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1.
Head Neck Pathol ; 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797697

RESUMO

Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is increasing in incidence and, in Western countries, strongly associated with transcriptionally-active high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV). Within HPV-positive tumors, there is wide morphologic diversity with numerous histologic subtypes of SCC. There are also variable degrees of keratinization, anaplasia, stromal fibrosis, and maturing squamous differentiation. Unlike in the uterine cervix, where associations between HPV types and lineages/sublineages within types have been investigated with some clear correlations identified, little to no data exists for oropharyngeal SCC. In this study, for a large cohort of oropharyngeal SCC patients, we performed RTPCR for high-risk HPV. For the HPV positive patients, we sequenced the DNA of the entire HPV16 genome and determined lineages and sublineages, correlating HPV status, genotype, and HPV16 lineages/sublineages with SCC subtype and various histologic features. Of the 259 patients, 224 (86.5%) were high-risk HPV positive, of which 210/224 (93.8%) were HPV type 16 and 6/224 (2.7%) HPV type 33. Of the four HPV16 lineages, A was the most frequent (192/214 or 89.8%) and of the HPV16 A sublineages, A1 was the most frequent (112/210 or 53.3%). Patients with HPV negative tumors were more often keratinizing vs other types (23/35 or 65.7%) and thus more likely to have more maturing squamous differentiation and stromal desmoplasia. There was no significant correlation between HPV type (16 versus other), between HPV16 lineage (A versus others), or HPV16 A sublineages (A1 or A2 versus others) and morphologic type of SCC nor the various morphologic features of anaplasia/multinucleation, degree of keratinization, nor amount of stromal desmoplasia. In summary, in our cohort, there was no correlation between the type of HPV, the HPV 16 lineage or sublineage, and any of the histologic features or morphologic SCC subtypes.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 757, 2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536423

RESUMO

Chordoma is a rare bone tumor with an unknown etiology and high recurrence rate. Here we conduct whole genome sequencing of 80 skull-base chordomas and identify PBRM1, a SWI/SNF (SWItch/Sucrose Non-Fermentable) complex subunit gene, as a significantly mutated driver gene. Genomic alterations in PBRM1 (12.5%) and homozygous deletions of the CDKN2A/2B locus are the most prevalent events. The combination of PBRM1 alterations and the chromosome 22q deletion, which involves another SWI/SNF gene (SMARCB1), shows strong associations with poor chordoma-specific survival (Hazard ratio [HR] = 10.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.81-39.64, p = 0.001) and recurrence-free survival (HR = 4.30, 95% CI = 2.34-7.91, p = 2.77 × 10-6). Despite the low mutation rate, extensive somatic copy number alterations frequently occur, most of which are clonal and showed highly concordant profiles between paired primary and recurrence/metastasis samples, indicating their importance in chordoma initiation. In this work, our findings provide important biological and clinical insights into skull-base chordoma.


Assuntos
Cordoma/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Proteína SMARCB1/genética , Neoplasias da Base do Crânio/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Adulto , Cordoma/patologia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Neoplasias da Base do Crânio/patologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33163847

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To ascertain the prevalence of recurrent de novo variants among 240 pediatric patients with osteosarcoma (OS; age < 20 years) unselected for family history of cancer. METHODS: The identification of de novo variants was implemented in 2 phases. In the first, we identified genes with a rare (minor allele frequency < 0.01) de novo variant in > 1 of the 95 case-parent trios examined by whole-exome sequencing (WES) who passed quality control measures. In phase 2, 145 additional patients with OS were evaluated by targeted sequencing to identify rare de novo variants in genes nominated from phase 1. Recurrent rare variants identified from phase 1 and 2 were verified as either de novo or inherited by Sanger sequencing of affected patients and their parents. Categorical and continuous data were analyzed using Fisher exact test and t tests, respectively. RESULTS: Among 95 case-parent trios who underwent WES, we observed 61 de novo variants in 60 genes among 47 patients, with TP53 identified as the only gene with a pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P/LP) de novo variant in more than one case-parent trio. Among all 240 patients with OS, 13 (5.4%) harbored a P/LP TP53 germline variant, of which 6 (46.2%) were confirmed to be de novo. CONCLUSION: Apart from TP53, we did not observe any other recurrent de novo P/LP variants in the case-parent trios, suggesting that new mutations in other genes are not a frequent cause of pediatric OS. That nearly half of P/LP TP53 variants in our sample were de novo suggests universal screening for germline TP53 P/LP variants among pediatric patients with OS should be considered.

5.
Carcinogenesis ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075810

RESUMO

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HPV+OPSCC) is increasing in prevalence in the United States, as are cases of patients with multiple HPV+OPSCCs (mHPV+OPSCC). mHPV+OPSCCs present a unique opportunity to examine HPV+OPSCC mutation acquisition and evolution. We performed sequencing of the viral genome, somatic exome and somatic transcriptome from eight patients each with two spatially distinct HPV+OPSCCs, and 37 "traditional" HPV+OPSCCs to first address if paired tumors are caused by the same viral isolate and next, if acquired alterations, and the underlying processes driving mutagenesis, are shared within pairs. All tumor pairs contained viral genomes from the same HPV16 sublineage and differed by 0-2 clonal SNPs, suggesting infection with the same viral isolate. Despite this, there was significant discordance in expression profiles, mutational burden and mutational profiles between tumors in a pair, with only two pairs sharing any overlapping mutations (3/3,343 variants). Within tumor pairs there was a striking discrepancy of mutational signatures, exemplified by no paired tumors sharing high APOBEC mutational burden. Here, leveraging mHPV+OPSCCs as a model system to study mutation acquisition in virally mediated tumors, in which the germline, environmental exposures, immune surveillance and tissue/organ type were internally controlled, we demonstrate that despite infection by the same viral isolate, paired mHPV+OPSCCs develop drastically different somatic alterations and even more strikingly, appear to be driven by disparate underlying mutational processes. Thus, despite a common starting point, HPV+OPSCCs evolve through variable mutational processes with resultant stochastic mutational profiles.

6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237792, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ewing sarcoma (EwS) is a rare, aggressive solid tumor of childhood, adolescence and young adulthood associated with pathognomonic EWSR1-ETS fusion oncoproteins altering transcriptional regulation. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 6 common germline susceptibility loci but have not investigated low-frequency inherited variants with minor allele frequencies below 5% due to limited genotyped cases of this rare tumor. METHODS: We investigated the contribution of rare and low-frequency variation to EwS susceptibility in the largest EwS genome-wide association study to date (733 EwS cases and 1,346 unaffected controls of European ancestry). RESULTS: We identified two low-frequency variants, rs112837127 and rs2296730, on chromosome 20 that were associated with EwS risk (OR = 0.186 and 2.038, respectively; P-value < 5×10-8) and located near previously reported common susceptibility loci. After adjusting for the most associated common variant at the locus, only rs112837127 remained a statistically significant independent signal (OR = 0.200, P-value = 5.84×10-8). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest rare variation residing on common haplotypes are important contributors to EwS risk. IMPACT: Motivate future targeted sequencing studies for a comprehensive evaluation of low-frequency and rare variation around common EwS susceptibility loci.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Sarcoma de Ewing/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
7.
Hum Mutat ; 41(11): 1918-1930, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790018

RESUMO

Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a ribosomopathy of variable expressivity and penetrance characterized by red cell aplasia, congenital anomalies, and predisposition to certain cancers, including early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC). DBA is primarily caused by a dominant mutation of a ribosomal protein (RP) gene, although approximately 20% of patients remain genetically uncharacterized despite exome sequencing and copy number analysis. Although somatic loss-of-function mutations in RP genes have been reported in sporadic cancers, with the exceptions of 5q-myelodysplastic syndrome (RPS14) and microsatellite unstable CRC (RPL22), these cancers are not enriched in DBA. Conversely, pathogenic variants in RPS20 were previously implicated in familial CRC; however, none of the reported individuals had classical DBA features. We describe two unrelated children with DBA lacking variants in known DBA genes who were found by exome sequencing to have de novo novel missense variants in RPS20. The variants affect the same amino acid but result in different substitutions and reduce the RPS20 protein level. Yeast models with mutation of the cognate residue resulted in defects in growth, ribosome biogenesis, and polysome formation. These findings expand the phenotypic spectrum of RPS20 mutation beyond familial CRC to include DBA, which itself is associated with increased risk of CRC.

8.
Cancer Res ; 80(18): 3803-3809, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631904

RESUMO

Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 displays substantial sequence variation; four HPV16 lineages (A, B, C, and D) have been described as well as multiple sublineages. To identify molecular events associated with HPV16 carcinogenesis, we evaluated viral variation, the integration of HPV16, and somatic mutation in 96 cervical cancer samples from Guatemala. A total of 65% (62/96) of the samples had integrated HPV16 sequences and integration was associated with an earlier age of diagnosis and premenopausal disease. HPV16 integration sites were broadly distributed in the genome, but in one tumor, HPV16 integrated into the promoter of the IFN regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) gene, which plays an important role in the regulation of the IFN response to viral infection. The HPV16 D2 and D3 sublineages were found in 23% and 30% of the tumors, respectively, and were significantly associated with adenocarcinoma. D2-positive tumors had a higher rate of integration, earlier age of diagnosis, and a lower rate of somatic mutation, whereas D3-positive tumors were less likely to integrate, had later age of diagnosis, and exhibited a higher rate of somatic mutation. In conclusion, Guatemalan cervical tumors have a high frequency of very high-risk HPV16 D2 and D3 sublineages harboring distinct histology, which may help guide future therapeutic strategies to target the tumor and reduce recurrence. SIGNIFICANCE: This study details the biological and molecular properties of the most pathogenic forms of HPV16, the cause of the majority of cervical cancers.

9.
Oral Oncol ; 108: 104736, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502860

RESUMO

Cancer of the oropharynx has attracted considerable attention in recent years given: (1) an increasing incidence in selected populations over the past three decades; (2) the discovery of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection as the driver of the increase, as opposed to the traditional risk factors such as tobacco (smoking and chewing) and alcohol; and (3) the promise of new prevention and treatment strategies. As a result of such developments, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the US National Cancer Institute (NCI), convened the fourth Cancer Seminar meeting in November 2018 to focus on this topic. This report summarizes the proceedings: a review of recent science on the descriptive epidemiology, etiology, biology, genetics, early detection, pathology and treatment of HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer, and the formulation of key research questions to be addressed.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 147(10): 2677-2686, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363580

RESUMO

HPV35 has been found in only ∼2% of invasive cervical cancers (ICC) worldwide but up to 10% in Sub-Saharan Africa, warranting further investigation and consideration of impact on preventive strategies. We studied HPV35 and ethnicity, in relation to the known steps in cervical carcinogenesis, using multiple large epidemiologic studies in the U.S. and internationally. Combining five U.S. studies, we measured HPV35 positivity and, in Northern California, observed HPV35 type-specific population prevalence and estimated 5-year risk of developing precancer when HPV35-positive. HPV35 genetic variation was examined for differences in carcinogenicity in 1053 HPV35+ cervical specimens from a U.S. cohort and an international collection. African-American women had more HPV35 (12.1% vs 5.1%, P < .001) and more HPV35-associated precancers (7.4% vs 2.1%, P < .001) compared to other ethnicities. Precancer risks after HPV35 infection did not vary by ethnicity (global P = .52). The HPV35 A2 sublineage showed an increased association with precancer/cancer in African-Americans (OR = 5.6 vs A1, 95% CI = 1.3-24.8) and A2 was more prevalent among ICC in Africa than other world regions (41.9% vs 10.4%, P < .01). Our analyses support a strong link between HPV35 and cervical carcinogenesis in women of African ancestry. Current HPV vaccines cover the majority of cervical precancer/cancer across all ethnic groups; additional analyses are required to determine whether the addition of HPV35 to the already highly effective nine-valent HPV vaccine would provide better protection for women in Africa or of African ancestry.

11.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(5): 724-734, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191290

RESUMO

Importance: Osteosarcoma, the most common malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents, occurs in a high number of cancer predisposition syndromes that are defined by highly penetrant germline mutations. The germline genetic susceptibility to osteosarcoma outside of familial cancer syndromes remains unclear. Objective: To investigate the germline genetic architecture of 1244 patients with osteosarcoma. Design, Setting, and Participants: Whole-exome sequencing (n = 1104) or targeted sequencing (n = 140) of the DNA of 1244 patients with osteosarcoma from 10 participating international centers or studies was conducted from April 21, 2014, to September 1, 2017. The results were compared with the DNA of 1062 individuals without cancer assembled internally from 4 participating studies who underwent comparable whole-exome sequencing and 27 173 individuals of non-Finnish European ancestry who were identified through the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) database. In the analysis, 238 high-interest cancer-susceptibility genes were assessed followed by testing of the mutational burden across 736 additional candidate genes. Principal component analyses were used to identify 732 European patients with osteosarcoma and 994 European individuals without cancer, with outliers removed for patient-control group comparisons. Patients were subsequently compared with individuals in the ExAC group. All data were analyzed from June 1, 2017, to July 1, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: The frequency of rare pathogenic or likely pathogenic genetic variants. Results: Among 1244 patients with osteosarcoma (mean [SD] age at diagnosis, 16 [8.9] years [range, 2-80 years]; 684 patients [55.0%] were male), an analysis restricted to individuals with European ancestry indicated a significantly higher pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant burden in 238 high-interest cancer-susceptibility genes among patients with osteosarcoma compared with the control group (732 vs 994, respectively; P = 1.3 × 10-18). A pathogenic or likely pathogenic cancer-susceptibility gene variant was identified in 281 of 1004 patients with osteosarcoma (28.0%), of which nearly three-quarters had a variant that mapped to an autosomal-dominant gene or a known osteosarcoma-associated cancer predisposition syndrome gene. The frequency of a pathogenic or likely pathogenic cancer-susceptibility gene variant was 128 of 1062 individuals (12.1%) in the control group and 2527 of 27 173 individuals (9.3%) in the ExAC group. A higher than expected frequency of pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants was observed in genes not previously linked to osteosarcoma (eg, CDKN2A, MEN1, VHL, POT1, APC, MSH2, and ATRX) and in the Li-Fraumeni syndrome-associated gene, TP53. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, approximately one-fourth of patients with osteosarcoma unselected for family history had a highly penetrant germline mutation requiring additional follow-up analysis and possible genetic counseling with cascade testing.

12.
J Neurooncol ; 147(2): 309-315, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056145

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Medulloblastoma is a malignant embryonal tumor of the cerebellum that occurs predominantly in children. To find germline genetic variants associated with medulloblastoma risk, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) including 244 medulloblastoma cases and 247 control subjects from Sweden and Denmark. METHODS: Genotyping was performed using Illumina BeadChips, and untyped variants were imputed using IMPUTE2. RESULTS: Fifty-nine variants in 11 loci were associated with increased medulloblastoma risk (p < 1 × 10-5), but none were statistically significant after adjusting for multiple testing (p < 5 × 10-8). Thirteen of these variants were genotyped, whereas 46 were imputed. Genotyped variants were further investigated in a validation study comprising 249 medulloblastoma cases and 629 control subjects. In the validation study, rs78021424 (18p11.23, PTPRM) was associated with medulloblastoma risk with OR in the same direction as in the discovery cohort (ORT = 1.59, pvalidation = 0.02). We also selected seven medulloblastoma predisposition genes for investigation using a candidate gene approach: APC, BRCA2, PALB2, PTCH1, SUFU, TP53, and GPR161. The strongest evidence for association was found for rs201458864 (PALB2, ORT = 3.76, p = 3.2 × 10-4) and rs79036813 (PTCH1, ORA = 0.42, p = 2.6 × 10-3). CONCLUSION: The results of this study, including a novel potential medulloblastoma risk loci at 18p11.23, are suggestive but need further validation in independent cohorts.

13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 886, 2020 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060290

RESUMO

HPV16 causes half of cervical cancers worldwide; for unknown reasons, most infections resolve within two years. Here, we analyze the viral genomes of 5,328 HPV16-positive case-control samples to investigate mutational signatures and the role of human APOBEC3-induced mutations in viral clearance and cervical carcinogenesis. We identify four de novo mutational signatures, one of which matches the COSMIC APOBEC-associated signature 2. The viral genomes of the precancer/cancer cases are less likely to contain within-host somatic HPV16 APOBEC3-induced mutations (Fisher's exact test, P = 6.2 x 10-14), and have a 30% lower nonsynonymous APOBEC3 mutation burden compared to controls. We replicate the low prevalence of HPV16 APOBEC3-induced mutations in 1,749 additional cases. APOBEC3 mutations also historically contribute to the evolution of HPV16 lineages. We demonstrate that cervical infections with a greater burden of somatic HPV16 APOBEC3-induced mutations are more likely to be benign or subsequently clear, suggesting they may reduce persistence, and thus progression, within the host.


Assuntos
Citidina Desaminase/metabolismo , Genoma Viral , Papillomavirus Humano 16/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/enzimologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colo do Útero/virologia , Citidina Desaminase/genética , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Papillomavirus Humano 16/fisiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/enzimologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/genética , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226972, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914160

RESUMO

Mounting evidence indicates that coffee, a commonly consumed beverage worldwide, is inversely associated with various chronic diseases and overall mortality. Few studies have evaluated the effect of coffee drinking on telomere length, a biomarker of chromosomal integrity, and results have been inconsistent. Understanding this association may provide mechanistic insight into associations of coffee with health. The aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that heavier coffee intake is associated with greater likelihood of having above-median telomere length. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between coffee intake and relative telomere length using data from 1,638 controls from four previously conducted case-control studies nested in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Coffee intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire, and relative telomere length was measured from buffy-coat, blood, or buccal cells. We used unconditional logistic regression models to generate multivariable-adjusted, study-specific odds ratios for the association between coffee intake and relative telomere length. We then conducted a random-effects meta-analysis to determine summary odds ratios. We found that neither summary continuous (OR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.99-1.03) nor categorical (OR <3 cups/day vs. none = 1.37, 95% CI = 0.71-2.65; OR ≥3 cups/day vs. none = 1.47, 95% CI = 0.81-2.66) odds ratio estimates of coffee drinking and relative telomere length were statistically significant. However, in the largest of the four contributing studies, moderate (<3 cups/day) and heavy coffee drinkers (≥3 cups/day) were 2.10 times (95% CI = 1.25, 3.54) and 1.93 times as likely (95% CI = 1.17, 3.18) as nondrinkers to have above-median telomere length, respectively. In conclusion, we found no evidence that coffee drinking is associated with telomere length. Thus, it is unlikely that telomere length plays a role in potential coffee-disease associations.


Assuntos
Cafeína/farmacologia , Café , Homeostase do Telômero/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Café/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias da Próstata/prevenção & controle
15.
EBioMedicine ; 50: 246-259, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Methylation of viral DNA has been proposed as a novel biomarker for triage of human papillomavirus (HPV) positive women at screening. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to assess how methylation levels change with disease severity and to determine diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) in detecting high-grade cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN). METHODS: We performed searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL from inception to October 2019. Studies were eligible if they explored HPV methylation levels in HPV positive women. Data were extracted in duplicate and requested from authors where necessary. Random-effects models and a bivariate mixed-effects binary regression model were applied to determine pooled effect estimates. FINDINGS: 44 studies with 8819 high-risk HPV positive women were eligible. The pooled estimates for positive methylation rate in HPV16 L1 gene were higher for high-grade CIN (≥CIN2/high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion (HSIL) (95% confidence interval (95%CI:72·7% (47·8-92·2))) vs. low-grade CIN (≤CIN1/low-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion (LSIL) (44·4% (95%CI:16·0-74·1))). Pooled difference in mean methylation level was significantly higher in ≥CIN2/HSIL vs. ≤CIN1/LSIL for HPV16 L1 (11·3% (95%CI:6·5-16·1)). Pooled odds ratio of HPV16 L1 methylation was 5·5 (95%CI:3·5-8·5) for ≥CIN2/HSIL vs. ≤CIN1/LSIL (p < 0·0001). HPV16 L1/L2 genes performed best in predicting CIN2 or worse (pooled sensitivity 77% (95%CI:63-87), specificity 64% (95%CI:55-71), area under the curve (0·73 (95%CI:0·69-0·77)). INTERPRETATION: Higher HPV methylation is associated with increased disease severity, whilst HPV16 L1/L2 genes demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy to detect high-grade CIN in HPV16 positive women. Direct clinical use is limited by the need for a multi-genotype and standardised assays. Next-generation multiplex HPV sequencing assays are under development and allow potential for rapid, automated and low-cost methylation testing. FUNDING: NIHR, Genesis Research Trust, Imperial Healthcare Charity, Wellcome Trust NIHR Imperial BRC, European Union's Horizon 2020.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/etiologia , Metilação de DNA , DNA Viral , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Ilhas de CpG , Feminino , Papillomavirus Humano 16/genética , Humanos , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Razão de Chances , Papillomaviridae/classificação , Curva ROC
16.
J Infect Dis ; 220(10): 1609-1619, 2019 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human papillomaviruses (HPV) cause over 500 000 cervical cancers each year, most of which occur in low-resource settings. Human papillomavirus genotyping is important to study natural history and vaccine efficacy. We evaluated TypeSeq, a novel, next-generation, sequencing-based assay that detects 51 HPV genotypes, in 2 large international epidemiologic studies. METHODS: TypeSeq was evaluated in 2804 cervical specimens from the Study to Understand Cervical Cancer Endpoints and Early Determinants (SUCCEED) and in 2357 specimens from the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial (CVT). Positive agreement and risks of precancer for individual genotypes were calculated for TypeSeq in comparison to Linear Array (SUCCEED). In CVT, positive agreement and vaccine efficacy were calculated for TypeSeq and SPF10-LiPA. RESULTS: We observed high overall and positive agreement for most genotypes between TypeSeq and Linear Array in SUCCEED and SPF10-LiPA in CVT. There was no significant difference in risk of precancer between TypeSeq and Linear Array in SUCCEED or in estimates of vaccine efficacy between TypeSeq and SPF10-LiPA in CVT. CONCLUSIONS: The agreement of TypeSeq with Linear Array and SPF10-LiPA, 2 well established standards for HPV genotyping, demonstrates its high accuracy. TypeSeq provides high-throughput, affordable HPV genotyping for world-wide studies of cervical precancer risk and of HPV vaccine efficacy.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Papillomaviridae/classificação , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Costa Rica , Custos e Análise de Custo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Técnicas de Genotipagem/economia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/economia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Cancer Discov ; 9(11): 1511-1519, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527131

RESUMO

The glutamate metabotropic receptor 4 (GRM4) locus is linked to susceptibility to human osteosarcoma, through unknown mechanisms. We show that Grm4-/- gene-targeted mice demonstrate accelerated radiation-induced tumor development to an extent comparable with Rb1+/- mice. GRM4 is expressed in myeloid cells, selectively regulating expression of IL23 and the related cytokine IL12. Osteosarcoma-conditioned media induce myeloid cell Il23 expression in a GRM4-dependent fashion, while suppressing the related cytokine Il12. Both human and mouse osteosarcomas express an increased IL23:IL12 ratio, whereas higher IL23 expression is associated with worse survival in humans. Consistent with an oncogenic role, Il23 -/- mice are strikingly resistant to osteosarcoma development. Agonists of GRM4 or a neutralizing antibody to IL23 suppressed osteosarcoma growth in mice. These findings identify a novel, druggable myeloid suppressor pathway linking GRM4 to the proinflammatory IL23/IL12 axis. SIGNIFICANCE: Few novel systemic therapies targeting osteosarcoma have emerged in the last four decades. Using insights gained from a genome-wide association study and mouse modeling, we show that GRM4 plays a role in driving osteosarcoma via a non-cell-autonomous mechanism regulating IL23, opening new avenues for therapeutic intervention.See related commentary by Jones, p. 1484.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1469.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/imunologia , Subunidade p19 da Interleucina-23/genética , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Osteossarcoma/imunologia , Receptores de Glutamato Metabotrópico/genética , Animais , Neoplasias Ósseas/genética , Neoplasias Ósseas/mortalidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Subunidade p19 da Interleucina-23/metabolismo , Camundongos , Transplante de Neoplasias , Osteossarcoma/genética , Osteossarcoma/mortalidade , Receptores de Glutamato Metabotrópico/metabolismo , Análise de Sobrevida , Regulação para Cima
18.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(1): 389, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common sexually transmitted infection associated with cervical cancer that frequently occurs as a coinfection of types and subtypes. Highly similar sublineages that show over 100-fold differences in cancer risk are not distinguishable in coinfections with current typing methods. RESULTS: We describe an efficient set of computational tools, rkmh, for analyzing complex mixed infections of related viruses based on sequence data. rkmh makes extensive use of MinHash similarity measures, and includes utilities for removing host DNA and classifying reads by type, lineage, and sublineage. We show that rkmh is capable of assigning reads to their HPV type as well as HPV16 lineage and sublineages. CONCLUSIONS: Accurate read classification enables estimates of percent composition when there are multiple infecting lineages or sublineages. While we demonstrate rkmh for HPV with multiple sequencing technologies, it is also applicable to other mixtures of related sequences.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/virologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Papillomavirus Humano 16/fisiologia , Software , DNA Viral/genética , Papillomavirus Humano 16/classificação , Humanos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Cancer ; 125(20): 3514-3525, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355930

RESUMO

Patients who are diagnosed with osteosarcoma (OS) today receive the same therapy that patients have received over the last 4 decades. Extensive efforts to identify more effective or less toxic regimens have proved disappointing. As we enter a postgenomic era in which we now recognize OS not as a cancer of mutations but as one defined by p53 loss, chromosomal complexity, copy number alteration, and profound heterogeneity, emerging threads of discovery leave many hopeful that an improving understanding of biology will drive discoveries that improve clinical care. Under the organization of the Bone Tumor Biology Committee of the Children's Oncology Group, a team of clinicians and scientists sought to define the state of the science and to identify questions that, if answered, have the greatest potential to drive fundamental clinical advances. Having discussed these questions in a series of meetings, each led by invited experts, we distilled these conversations into a series of seven Provocative Questions. These include questions about the molecular events that trigger oncogenesis, the genomic and epigenomic drivers of disease, the biology of lung metastasis, research models that best predict clinical outcomes, and processes for translating findings into clinical trials. Here, we briefly present each Provocative Question, review the current scientific evidence, note the immediate opportunities, and speculate on the impact that answered questions might have on the field. We do so with an intent to provide a framework around which investigators can build programs and collaborations to tackle the hardest problems and to establish research priorities for those developing policies and providing funding.


Assuntos
Epigenômica , Genômica , Osteossarcoma/terapia , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Criança , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Osteossarcoma/epidemiologia , Osteossarcoma/genética , Osteossarcoma/patologia , Proteômica , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
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