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1.
Nat Med ; 25(11): 1667-1679, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700182

RESUMO

Increases in the prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), particularly cardiometabolic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, stroke and diabetes, and their major risk factors have not been uniform across settings: for example, cardiovascular disease mortality has declined over recent decades in high-income countries but increased in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The factors contributing to this rise are varied and are influenced by environmental, social, political and commercial determinants of health, among other factors. This Review focuses on understanding the rise of cardiometabolic diseases in LMICs, with particular emphasis on obesity and its drivers, together with broader environmental and macro determinants of health, as well as LMIC-based responses to counteract cardiometabolic diseases.

4.
Lancet Glob Health ; 7(12): e1644-e1654, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The burden of obesity differs by socioeconomic status. We aimed to characterise the prevalence of obesity among adult men and women in Latin America and the Caribbean by socioeconomic measures and the shifting obesity burden over time. METHODS: We did a cross-sectional series analysis of obesity prevalence by socioeconomic status by use of national health surveys done between 1998 and 2017 in 13 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. We generated equiplots to display inequalities in, the primary outcome, obesity by wealth, education, and residence area. We measured obesity gaps as the difference in percentage points between the highest and lowest obesity prevalence within each socioeconomic measure, and described trends as well as changing patterns of the obesity burden over time. FINDINGS: 479 809 adult men and women were included in the analysis. Obesity prevalence across countries has increased over time, with distinct patterns emerging by wealth and education indices. In the most recent available surveys, obesity was most prevalent among women in Mexico in 2016, and the least prevalent among women in Haiti in 2016. The largest gap between the highest and lowest obesity estimates by wealth was observed in Honduras among women (21·6 percentage point gap), and in Peru among men (22·4 percentage point gap), compared with a 3·7 percentage point gap among women in Brazil and 3·3 percentage points among men in Argentina. Urban residents consistently had a larger burden than their rural counterparts in most countries, with obesity gaps ranging from 0·1 percentage points among women in Paraguay to 15·8 percentage points among men in Peru. The trend analysis done in five countries suggests a shifting of the obesity burden across socioeconomic groups and different patterns by gender. Obesity gaps by education in Mexico have reduced over time among women, but increased among men, whereas the gap has increased among women but remains relatively constant among men in Argentina. INTERPRETATION: The increase in obesity prevalence in the Latin American and Caribbean region has been paralleled with an unequal distribution and a shifting burden across socioeconomic groups. Anticipation of the establishment of obesity among low socioeconomic groups could provide opportunities for societal gains in primordial prevention. FUNDING: None.

5.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 212, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent decades, the prevalence of obesity in children has increased dramatically. This worldwide epidemic has important consequences, including psychiatric, psychological and psychosocial disorders in childhood and increased risk of developing non-communicable diseases (NCDs) later in life. Treatment of obesity is difficult and children with excess weight are likely to become adults with obesity. These trends have led member states of the World Health Organization (WHO) to endorse a target of no increase in obesity in childhood by 2025. MAIN BODY: Estimates of overweight in children aged under 5 years are available jointly from the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), WHO and the World Bank. The Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) has published country-level estimates of obesity in children aged 2-4 years. For children aged 5-19 years, obesity estimates are available from the NCD Risk Factor Collaboration. The global prevalence of overweight in children aged 5 years or under has increased modestly, but with heterogeneous trends in low and middle-income regions, while the prevalence of obesity in children aged 2-4 years has increased moderately. In 1975, obesity in children aged 5-19 years was relatively rare, but was much more common in 2016. CONCLUSIONS: It is recognised that the key drivers of this epidemic form an obesogenic environment, which includes changing food systems and reduced physical activity. Although cost-effective interventions such as WHO 'best buys' have been identified, political will and implementation have so far been limited. There is therefore a need to implement effective programmes and policies in multiple sectors to address overnutrition, undernutrition, mobility and physical activity. To be successful, the obesity epidemic must be a political priority, with these issues addressed both locally and globally. Work by governments, civil society, private corporations and other key stakeholders must be coordinated.

6.
Lung ; 197(6): 793-801, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583454

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Observational studies investigating household air pollution (HAP) exposure to biomass fuel smoke as a risk factor for pulmonary tuberculosis have reported inconsistent results. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between HAP exposure and the prevalence of self-reported previous pulmonary tuberculosis. DESIGN: We analyzed pooled data including 12,592 individuals from five population-based studies conducted in Latin America, East Africa, and Southeast Asia from 2010 to 2015. We used multivariable logistic regression to model the association between HAP exposure and self-reported previous pulmonary tuberculosis adjusted for age, sex, tobacco smoking, body mass index, secondary education, site and country of residence. RESULTS: Mean age was 54.6 years (range of mean age across settings 43.8-59.6 years) and 48.6% were women (range of % women 38.3-54.5%). The proportion of participants reporting HAP exposure was 38.8% (range in % HAP exposure 0.48-99.4%). Prevalence of previous pulmonary tuberculosis was 2.7% (range of prevalence 0.6-6.9%). While participants with previous pulmonary tuberculosis had a lower pre-bronchodilator FEV1 (mean - 0.7 SDs, 95% CI - 0.92 to - 0.57), FVC (- 0.52 SDs, 95% CI - 0.69 to - 0.33) and FEV1/FVC (- 0.59 SDs, 95% CI - 0.76 to - 0.43) as compared to those who did not, we did not find an association between HAP exposure and previous pulmonary tuberculosis (adjusted odds ratio = 0.86; 95% CI 0.56-1.32). CONCLUSIONS: There was no association between HAP exposure and self-reported previous pulmonary tuberculosis in five population-based studies conducted worldwide.

7.
COPD ; 16(3-4): 213-214, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423849

RESUMO

The diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a global health problem, is challenging in resource-constrained settings. Spirometry with an obstructive pattern after the administration of bronchodilators is required for the diagnosis of COPD. Existing COPD treatment guidelines, largely derived from studies performed in populations of cigarette-smokers, recommend pharmacologic interventions with a tendency to include new-and expensive-drugs as first line agents. As the different factors that cause nonsmokers to develop COPD lead to different phenotypes of disease, COPD severity and treatment efficacy cannot be extrapolated to be the same as in the population of smokers. In so doing, current global initiatives may carry risks when trying to over simplify diagnostic approaches and push for standardization of treatment algorithms that are not context-specific. Future work to mitigate the global burden of COPD needs to address the need for new epidemiological data, especially in areas where tobacco use is less prevalent and environmental factors such as domestic air pollution is common.

8.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-11, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456536

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if specific dietary patterns are associated with risk of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and high BMI in four sites in Peru. DESIGN: We analysed dietary patterns from a cohort of Peruvian adults in four geographical settings using latent class analysis. Associations with prevalence and incidence of hypertension, T2DM and high BMI were assessed using Poisson regression and generalised linear models, adjusted for potential confounders. SETTING: Four sites in Peru varying in degree of urbanisation. PARTICIPANTS: Adults aged ≥35 years (n 3280). RESULTS: We identified four distinct dietary patterns corresponding to different stages of the Peruvian nutrition transition, reflected by the foods frequently consumed in each pattern. Participants consuming the 'stage 3' diet, characterised by high proportional consumption of processed foods, animal products and low consumption of vegetables, mostly consumed in the semi-urban setting, showed the highest prevalence of all health outcomes (hypertension 32·1 %; T2DM 10·7 %; high BMI 75·1 %). Those with a more traditional 'stage 1' diet characterised by potato and vegetables, mostly consumed in the rural setting, had lower prevalence of hypertension (prevalence ratio; 95 CI: 0·57; 0·43, 0·75), T2DM (0·36; 0·16, 0·86) and high BMI (0·55; 0·48, 0·63) compared with the 'stage 3' diet. Incidence of hypertension was highest among individuals consuming the 'stage 3' diet (63·75 per 1000 person-years; 95 % CI 52·40, 77·55). CONCLUSIONS: The study found more traditional diets were associated with a lower prevalence of three common chronic diseases, while prevalence of these diseases was higher with a diet high in processed foods and low in vegetables.

9.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 68, 2019 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity and sedentary behavior are major concerns for public health. Although global initiatives have been successful in monitoring physical activity (PA) worldwide, there is no systematic action for the monitoring of correlates of these behaviors, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Here we describe the prevalence and distribution of PA domains and sitting time in population sub-groups of six south American countries. METHODS: Data from the South American Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Network (SAPASEN) were used, which includes representative data from Argentina (n = 26,932), Brazil (n = 52,490), Chile (n = 3719), Ecuador (n = 19,851), Peru (n = 8820), and Suriname (n = 5170). Self-reported leisure time (≥150 min/week), (≥150 min/week), transport (≥10 min/week), and occupational PA total (≥10 min/week), as well as sitting time (≥4 h/day) were captured in each national survey. Sex, age, income, and educational status were exposures. Descriptive statistics and harmonized random effect meta-analyses were conducted. RESULTS: The prevalence of PA during leisure (Argentina: 29.2% to Peru: 8.6%), transport (Peru: 69.7% to Ecuador: 8.8%), and occupation (Chile: 60.4 to Brazil 18.3%), and ≥4 h/day of sitting time (Peru: 78.8% to Brazil: 14.8%) differed widely between countries. Moreover, total PA ranged between 60.4% (Brazil) and 82.9% (Chile) among men, and between 49.4% (Ecuador) and 74.9% (Chile) among women. Women (low leisure and occupational PA) and those with a higher educational level (low transportation and occupational PA as well as high sitting time) were less active. Concerning total PA, men, young and middle-aged adults of high educational status (college or more) were, respectively, 47% [OR = 0.53 (95% CI = 0.36-0.78), I2 = 76.6%], 25% [OR = 0.75 (95% CI = 0.61-0.93), I2 = 30.4%] and 32% [OR = 0.68 (95% CI = 0.47-1.00), I2 = 80.3%] less likely to be active. CONCLUSIONS: PA and sitting time present great ranges and tend to vary across sex and educational status in South American countries. Country-specific exploration of trends and population-specific interventions may be warranted.

10.
Glob Health Promot ; : 1757975919859577, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451039

RESUMO

The present article describes the South American Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Network, which was designed to provide ongoing transnational empirical evidence about physical activity and sedentary behavior in South America. The first goal of this initiative was to form a representative body of researchers and policy makers from all South American countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay and Venezuela) to establish priorities and targets for the short, medium and long term. Examples are given of connecting physical activity and sedentary data from existing surveys in several of the partner countries. The main objective of the South American Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Network will be to impact policies on physical activity and sedentary behavior in South America according to the singularities of each country or region. By encouraging an inclusive and collaborative effort, we expect that the South American Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Network will support the connection between researchers from South America as well as provide a better comprehension of the epidemiology of physical activity and sedentary behavior regionally.

11.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 43, August 2019
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51471

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To identify gaps in postgraduate training and options for building capacity in noncommunicable disease (NCDs) research in Latin America. Methods. This was a scoping review of postgraduate opportunities in NCDs at top universities in Latin America and of training grants awarded by international funding bodies. Three global university rankings were considered—the QS Ranking, the Shanghai Ranking, and the Times Ranking. Latin American universities appearing in at least two of these were selected. University websites were searched for current graduate programs in biostatistics, epidemiology, global health, health economics, and public health. Information was extracted, summarized, and evaluated to identify any programs focused on NCDs. In addition, seven international funding bodies’ websites were searched for training grants. Results. In all, 33 universities offering 72 postgraduate programs met the inclusion criteria. One of these programs was exclusively devoted to NCD, and 12 offered NCDs as a dissertation research topic. Only two training grants were awarded to a Latin American institution for NCD capacity building. There are few NCD research training programs in Latin America and only one program exclusively focused on NCDs. Conclusion. There seem to be few NCD-specific research training programs in Latin America. Leveraging existing programs and expanding those with a focus on NCDs could help enhance NCD research capacity in the region. These initiatives should be supported by international funding agencies through more funding opportunities.


[RESUMEN]. las capacidades de investigación sobre enfermedades no transmisibles (ENT) en América Latina. Métodos. Se realizó una revisión exploratoria de los programas de posgrado sobre las ENT disponibles en las mejores universidades de América Latina y de las becas para investigadores otorgadas por los organismos internacionales de financiamiento. Se consideraron tres listas de clasificación académica de universidades del mundo: QS Ranking, Shanghai Ranking y Times Ranking. Se seleccionaron las universidades de América Latina que figuraban en al menos dos de ellas. Se utilizaron los sitios web de las universidades para buscar los programas de posgrado actuales en las áreas de bioestadística, epidemiología, salud mundial, economía de la salud y salud pública. La información se extrajo, se resumió y se evaluó para encontrar todos los programas centrados en las ENT. Además, se realizó una búsqueda de las becas de formación ofrecidas en los sitios web de siete organismos internacionales de financiamiento. Resultados. En total, 33 universidades que ofrecían 72 programas de posgrado reunieron los criterios de inclusión. Uno de estos programas estaba exclusivamente dedicado a las ENT, y doce incluían las ENT como tema de investigación en tesis de grado. Solo dos becas de formación fueron otorgadas a una institución latinoamericana para fortalecer las capacidades de investigación sobre las ENT. Existen pocos programas para la formación de investigadores sobre las ENT en América Latina y hay un solo programa exclusivamente centrado en las ENT. Conclusiones. Al parecer, hay pocos programas específicos para la formación de investigadores sobre las ENT en América Latina. Aprovechar mejor los programas existentes y ampliar aquellos que se centran en las ENT podría ayudar a aumentar las capacidades de investigación sobre ENT en la región. Estas iniciativas deben contar con el apoyo de los organismos internacionales de financiamiento mediante el aumento de las oportunidades de financiamiento.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Identificar lacunas no ensino de pós-graduação e cursos de formação em pesquisa em doenças não transmissíveis na América Latina. Métodos. Trata-se de uma revisão da literatura do tipo scoping review das oportunidades de pós-graduação em doenças não transmissíveis nas principais universidades da América Latina e das bolsas de estudo oferecidas por organismos internacionais de financiamento. O estudo se baseou em três rankings mundiais de universidades – QS Ranking, Ranking de Xangai e The Times Higher Education World University Ranking – e as universidades latino-americanas que figuravam em pelo menos dois destes rankings foram incluídas na análise. Nos sites das universidades, foi feito um levantamento dos cursos atuais de pós-graduação em bioestatística, epidemiologia, saúde global, economia da saúde e saúde pública. As informações obtidas foram sumarizadas e avaliadas para identificar os cursos em doenças não transmissíveis. Além disso, nos sites de sete organismos internacionais de financiamento, foi feita uma pesquisa das bolsas de estudo oferecidas. Resultados. Ao todo, 33 universidades com 72 cursos de pós-graduação atenderam os critérios de inclusão no estudo. Verificou-se que um curso tinha foco exclusivo no estudo de doenças não transmissíveis e 12 cursos tinham doenças não transmissíveis como tópico de pesquisa de dissertação. Foram concedidas somente duas bolsas de estudo em doenças não transmissíveis a uma instituição latino-americana. Observou-se um pequeno número de programas de formação em pesquisa de doenças não transmissíveis na América Latina, com apenas um programa com foco exclusivo nestas doenças. Conclusões. Existem poucos programas de formação em pesquisa especificamente dedicados ao estudo de doenças não transmissíveis na América Latina. Faz-se necessário tirar proveito dos programas existentes e ampliar os programas com foco em doenças não transmissíveis para melhorar a capacidade de pesquisa em doenças não transmissíveis na Região. Essas iniciativas devem receber o apoio de organismos internacionais com maior oferta de bolsas de estudo.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis , Pesquisa , Educação , Pesquisadores , América Latina , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Pesquisa , Educação , Pesquisadores , América Latina , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Educação , Pesquisa , Pesquisadores
12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 953, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Process evaluation is increasingly recognized as an important component of effective implementation research and yet, there has been surprisingly little work to understand what constitutes best practice. Researchers use different methodologies describing causal pathways and understanding barriers and facilitators to implementation of interventions in diverse contexts and settings. We report on challenges and lessons learned from undertaking process evaluation of seven hypertension intervention trials funded through the Global Alliance of Chronic Diseases (GACD). METHODS: Preliminary data collected from the GACD hypertension teams in 2015 were used to inform a template for data collection. Case study themes included: (1) description of the intervention, (2) objectives of the process evaluation, (3) methods including theoretical basis, (4) main findings of the study and the process evaluation, (5) implications for the project, policy and research practice and (6) lessons for future process evaluations. The information was summarized and reported descriptively and narratively and key lessons were identified. RESULTS: The case studies were from low- and middle-income countries and Indigenous communities in Canada. They were implementation research projects with intervention arm. Six theoretical approaches were used but most comprised of mixed-methods approaches. Each of the process evaluations generated findings on whether interventions were implemented with fidelity, the extent of capacity building, contextual factors and the extent to which relationships between researchers and community impacted on intervention implementation. The most important learning was that although process evaluation is time consuming, it enhances understanding of factors affecting implementation of complex interventions. The research highlighted the need to initiate process evaluations early on in the project, to help guide design of the intervention; and the importance of effective communication between researchers responsible for trial implementation, process evaluation and outcome evaluation. CONCLUSION: This research demonstrates the important role of process evaluation in understanding implementation process of complex interventions. This can help to highlight a broad range of system requirements such as new policies and capacity building to support implementation. Process evaluation is crucial in understanding contextual factors that may impact intervention implementation which is important in considering whether or not the intervention can be translated to other contexts.


Assuntos
Ciência da Implementação , Avaliação de Processos (Cuidados de Saúde)/métodos , Adulto , Canadá , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Int Health ; 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the pattern of mortality linked to end stage renal disease (ESRD) is important given the increasing ageing population in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: We analyzed older patients with ESRD with incident hemodialysis, from January 2012 to August 2017 in one large general hospital in Peru. Individual and health system-related variables were analyzed using Generalized Linear Models (GLM) to estimate their association with in-hospital all-cause mortality. Relative risk (RR) with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. RESULTS: We evaluated 312 patients; mean age 69 years, 93.6% started hemodialysis with a transient central venous catheter, 1.7% had previous hemodialysis indication and 24.7% died during hospital stay. The mean length of stay was 16.1 days (SD 13.5). In the adjusted multivariate models, we found higher in-hospital mortality among those with encephalopathy (aRR 1.85, 95% CI 1.21-2.82 vs. without encephalopathy) and a lower in-hospital mortality among those with eGFR ≤7 mL/min (aRR 0.45, 95% CI 0.31-0.67 vs. eGFR>7 mL/min). CONCLUSIONS: There is a high in-hospital mortality among older hemodialysis patients in Peru. The presence of uremic encephalopathy was associated with higher mortality and a lower estimated glomerular filtration rate with lower mortality.

15.
Health Policy Plan ; 34(5): 370-383, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199439

RESUMO

Although non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, the global policy response has not been commensurate with their health, economic and social burden. This study examined factors facilitating and hampering the prioritization of NCDs on the United Nations (UN) health agenda. Shiffman and Smith's (Generation of political priority for global health initiatives: a framework and case study of maternal mortality. The Lancet 370: 1370-9.) political priority framework served as a structure for analysis of a review of NCD policy documents identified through the World Health Organization's (WHO) NCD Global Action Plan 2013-20, and complemented by 11 semi-structured interviews with key informants from different sectors. The results show that a cohesive policy community exists, and leaders are present, however, actor power does not extend beyond the health sector and the role of guiding institutions and civil society have only recently gained momentum. The framing of NCDs as four risk factors and four diseases does not necessarily resonate with experts from the larger policy community, but the economic argument seems to have enabled some traction to be gained. While many policy windows have occurred, their impact has been limited by the institutional constraints of the WHO. Credible indicators and effective interventions exist, but their applicability globally, especially in low- and middle-income countries, is questionable. To be effective, the NCD movement needs to expand beyond global health experts, foster civil society and develop a broader and more inclusive global governance structure. Applying the Shiffman and Smith framework for NCDs enabled different elements of how NCDs were able to get on the UN policy agenda to be disentangled. Much work has been done to frame the challenges and solutions, but implementation processes and their applicability remain challenging globally. NCD responses need to be adapted to local contexts, focus sufficiently on both prevention and management of disease, and have a stronger global governance structure.

16.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-9, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159908

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between excess body fat, assessed by skinfold thickness, and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension (HT). DESIGN: Data from the ongoing PERU MIGRANT Study were analysed. The outcomes were T2DM and HT, and the exposure was skinfold thickness measured in bicipital, tricipital, subscapular and suprailiac areas. The Durnin-Womersley formula and SIRI equation were used for body fat percentage estimation. Risk ratios and population attributable fractions (PAF) were calculated using Poisson regression. SETTING: Rural (Ayacucho) and urban shantytown district (San Juan de Miraflores, Lima) in Peru. PARTICIPANTS: Adults (n 988) aged ≥30 years (rural, rural-to-urban migrants, urban) completed the baseline study. A total of 785 and 690 were included in T2DM and HT incidence analysis, respectively. RESULTS: At baseline, age mean was 48·0 (sd 12·0) years and 47 % were males. For T2DM, in 7·6 (sd 1·3) years, sixty-one new cases were identified, overall incidence of 1·0 (95 % CI 0·8, 1·3) per 100 person-years. Bicipital and subscapular skinfolds were associated with 2·8-fold and 6·4-fold risk of developing T2DM. On the other hand, in 6·5 (sd 2·5) years, overall incidence of HT was 2·6 (95 % CI 2·2, 3·1) per 100 person-years. Subscapular and overall fat obesity were associated with 2·4- and 2·9-fold risk for developing HT. The PAF for subscapular skinfold was 73·6 and 39·2 % for T2DM and HT, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We found a strong association between subscapular skinfold thickness and developing T2DM and HT. Skinfold assessment can be a laboratory-free strategy to identify high-risk HT and T2DM cases.

18.
High Alt Med Biol ; 20(2): 133-140, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063411

RESUMO

Background: Kidney health needs to be studied in low- and middle-income countries with populations living at high altitude and undergoing urbanization. We studied whether greater level of urbanization was associated with worse kidney function and higher hemoglobin was associated with worse kidney function at high altitude. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of population-based studies in Peru including five sites at different altitude above the sea level and urbanization level (in decreasing order of urbanization): Lima (sea level), Arequipa (2335 m), urban Puno (3825 m), Tumbes (sea level), and rural Puno (3825 m). The exposures were urbanization and altitude as per study site, and hemoglobin (g/dL). The outcome was the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Results: Four thousand two hundred eight people were studied: mean age was 57.4 years (standard deviation: 12.4) and 51.9% were women. In comparison to rural Puno, eGFR was similar in Lima; in comparison to rural Puno, Arequipa, urban Puno, and Tumbes had worse eGFR, for example, in Arequipa, ß = -8.07 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -10.90 to -5.24). Intermediate (ß = -8.60; 95% CI: -10.55 to -6.66) and high (ß = -11.21; 95% CI: -14.19 to -8.24) altitude were negatively correlated with eGFR when only urban places were analyzed. At high altitude, there was a trend for a negative association between hemoglobin and eGFR: ß = -1.09 (95% CI: -2.22 to 0.04). Conclusions: Apparently, higher altitude and level of urbanization, except for one highly urbanized site, were associated with worse kidney function. Our findings suggest that some of the adverse impact of high altitude on kidney function has been balanced by the lower risk conferred by rural environments.

19.
Glob Heart ; 14(1): 81-93, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular prognostic models guide treatment allocation and support clinical decisions. Whether there are valid models for Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) populations is unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to identify and critically appraise cardiovascular prognostic models developed, tested, or recalibrated in LAC populations. METHODS: The systematic review followed the CHARMS (CHecklist for critical Appraisal and data extraction for systematic Reviews of prediction Modelling Studies) framework (PROSPERO [International Prospective Register of Systemic Reviews]: CRD42018096553). Reports were included if they followed a prospective design and presented a multivariable prognostic model; reports were excluded if they studied symptomatic individuals or patients. The following search engines were used: EMBASE, MEDLINE, Scopus, SciELO, and LILACS. Risk of bias assessment was conducted with PROBAST (Prediction model Risk Of Bias ASsessment Tool). No quantitative summary was conducted due to large heterogeneity. RESULTS: From 2,506 search results, 8 studies (N = 130,482 participants) were included for qualitative synthesis. We could not identify any cardiovascular prognostic model developed for LAC populations; reviewed reports evaluated available models or conducted a recalibration analysis. Only 1 study included a Caribbean population (Puerto Rico); 3 studies were retrieved from Chile; 2 from Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Uruguay; and 1 from Mexico. Four studies included population-based samples, and the other 4 included people affiliated to a health facility (e.g., prevention clinics). Most studied participants were older than 50 years, and there were more women in 5 reports. The Framingham model was assessed 6 times, and the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association pooled equation was assessed twice. Across the prognostic models assessed, calibration varied widely from one population to another, showing great overestimation particularly in some subgroups (e.g., highest risk). Discrimination (e.g., C-statistic) was acceptable for most models; for Framingham it ranged from 0.66 to 0.76. The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association pooled equation showed the best discrimination (0.78). That there were few outcome events was the most important methodological limitation of the identified studies. CONCLUSIONS: No cardiovascular prognostic models have been developed in LAC, hampering key evidence to inform public health and clinical practice. Validation studies need to improve methodological issues.

20.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(5): 545-556, mayo 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1014263

RESUMO

Introduction and Objective: There is little evidence in Latin America about the impact of the ACC/AHA 2017 guideline. Taking as reference the JNC 7 guideline, the objective of our study is to estimate changes in the prevalence of arterial hypertension (HBP) according to socio-demographic characteristics and geographic regions, applying the criteria of the new ACC / AHA guide 2017. Methods: Cross-sectional study of the Demographic and Family Health Survey conducted in Peru in 2017. Standardized weighted hypertension prevalence's were estimated for the WHO population according to both guidelines, and absolute differences with 95% CI. Results: We included 30,682 people aged 18 years and over, with an average age of 42.3 years, 51.1% women. The standardized prevalence of HBP for 2017 according to JNC 7 was 14.4% (95% CI: 13.8-15.1) and according to ACC / AHA 2017 it was 32.9% (95% CI: 32.0-33.7), so the prevalence increase is 18.5 percentage points, being higher in males than females (24.2 vs 12.9 respectively). In people with obesity and / or who consume tobacco, the increases were higher (24.3 and 24.1 percentage points respectively). In the regions of Tacna, Ica and Metropolitan Lima, the increase, in comparison with the JNC 7 guidelines, overcome the national average (22.4, 20.7 and 20.4, percentage points, respectively). Conclusions: Considering the context of a Latin American country and knowing the epidemiology of hypertension in Peru, the potential adoption of the ACC/AHA 2017 guidelines for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of hypertension should be accompanied by an evaluation of the impact at the individual, system and social level.

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