-AI were not associated with a higher risk of ICU mortality after adjustment in a multivariate-adjusted cause-specific proportional hazard model. CONCLUSION: Septic shock of pulmonary origin may represent a risk factor for subsequent ICU-acquired pneumonia without affecting mortality.

17.
Crit Care Med ; 47(4): e340-e348, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30707125

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Severe hypoxemia is the most common serious adverse event during endotracheal intubation. Preoxygenation is performed routinely as a preventive measure. The relative efficacy of the various available preoxygenation devices is unclear. Here, our objective was to assess associations between preoxygenation devices and pulse oximetry values during endotracheal intubation. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of data from a multicenter randomized controlled superiority trial (McGrath Mac Videolaryngoscope Versus Macintosh Laryngoscope [MACMAN]) comparing videolaryngoscopy to Macintosh laryngoscopy for endotracheal intubation in critical care. SETTING: Seven French ICUs. PATIENTS: Three-hundred nineteen of the 371 critically ill adults requiring endotracheal intubation who were included in the MACMAN trial. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Minimal pulse oximetry value during endotracheal intubation was the primary endpoint. We also sought risk factors for pulse oximetry below 90%. Of 319 patients, 157 (49%) had bag-valve-mask, 71 (22%) noninvasive ventilation, 71 (22%) non-rebreathing mask, and 20 (7%) high-flow nasal oxygen for preoxygenation. Factors independently associated with minimal pulse oximetry value were the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II severity score (p = 0.03), baseline pulse oximetry (p < 0.001), baseline PaO2/FIO2 ratio (p = 0.02), and number of laryngoscopies (p = 0.001). The only independent predictors of pulse oximetry less than 90% were baseline pulse oximetry (odds ratio, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.64-0.79; p < 0.001) and preoxygenation device: with bag-valve-mask as the reference, odds ratios were 1.10 (95% CI, 0.25-4.92) with non-rebreathing mask, 0.10 (95% CI, 0.01-0.80) with noninvasive ventilation, and 5.75 (95% CI, 1.15-28.75) with high-flow nasal oxygen. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the main determinants of hypoxemia during endotracheal intubation may be related to critical illness severity and to preexisting hypoxemia. The differences across preoxygenation methods suggest that noninvasive ventilation may deserve preference in patients with marked hypoxemia before endotracheal intubation. Ongoing studies will provide further clarification about the optimal preoxygenation method for endotracheal intubation in critically ill patients.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal/terapia , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Crit Care ; 22(1): 328, 2018 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory failure related to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a typical presentation of small-vessel vasculitis that requires prompt multidisciplinary management. The primary treatment is based on immunosuppressive drugs, whereas urgent plasma exchange has been proposed in case of life-threatening complications. We addressed the course of respiratory failure in 12 patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis-related DAH. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Observational retrospective case series performed in the medical ICU of a tertiary hospital in Paris, France. Consecutive patients with ANCA-associated DAH admitted to our ICU for acute respiratory failure and treated by plasmapheresis were included in the analysis. We evaluated the SpO2/FiO2 ratio and assessed the mechanical ventilation mode hourly for 7 days. RESULTS: Twelve patients were included. Five of them required invasive mechanical ventilation. All patients were treated by plasma exchange in addition to a combination of glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents. Oxygenation improved over the first 7 days following initiation of plasma exchange, as shown by a dramatic increase in the median SpO2/FiO2 ratio from 183 [interquartile 137-321] to 353 [239-432] (p = 0.003), along with a decrease in the level of ventilatory support. All but one patient survived. CONCLUSIONS: A multimodal induction regimen combining immunosuppressants and plasma exchange may rapidly reverse the respiratory dysfunction in ANCA-associated vasculitis-related DAH.


Assuntos
Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/terapia , Troca Plasmática/métodos , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Idoso , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paris , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Intensive Care Med ; 44(12): 2162-2173, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30456466

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the relative importance of host and bacterial factors associated with hospital mortality in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia (PCAP). METHODS: Immunocompetent Caucasian ICU patients with PCAP documented by cultures and/or pneumococcal urinary antigen (UAg Sp) test were included in this multicenter prospective study between 2008 and 2012. All pneumococcal strains were serotyped. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors for hospital mortality. RESULTS: Of the 614 patients, 278 (45%) had septic shock, 270 (44%) had bacteremia, 307 (50%) required mechanical ventilation at admission, and 161 (26%) had a diagnosis based only on the UAg Sp test. No strains were penicillin-resistant, but 23% had decreased susceptibility. Of the 36 serotypes identified, 7 accounted for 72% of the isolates, with different distributions according to age. Although antibiotics were consistently appropriate and were started within 6 h after admission in 454 (74%) patients, 116 (18.9%) patients died. Independent predictors of hospital mortality in the adjusted analysis were platelets ≤ 100 × 109/L (OR, 7.7; 95% CI, 2.8-21.1), McCabe score ≥ 2 (4.58; 1.61-13), age > 65 years (2.92; 1.49-5.74), lactates > 4 mmol/L (2.41; 1.27-4.56), male gender and septic shock (2.23; 1.30-3.83 for each), invasive mechanical ventilation (1.78; 1-3.19), and bilateral pneumonia (1.59; 1.02-2.47). Women with platelets ≤ 100 × 109/L had the highest mortality risk (adjusted OR, 7.7; 2.8-21). CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill patients with PCAP, age, gender, and organ failures at ICU admission were more strongly associated with hospital mortality than were comorbidities. Neither pneumococcal serotype nor antibiotic regimen was associated with hospital mortality.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/mortalidade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/complicações , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
20.
N Engl J Med ; 379(15): 1431-1442, 2018 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30304656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury is the most frequent complication in patients with septic shock and is an independent risk factor for death. Although renal-replacement therapy is the standard of care for severe acute kidney injury, the ideal time for initiation remains controversial. METHODS: In a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial, we assigned patients with early-stage septic shock who had severe acute kidney injury at the failure stage of the risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage kidney disease (RIFLE) classification system but without life-threatening complications related to acute kidney injury to receive renal-replacement therapy either within 12 hours after documentation of failure-stage acute kidney injury (early strategy) or after a delay of 48 hours if renal recovery had not occurred (delayed strategy). The failure stage of the RIFLE classification system is characterized by a serum creatinine level 3 times the baseline level (or ≥4 mg per deciliter with a rapid increase of ≥0.5 mg per deciliter), urine output less than 0.3 ml per kilogram of body weight per hour for 24 hours or longer, or anuria for at least 12 hours. The primary outcome was death at 90 days. RESULTS: The trial was stopped early for futility after the second planned interim analysis. A total of 488 patients underwent randomization; there were no significant between-group differences in the characteristics at baseline. Among the 477 patients for whom follow-up data at 90 days were available, 58% of the patients in the early-strategy group (138 of 239 patients) and 54% in the delayed-strategy group (128 of 238 patients) had died (P=0.38). In the delayed-strategy group, 38% (93 patients) did not receive renal-replacement therapy. Criteria for emergency renal-replacement therapy were met in 17% of the patients in the delayed-strategy group (41 patients). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with septic shock who had severe acute kidney injury, there was no significant difference in overall mortality at 90 days between patients who were assigned to an early strategy for the initiation of renal-replacement therapy and those who were assigned to a delayed strategy. (Funded by the French Ministry of Health; IDEAL-ICU ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01682590 .).


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Choque Séptico/complicações , Tempo para o Tratamento , Lesão Renal Aguda/complicações , Lesão Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/classificação , Falência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sobrevida , Falha de Tratamento
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