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2.
J Clin Lipidol ; 13(6): 989-996, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maximal doses of potent statins are the basement of treatment of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Little is known about the use of different statin regimens in FH. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to describe the treatment changes and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal achievement with atorvastatin (ATV) and rosuvastatin (RV) in the SAFEHEART cohort, as well as to analyze the incidence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular events (ACVEs) and changes in the cardiovascular risk. METHODS: SAFEHEART is a prospective follow-up nationwide cohort study in a molecularly defined FH population. The patients were contacted on a yearly basis to obtain relevant changes in life habits, medication, and ACVEs. RESULTS: A total of 1939 patients were analyzed. Median follow-up was 6.6 years (5-10). The estimated 10-year risk according the SAFEHEART risk equation was 1.61 (0.67-3.39) and 1.22 (0.54-2.93) at enrollment for ATV and RV, respectively (P < .001). There were no significant differences at the follow-up: 1.29 (0.54-2.82) and 1.22 (0.54-2.76) in the ATV and RV groups, respectively (P = .51). Sixteen percent of patients in primary prevention with ATV and 18% with RV achieved an LDL-C <100 mg/dL and 4% in secondary prevention with ATV and 5% with RV achieved an LDL-C <70 mg/dL. The use of ezetimibe was marginally greater in the RV group. One hundred sixty ACVEs occurred during follow-up, being its incidence rate 1.1 events/100 patient-years in the ATV group and 1.2 in the RV group (P = .58). CONCLUSION: ATV and RV are 2 high-potency statins widely used in FH. Although the reduction in LDL-C levels was greater with RV than with ATV, the superiority of RV for reducing ACVEs was not demonstrated.

3.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 158: 107916, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682882

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dulaglutide is an agonist of "glucagon-like peptide type 1″ receptors (arGLP1). The clinical efficacy of this molecule is based on reductions in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and weight, data shown in the pivotal AWARD studies. METHODS: We propose a retrospective and multicenter study that allows evaluating the effectiveness of dulaglutide at 24 months after treatment began, under conditions of usual clinical practice, and comparing the results obtained with those that are reflected in the controlled trials. RESULTS: The results show a reduction in the HbA1c levels -1.4% at 6 M and this reduction were maintained throughout 12 M and 24 M (p < 0.001). Plasma glucose showed significant reductions around -30 mg / dL at 6 months (p < 0.001) that remained until the end of the follow-up at 12 and 24 M, respectively. The weight decreased significantly at 6 M (p < 0.001) but continued decreasing at 12 and 24 M, showing statistically significant differences (p: 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results are similar to those obtained in pivotal clinical trials and confirm these benefits in real life.

4.
Atherosclerosis ; 285: 17-22, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder characterized by high levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The magnitude of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk in FH patients is highly variable, and this can result from genetic factors. The aim of our study was to characterize whether polymorphisms in VEGFR2 and OPG genes could influence the expression of ASCVD in FH patients. METHODS: We studied 318 FH patients from the SAFEHEART registry, without clinical diagnosis of ASCVD. A coronary tomographic angiography (CTA) was performed to determine and evaluate the presence of coronary stenosis and coronary artery calcium, as measured by coronary calcium score (CCS). Genotyping of OPG rs2073618 and VEGFR2 rs2071559 polymorphisms was performed using TaqMan 5'-exonuclease allelic discrimination assays. RESULTS: Homozygous GG genotype and G allele of VEGFR2 rs2071559 polymorphism were associated with decreased risk of developing coronary artery stenosis. In the analysis of OPG rs2073618 and VEGFR2 rs2071559 polymorphisms, according to the presence of coronary artery calcium, we found significant differences in both polymorphisms. Homozygous GG genotype and G allele of VEGFR2 rs2071559 polymorphism were associated with decreased risk of accumulation of coronary artery calcium measured by CCS in CTA. Moreover, being a carrier of the GG genotype and G allele of the OPG rs2073618 polymorphism increased the risk of the presence of coronary artery calcium measured by CCS in CTA. CONCLUSIONS: Polymorphisms in VEGFR2 and OPG genes modify the risk of ASCVD in FH patients.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5055, 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911067

RESUMO

The intra-renal dopamine (DA) system is highly expressed in the proximal tubule and contributes to Na+ and blood pressure homeostasis, as well as to the development of nephropathy. In the kidney, the enzyme DOPA Decarboxylase (DDC) originating from the circulation. We used a twin/family study design, followed by polymorphism association analysis at DDC locus to elucidate heritable influences on renal DA production. Dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping across the DDC locus on chromosome 7p12 was analyzed by re-sequencing guided by trait-associated genetic markers to discover the responsible genetic variation. We also characterized kinetics of the expressed DDC mutant enzyme. Systematic polymorphism screening across the 15-Exon DDC locus revealed a single coding variant in Exon-14 that was associated with DA excretion and multiple other renal traits indicating pleiotropy. When expressed and characterized in eukaryotic cells, the 462Gln variant displayed lower Vmax (maximal rate of product formation by an enzyme) (21.3 versus 44.9 nmol/min/mg) and lower Km (substrate concentration at which half-maximal product formation is achieved by an enzyme.)(36.2 versus 46.8 µM) than the wild-type (Arg462) allele. The highly heritable DA excretion trait is substantially influenced by a previously uncharacterized common coding variant (Arg462Gln) at the DDC gene that affects multiple renal tubular and glomerular traits, and predicts accelerated functional decline in chronic kidney disease.

9.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 315(5): F1406-F1415, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30066584

RESUMO

While sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been used for the routine management of type 2 diabetes for several years, it is perhaps their natriuretic effects that are most important clinically. This natriuresis activates tubuloglomerular feedback, resulting in reduced glomerular hypertension and proteinuria, leading to renal protective effects in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME and CANVAS Program trials. In the cardiovascular system, it is likely that plasma volume contraction due to natriuresis in response to SGLT2 inhibition is at least in part responsible for the reduction in the risk of heart failure observed in these trials. We compare this mechanism of action with other antidiabetics. Importantly, other diuretic classes, including thiazide and loop diuretics, have not resulted in such robust clinical benefits in patients with type 2 diabetes, possibly because these older agents do not influence intraglomerular pressure directly. In contrast, SGLT2 inhibitors do have important physiological similarities with carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, which also act proximally, and have been shown to activate tubuloglomerular feedback.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Natriurese/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Nefropatias Diabéticas/sangue , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Incretinas/uso terapêutico , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Korean J Fam Med ; 38(4): 226-228, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28775813

RESUMO

A 39-year-old Caucasian man was referred to University Hospital Salamanca from a primary care unit due to the presence of an erythematous violaceous nodule at the superior portion of his nose. Physical examination indicated that the firm, fixed erythematous violaceous nodule measured approximately 2 cm in diameter and was located inferior to a scar on the nasal bridge. Cutaneous involvement in sarcoidosis occurs in 25% of cases. A wide range of clinical presentations of cutaneous sarcoidosis is recognized. Skin lesions are classified as either non-specific, of which erythema nodosum is the most representative and specific, or as granulomatous, which includes maculopapular nodules, plaques, infiltrated scars, lupus pernio, ulcerations, warty lesions and erythroderma. Scar sarcoidosis is a type of cutaneous sarcoidosis.

15.
Circulation ; 135(22): 2133-2144, 2017 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28275165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) have been described, models for predicting incident ASCVD have not been reported. Our aim was to use the SAFEHEART registry (Spanish Familial Hypercholesterolemia Cohort Study) to define key risk factors for predicting incident ASCVD in patients with FH. METHODS: SAFEHEART is a multicenter, nationwide, long-term prospective cohort study of a molecularly defined population with FH with or without previous ASCVD. Analyses to define risk factors and to build a risk prediction equation were developed, and the risk prediction equation was tested for its ability to discriminate patients who experience incident ASCVD from those who did not over time. RESULTS: We recruited 2404 adult patients with FH who were followed up for a mean of 5.5 years (SD, 3.2 years), during which 12 (0.5%) and 122 (5.1%) suffered fatal and nonfatal incident ASCVD, respectively. Age, male sex, history of previous ASCVD, high blood pressure, increased body mass index, active smoking, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lipoprotein(a) levels were independent predictors of incident ASCVD from which a risk equation with a Harrell C index of 0.85 was derived. The bootstrap resampling (100 randomized samples) of the original set for internal validation showed a degree of overoptimism of 0.003. Individual risk was estimated for each person without an established diagnosis of ASCVD before enrollment in the registry by use of the SAFEHEART risk equation, the modified Framingham risk equation, and the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association ASCVD Pooled Cohort Risk Equations. The Harrell C index for these models was 0.81, 0.78, and 0.8, respectively, and differences between the SAFEHEART risk equation and the other 2 were significant (P=0.023 and P=0.045). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of incident ASCVD may be estimated in patients with FH with simple clinical predictors. This finding may improve risk stratification and could be used to guide therapy in patients with FH. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02693548.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/diagnóstico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
17.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 26(8): 1816-25, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25392232

RESUMO

Chromogranin A (CHGA) is coreleased with catecholamines from secretory vesicles in adrenal medulla and sympathetic axons. Genetic variation in the CHGA 3'-region has been associated with autonomic control of circulation, hypertension, and hypertensive nephropathy, and the CHGA 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) variant C+87T (rs7610) displayed peak associations with these traits in humans. Here, we explored the molecular mechanisms underlying these associations. C+87T occurred in a microRNA-107 (miR-107) motif (match: T>C), and CHGA mRNA expression varied inversely with miR-107 abundance. In cells transfected with chimeric luciferase/CHGA 3'-UTR reporters encoding either the T allele or the C allele, changes in miR-107 expression levels had much greater effects on expression of the T allele. Cotransfection experiments with hsa-miR-107 oligonucleotides and eukaryotic CHGA plasmids produced similar results. Notably, an in vitro CHGA transcription/translation experiment revealed that changes in hsa-miR-107 expression altered expression of the T allele variant only. Mice with targeted ablation of Chga exhibited greater eGFR. Using BAC transgenesis, we created a mouse model with a humanized CHGA locus (T/T genotype at C+87T), in which treatment with a hsa-miR-107 inhibitor yielded prolonged falls in SBP/DBP compared with wild-type mice. We conclude that the CHGA 3'-UTR C+87T disrupts an miR-107 motif, with differential effects on CHGA expression, and that a cis:trans (mRNA:miR) interaction regulates the association of CHGA with BP and hypertensive nephropathy. These results indicate new strategies for probing autonomic circulatory control and ultimately, susceptibility to hypertensive renal sequelae.


Assuntos
Cromogranina A/genética , Hipertensão Renal/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Alelos , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea , Cromogranina A/metabolismo , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Hipertensão Renal/metabolismo , Luciferases , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Células PC12 , Polimorfismo Genético , Ratos
18.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 63(15): 1542-55, 2014 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24509276

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study coupled 2 strategies-trait extremes and genome-wide pooling-to discover a novel blood pressure (BP) locus that encodes a previously uncharacterized thiamine transporter. BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a heritable trait that remains the most potent and widespread cardiovascular risk factor, although details of its genetic determination are poorly understood. METHODS: Representative genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) pools were created from male and female subjects in the highest- and lowest-fifth percentiles of BP in a primary care population of >50,000 patients. The peak associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms were typed in individual DNA samples, as well as in twins/siblings phenotyped for cardiovascular and autonomic traits. Biochemical properties of the associated transporter were evaluated in cellular assays. RESULTS: After chip hybridization and calculation of relative allele scores, the peak associations were typed in individual samples, revealing an association between hypertension, systolic BP, and diastolic BP and the previously uncharacterized solute carrier SLC35F3. The BP genetic association at SLC35F3 was validated by meta-analysis in an independent sample from the original source population, as well as the International Consortium for Blood Pressure Genome-Wide Association Studies (across North America and western Europe). Sequence homology to a putative yeast thiamine (vitamin B1) transporter prompted us to express human SLC35F3 in Escherichia coli, which catalyzed [(3)H]-thiamine uptake. SLC35F3 risk-allele homozygotes (T/T) displayed decreased erythrocyte thiamine content on microbiological assay. In twin pairs, the SLC35F3 risk allele predicted heritable cardiovascular traits previously associated with thiamine deficiency, including elevated cardiac stroke volume with decreased vascular resistance, and elevated pressor responses to environmental (cold) stress. Allelic expression imbalance confirmed that cis variation at the human SLC35F3 locus influenced expression of that gene, and the allelic expression imbalance peak coincided with the hypertension peak. CONCLUSIONS: Novel strategies were coupled to position a new hypertension-susceptibility locus, uncovering a previously unsuspected thiamine transporter whose genetic variants predicted several disturbances in cardiac and autonomic function. The results have implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of systemic hypertension.


Assuntos
DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hipertensão/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Adulto , Alelos , Pressão Sanguínea , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Tiamina/genética , Tiamina/metabolismo
19.
J Neurochem ; 129(1): 48-59, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24266713

RESUMO

Chromogranin B (CHGB) is the major matrix protein in human catecholamine storage vesicles. CHGB genetic variation alters catecholamine secretion and blood pressure. Here, effective Chgb protein under-expression was achieved by siRNA in PC12 cells, resulting in ~ 48% fewer secretory granules on electron microscopy, diminished capacity for catecholamine uptake (by ~ 79%), and a ~ 73% decline in stores available for nicotinic cholinergic-stimulated secretion. In vivo, loss of Chgb in knockout mice resulted in a ~ 35% decline in chromaffin granule abundance and ~ 44% decline in granule diameter, accompanied by unregulated catecholamine release into plasma. Over-expression of CHGB was achieved by transduction of a CHGB-expressing lentivirus, resulting in ~ 127% elevation in CHGB protein, with ~ 122% greater abundance of secretory granules, but only ~ 14% increased uptake of catecholamines, and no effect on nicotinic-triggered secretion. Human CHGB protein and its proteolytic fragments inhibited nicotinic-stimulated catecholamine release by ~ 72%. One conserved-region CHGB peptide inhibited nicotinic-triggered secretion by up to ~ 41%, with partial blockade of cationic signal transduction. We conclude that bi-directional quantitative derangements in CHGB abundance result in profound changes in vesicular storage and release of catecholamines. When processed and released extra-cellularly, CHGB proteolytic fragments exert a feedback effect to inhibit catecholamine secretion, especially during nicotinic cholinergic stimulation.


Assuntos
Catecolaminas/metabolismo , Grânulos Cromafim/metabolismo , Cromogranina B/fisiologia , Líquido Extracelular/fisiologia , Líquido Intracelular/fisiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Catecolaminas/genética , Grânulos Cromafim/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Ratos
20.
Hum Mol Genet ; 22(18): 3624-40, 2013 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23674521

RESUMO

Hypertension is a common hereditary syndrome with unclear pathogenesis. Chromogranin A (Chga), which catalyzes formation and cargo storage of regulated secretory granules in neuroendocrine cells, contributes to blood pressure homeostasis centrally and peripherally. Elevated Chga occurs in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) adrenal glands and plasma, but central expression is unexplored. In this report, we measured SHR and Wistar-Kyoto rat (control) Chga expression in central and peripheral nervous systems, and found Chga protein to be decreased in the SHR brainstem, yet increased in the adrenal and the plasma. By re-sequencing, we systematically identified five promoter, two coding and one 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) polymorphism at the SHR (versus WKY or BN) Chga locus. Using HXB/BXH recombinant inbred (RI) strain linkage and correlations, we demonstrated genetic determination of Chga expression in SHR, including a cis-quantitative trait loci (QTLs) (i.e. at the Chga locus), and such expression influenced biochemical determinants of blood pressure, including a cascade of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes, catecholamines themselves and steroids. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that the 3'-UTR polymorphism (which disrupts a microRNA miR-22 motif) and promoter polymorphisms altered gene expression consistent with the decline in SHR central Chga expression. Coding region polymorphisms did not account for changes in Chga expression or function. Thus, we hypothesized that the 3'-UTR and promoter mutations lead to dysregulation (diminution) of Chga in brainstem cardiovascular control nuclei, ultimately contributing to the pathogenesis of hypertension in SHR. Accordingly, we demonstrated that in vivo administration of miR-22 antagomir to SHR causes substantial (∼18 mmHg) reductions in blood pressure, opening a novel therapeutic avenue for hypertension.


Assuntos
Cromogranina A/genética , Cromogranina A/metabolismo , Hipertensão/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Glândulas Suprarrenais/metabolismo , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Tronco Encefálico/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromogranina A/sangue , Cromogranina A/química , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ligação Genética , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Células PC12 , Polimorfismo Genético , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY , Alinhamento de Sequência , Transcrição Genética
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