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1.
Environ Res ; : 111241, 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persistent disparities in academic performance may result from a confluence of adverse exposures accruing disproportionately to specific subpopulations. OBJECTIVE: Our overarching objective was to investigate how multiple exposures experienced over time affect early childhood educational outcomes. We were specifically interested in whether there were: (1) racial/ethnic disparities in prevalence of adverse exposures; (2) racial/ethnic disparities in associations observed between adverse exposures and early childhood educational outcomes; and (3) interactions between exposures, suggesting that one exposure augments susceptibility to adverse effects of another exposure. METHODS: We link geocoded North Carolina birth data for non-Hispanic white (NHW) and non-Hispanic black (NHB) children to blood lead surveillance data and 4th grade end-of-grade (EOG) standardized test scores (n = 65,151). We construct a local, spatial index of racial isolation (RI) of NHB at the block group level. We fit race-stratified multi-level models of reading and mathematics EOG scores regressed on birthweight percentile for gestational age, blood lead level, maternal smoking, economic disadvantage, and RI, adjusting for maternal- and child-level covariates and median household income. RESULTS: There were marked racial/ethnic disparities in prevalence of adverse exposures. Specifically, NHB children were more likely than NHW children to be economically disadvantaged (80% vs. 40%), live in block groups with the highest quintile of RI (46% vs. 5%), have higher blood lead levels (4.6 vs. 3.7 µg/dL), and lower birthweight percentile for gestational age (mean: 39th percentile vs. 51st percentile). NHB children were less likely to have mothers who reported smoking during pregnancy (11% and 22%). We observed associations between key adverse exposures and reading and math EOG scores in 4th grade. Higher birthweight percentile for gestational age was associated with higher EOG scores, while economic disadvantage, maternal smoking, and elevated blood lead levels were associated with lower EOG scores. Associations observed for NHB and NHW children were generally not statistically different from one another, with the exception of neighborhood RI. NHB children residing in block groups in the highest RI quintile had reading and math scores 1.54 (0.74, 2.34) and 1.12 (0.38, 1.87) points lower, respectively, compared to those in the lowest RI quintile; statistically significant decrements in EOG scores associated with RI were not observed for NHW children. We did not find evidence of multiplicative interactions between exposures for NHB or NHW children. DISCUSSION: Key adverse host, environmental, and social exposures accrue disproportionately to NHB children. Decrements in test scores associated with key adverse exposures were often but not always larger for NHB children, but were not significantly different from those estimated for NHW children. While we did not observe interactive effects, NHB children on average experience more deleterious combined exposures, resulting in larger decrements to test scores compared to NHW children.

2.
Epidemiology ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although many studies demonstrated reduced mortality risk with higher greenness, few studies examined the modifying effect of greenness on air pollution-health associations. We evaluated residential greenness as an effect modifier of the association between long-term exposure to fine particles (PM2.5) and mortality. METHODS: We used data from all Medicare beneficiaries in North Carolina (NC) and Michigan (MI) (2001-2016). We estimated annual PM2.5 averages using ensemble prediction models. We estimated mortality risk per 1 µg/m3 increase using Cox proportional hazards modeling, controlling for demographics, Medicaid eligibility, and area-level covariates. We investigated health disparities by greenness using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) with measures of urbanicity and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: PM2.5 was positively associated with mortality risk. Hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.12 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12, 1.13) for NC and 1.01 (95% CI 1.00, 1.01 ) for MI. HRs were higher for rural than urban areas. Within each category of urbanicity, HRs were generally higher in less green areas. For combined disparities, HRs were higher in low greenness or low SES areas, regardless of the other factor. HRs were lowest in high-greenness and high-SES areas for both states. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, those in low SES and high greenness areas had lower associations between PM2.5 and mortality than those in low SES and low greenness areas. Multiple aspects of disparity factors and their interactions may affect health disparities from air pollution exposures. Findings should be considered in light of uncertainties, such as our use of modeled PM2.5 data, and warrant further investigation.

3.
Environ Res ; 195: 110862, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported environmental disparities regarding exposure to concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). Public health implications of environmental justice from the intensive livestock industry are of great concern in North Carolina (NC), USA, a state with a large number and extensive history of CAFOs. OBJECTIVES: We examined disparities by exposure to CAFOs using several environmental justice metrics and considering potentially vulnerable subpopulations. METHODS: We obtained data on permitted animal facilities from NC Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). Using ZIP code level variables from the 2010 Census, we evaluated environmental disparities by eight environmental justice metrics (i.e., percentage of Non-Hispanic White, Non-Hispanic Black, or Hispanic; percentage living below the poverty level; median household income; percentage with education less than high school diploma; racial residential isolation (RI) for Non-Hispanic Black; and educational residential isolation (ERI) for population without college degree). We applied two approaches to assign CAFOs exposure for each ZIP code: (1) a count method based on the number of CAFOs within ZIP code; and (2) a buffer method based on the area-weighted number of CAFOs using a 15 km buffer. RESULTS: Spatial distributions of CAFOs exposure generally showed similar patterns between the two exposure methods. However, some ZIP codes had different estimated CAFOs exposure for the different approaches, with higher exposure when using the buffer method. Our findings indicate that CAFOs are located disproportionately in communities with higher percentage of minorities and in low-income communities. Distributions of environmental justice metrics generally showed similar patterns for both exposure methods, however starker disparities were observed using a buffer method. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings of the disproportionate location of CAFOs provide evidence of environmental disparities with respect to race and socioeconomic status in NC and have implications for future studies of environmental and health impacts of CAFOs.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Benchmarking , Afro-Americanos , Animais , Exposição Ambiental , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , North Carolina
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(4): 118-122, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507894

RESUMO

Institutions of higher education adopted different approaches for the fall semester 2020 in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Approximately 45% of colleges and universities implemented online instruction, more than one fourth (27%) provided in-person instruction, and 21% used a hybrid model (1). Although CDC has published COVID-19 guidance for institutions of higher education (2-4), little has been published regarding the response to COVID-19 outbreaks on college and university campuses (5). In August 2020, an Indiana university with approximately 12,000 students (including 8,000 undergraduate students, 85% of whom lived on campus) implemented various public health measures to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Despite these measures, the university experienced an outbreak involving 371 cases during the first few weeks of the fall semester. The majority of cases occurred among undergraduate students living off campus, and several large off-campus gatherings were identified as common sources of exposure. Rather than sending students home, the university switched from in-person to online instruction for undergraduate students and instituted a series of campus restrictions for 2 weeks, during which testing, contact tracing, and isolation and quarantine programs were substantially enhanced, along with educational efforts highlighting the need for strict adherence to the mitigation measures. After 2 weeks, the university implemented a phased return to in-person instruction (with 85% of classes offered in person) and resumption of student life activities. This report describes the outbreak and the data-driven, targeted interventions and rapid escalation of testing, tracing, and isolation measures that enabled the medium-sized university to resume in-person instruction and campus activities. These strategies might prove useful to other colleges and universities responding to campus outbreaks.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Universidades/organização & administração , /epidemiologia , Busca de Comunicante , Humanos , Indiana/epidemiologia , Isolamento de Pacientes , Quarentena
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036350

RESUMO

Microbial larviciding can be an effective component of integrated vector management malaria control schemes, although it is not commonly implemented. Moreover, quality control and evaluation of intervention activities are essential to evaluate the potential of community-based larviciding interventions. We conducted a process evaluation of a larval source management intervention in rural Tanzania where local staff were employed to apply microbial larvicide to mosquito breeding habitats with the aim of long-term reductions in malaria transmission. We developed a logic model to guide the process evaluation and then established quantitative indicators to measure intervention success. Quantitative analysis of intervention reach, exposure, and fidelity was performed to assess larvicide application, and interviews with larviciding staff were reviewed to provide context to quantitative results. Results indicate that the intervention was successful in terms of reach, as staff applied microbial larvicide at 80% of identified mosquito breeding habitats. However, the dosage of larvicide applied was sufficient to ensure larval elimination at only 26% of sites, which does not meet the standard set for intervention fidelity. We propose that insufficient training and protocol adaptation, environment and resource issues, and human error contributed to low larvicide application rates. This demonstrates how several small, context-specific details in sum can result in meaningful differences between intervention blueprint and execution. These findings may serve the design of other larval source management interventions by demonstrating the value of additional training, supervision, and measurement and evaluation of protocol adherence.

6.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-5, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921325

RESUMO

Rice University's Culture of Care represents a commitment to ensuring that all are treated with respect, compassion, and deep care. Rice leveraged information technology (IT) to deliver its Culture of Care, in responding to Hurricane Harvey. IT tools were used to gather key information on Rice's over 12000 community members. These data were fused with structured university data, enabling data-driven disaster response, with actionable information pushed to local managers. Our successful communication and response programs were all driven by the data analyses.

7.
Health Place ; 62: 102287, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479364

RESUMO

Understanding the environmental justice implications of the mortality impacts of air pollution exposure is a public health priority, as some subpopulations may face a disproportionate health burden. We examined which residential environmental and social factors may affect disparities in the air pollution-mortality relationship in North Carolina, US, using a time-stratified case-crossover design. Results indicate that air pollution poses a higher mortality risk for some persons (e.g., elderly) than others. Our findings have implications for environmental justice regarding protection of those who suffer the most from exposure to air pollution and policies to protect their health.

8.
9.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 16: E38, 2019 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925140

RESUMO

Accurate and precise estimates of local-level epidemiologic measures are critical to informing policy and program decisions, but they often require advanced statistical knowledge, programming/coding skills, and extensive computing power. In response, we developed the Rate Stabilizing Tool (RST), an ArcGIS-based tool that enables users to input their own record-level data to generate more reliable age-standardized measures of chronic disease (eg, prevalence rates, mortality rates) or other population health outcomes at the county or census tract levels. The RST uses 2 forms of empirical Bayesian modeling (nonspatial and spatial) to estimate age-standardized rates and 95% credible intervals for user-specified geographic units. The RST also provides indicators of the reliability of point estimates. In addition to reviewing the RST's statistical techniques, we present results from a simulation study that illustrates the key benefit of smoothing. We demonstrate the dramatic reduction in root mean-squared error (rMSE), indicating a better compromise between accuracy and stability for both smoothing approaches relative to the unsmoothed estimates. Finally, we provide an example of the RST's use. This example uses heart disease mortality data for North Carolina census tracts to map the RST output, including reliability of estimates, and demonstrates a subsequent statistical test.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Modelos Estatísticos , Análise Espacial , Fatores Etários , Teorema de Bayes , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Humanos , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 16: E36, 2019 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925142

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neighborhood characteristics such as racial segregation may be associated with hypertension, but studies have not examined these relationships using spatial models appropriate for geographically patterned health outcomes. The objectives of our study were to 1) evaluate the geographic heterogeneity of hypertension; 2) describe whether and how patient-level risk factors and racial isolation relate to geographic heterogeneity in hypertension; and 3) examine cross-sectional associations of hypertension with racial isolation. METHODS: We obtained electronic health records from the Duke Medicine Enterprise Data Warehouse for 2007-2011. We linked patient data with data on racial isolation determined by census block of residence. We constructed a local spatial index of racial isolation for non-Hispanic black patients; the index is scaled from 0 to 1, with 1 indicating complete isolation. We used aspatial and spatial Bayesian models to assess spatial variation in hypertension and estimate associations with racial isolation. RESULTS: Racial isolation ranged from 0 (no isolation) to 1 (completely isolated). A 0.20-unit increase in racial isolation was associated with 1.06 (95% credible interval, 1.03-1.10) and 1.11 (95% credible interval, 1.07-1.16) increased odds of hypertension among non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white patients, respectively. Across Durham, census block-level odds of hypertension ranged from 0.62 to 1.88 among non-Hispanic black patients and from 0.32 to 2.41 among non-Hispanic white patients. Compared with spatial models that included patient age and sex, residual heterogeneity in spatial models that included age, sex, and block-level racial isolation was 33% lower for non-Hispanic black patients and 20% lower for non-Hispanic white patients. CONCLUSION: Racial isolation of non-Hispanic black patients was associated with increased odds of hypertension among both non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white patients. Further research is needed to identify latent spatially patterned factors contributing to hypertension.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/etnologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Segregação Social , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Análise Espacial , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 73(4): 303-310, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies examine relationships between built environment (BE) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using spatial models, investigate BE domains apart from food environment or physical activity resources or conduct sensitivity analysis of methodological choices made in measuring BE. We examine geographic heterogeneity of T2DM, describe how heterogeneity in T2DM relates to BE and estimate associations of T2DM with BE. METHODS: Individual-level electronic health records (n=41 203) from the Duke Medicine Enterprise Data Warehouse (2007-2011) were linked to BE based on census block. Data on housing damage, property disorder, territoriality, vacancy and public nuisances were used to estimate BE based on four different construction methods (CMs). We used race-stratified aspatial and spatial Bayesian models to assess geographic heterogeneity in T2DM and associations of T2DM with BE. RESULTS: Among whites, a 1 SD increase in poor quality BE was associated with a 1.03 (95% credible interval 1.01 to 1.06) and 1.06 (95 % credible interval 1.02 to 1.11) increased risk of T2DM for poor quality BE CM1 and CM2, respectively. Among blacks/African Americans, associations between T2DM and BE overlapped with the null for all CMs. The addition of BE to white models reduced residual geographic heterogeneity in T2DM by 4%-15%, depending on CM. In black/African-American models, BE did not affect residual heterogeneity. CONCLUSION: Associations of T2DM with BE were sensitive to CM and geographic heterogeneity in T2DM differed by race/ethnicity. Findings underscore the need to consider multiple methods of estimating BE and consider differences in relationships by race/ethnicity.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Planejamento Ambiental , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Espacial
12.
Am J Perinatol ; 36(12): 1243-1249, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30577056

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the variation in surgical gastrostomy tube (SGT) placement in premature infants among neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in the United States. STUDY DESIGN: We identified 8,781 premature infants discharged from 114 NICUs in the Pediatrix Medical Group from 2010 to 2012. The outcome of interest was SGT placement prior to discharge home from an NICU. Unadjusted proportions and adjusted risk estimates were calculated to quantify variation observed among individual NICUs. RESULTS: SGT placement occurred in 360 of 8,781 (4.1%) of infants. Across NICUs, any gastrostomy tube placement ranged from none in 45 NICUs up to 19.6%. Adjusted risk estimates for factors associated with SGT placement included gestational age at birth (odds ratio [OR]: 0.7/week, 95% confidence interval[CI]: [0.65, 0.75]), small for gestational age status (OR: 2.78 [2.09, 3.71]), administration of antenatal steroids (OR: 0.69 [0.52, 0.92]), Hispanic ethnicity (OR: 0.54 [0.37, 0.78]), and higher 5-minute Apgar scores (7-10, OR: 0.54 [0.37, 0.79]). CONCLUSION: Individual NICU center has a strong clinical effect on the probability of SGT placement relative to other medical factors. Future work is needed to understand the cause of this variation and the degree to which it represents over or under use of gastrostomy tubes.


Assuntos
Gastrostomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças do Prematuro/cirurgia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Displasia Broncopulmonar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Masculino , Estados Unidos
13.
J Pediatr ; 202: 23-30.e1, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170862

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with prolonged maternal breast milk (BM) provision in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cohort study of VLBW infants who initially received maternal BM and were born at one of 197 neonatal intensive care units managed by the Pediatrix Medical Group from 2010 to 2012. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify demographic, clinical, and maternal factors associated with provision of maternal BM on day of life (DOL) 30 and at discharge. RESULTS: Median gestational age for all infants was 28 weeks (25th, 75th percentiles: 26, 30), and median maternal age was 28 years (23, 33). Of 8806 infants, 6261 (71%) received maternal BM on DOL 30, and 4003 of 8097 (49%) received maternal BM at discharge to home. Predictors of maternal BM provision at DOL 30 included increased maternal age, white maternal race, absence of history of necrotizing enterocolitis or late-onset sepsis, higher household income, lower education level, lack of donor BM exposure, and lower gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that maternal-infant demographic and clinical factors and household neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics were associated with provision of maternal BM at 30 postnatal days to VLBW infants. Identification of these factors allows providers to anticipate mothers' needs and develop tailored interventions designed to improve rates of prolonged maternal BM provision and infant outcomes.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Escolaridade , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Renda , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Masculino , Idade Materna , North Carolina , Adulto Jovem
14.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 12713, 2018 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30140039

RESUMO

Asthma is a common chronic lung disease, the incidence and severity of which may be influenced by gene-environment interactions. Our objective was to examine associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and combinations of SNPs in the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway, residential distance to roadway as a proxy for traffic-related air pollution exposure, and asthma diagnosis and exacerbations. We obtained individual-level data on genotype, residential address, and asthma diagnosis and exacerbations from the Environmental Polymorphisms Registry. Subjects (n = 2,704) were divided into three groups (hyper-responders, hypo-responders, and neither) based on SNP combinations in genes along the TLR4 pathway. We geocoded subjects and calculated distance, classified as <250 m or ≥250 m, between residence and nearest major road. Relationships between genotype, distance to road, and odds of asthma diagnosis and exacerbations were examined using logistic regression. Odds of an asthma diagnosis among hyper-responders <250 m from a major road was 2.37(0.97, 6.01) compared to the reference group (p < 0.10). Hypo-responders ≥250 m from the nearest road had lower odds of activity limitations (0.46 [0.21, 0.95]) and sleeplessness (0.36 [0.12, 0.91]) compared to neither-responders (p < 0.05). Specific genotype combinations when combined with an individual's proximity to roadways, possibly due to traffic-related air pollution exposure, may affect the likelihood of asthma diagnosis and exacerbations.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
15.
Am J Epidemiol ; 187(7): 1467-1476, 2018 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29762649

RESUMO

Neighborhood characteristics such as racial segregation may be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, but studies have not examined these relationships using spatial models appropriate for geographically patterned health outcomes. We constructed a local, spatial index of racial isolation (RI) for black residents in a defined area, measuring the extent to which they are exposed only to one another, to estimate associations of diabetes with RI and examine how RI relates to spatial patterning in diabetes. We obtained electronic health records from 2007-2011 from the Duke Medicine Enterprise Data Warehouse. Patient data were linked to RI based on census block of residence. We used aspatial and spatial Bayesian models to assess spatial variation in diabetes and relationships with RI. Compared with spatial models with patient age and sex, residual geographic heterogeneity in diabetes in spatial models that also included RI was 29% and 24% lower for non-Hispanic white and black residents, respectively. A 0.20-unit increase in RI was associated with an increased risk of diabetes for white (risk ratio = 1.24, 95% credible interval: 1.17, 1.31) and black (risk ratio = 1.07, 95% credible interval: 1.05, 1.10) residents. Improved understanding of neighborhood characteristics associated with diabetes can inform development of policy interventions.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Isolamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , Censos , Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Características de Residência , Análise Espacial , Adulto Jovem
16.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 136(1): 39-45, 2018 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29167903

RESUMO

Importance: As the United States considers how to best structure its health care services, specialty care availability is receiving increased focus. This study assesses whether patients lack reasonable access to ophthalmologists in states where optometrists have been granted expanded scope of practice. Objective: To determine the estimated travel time (ETT) to the nearest ophthalmologist office for persons residing in states that have expanded scope of practice for optometrists, and to quantify ETT to the nearest ophthalmologist for Medicare beneficiaries who received surgical care from optometrists in those states between 2008 and 2014. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study used data from the 2010 US census, a 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology member database, and a data set of claims data for a random sample of 20% of beneficiaries enrolled in Medicare nationwide from 2008 to 2014 (n=14 063 725). Combining these sources with geographic information systems analysis, the ETT to the nearest ophthalmologist office was calculated for every resident of Kentucky, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. This study also assessed ETT to the nearest ophthalmologist for Medicare beneficiaries in those states who had received surgery from an optometrist from 2008 to 2014. Data analyses were conducted from July 2016 to July 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures: The proportion of residents of Kentucky, Oklahoma, and New Mexico who live within an ETT of 10, 30, 45, 60, or 90 minutes of the nearest ophthalmologist office. Results: The study included 4 339 367 Kentucky residents, 3 751 351 Oklahoma residents, and 2 059 179 New Mexico residents. Of these, 5 140 547 (50.6%) were female. Racial/ethnic composition included 7 154 847 people (70.5%) who were white, 640 608 (6.3%) who were black, and 1 418 246 (14.0%) who were Hispanic. The mean (SD) age was 37.8 (22.8) years. More than 75% of residents in the 3 states lived within an ETT of 30 minutes to the nearest ophthalmology office, and 94% to 99% of residents lived within an ETT of 60 minutes to the nearest ophthalmology office. Among Medicare beneficiaries who received surgery by optometrists, 58.3%, 51.1%, and 46.9% in Kentucky, Oklahoma, and New Mexico, respectively, lived within an ETT of 30 minutes from the nearest ophthalmologist office. Conclusions and Relevance: In the states where optometrists have expanded scope of practice, most residents lived within an ETT of 30 minutes of the nearest ophthalmologist office, as do half of Medicare beneficiaries who received surgical care from optometrists. These results can help inform policy makers when weighing the pros and cons of scope of practice expansion for optometrists.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Oftalmologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Optometristas/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância da População , Padrões de Prática Médica , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
17.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 38(1): 275-282, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29191927

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Exposure to mobile source emissions is nearly ubiquitous in developed nations and is associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. There is an ongoing need to understand the specificity of traffic exposure associations with vascular outcomes, particularly in individuals with cardiovascular disease. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We performed a cross-sectional study using 2124 individuals residing in North Carolina, United States, who received a cardiac catheterization at the Duke University Medical Center. Traffic-related exposure was assessed via 2 metrics: (1) the distance between the primary residence and the nearest major roadway; and (2) location of the primary residence in regions defined based on local traffic patterns. We examined 4 cardiovascular disease outcomes: hypertension, peripheral arterial disease, the number of diseased coronary vessels, and recent myocardial infarction. Statistical models were adjusted for race, sex, smoking, type 2 diabetes mellitus, body mass index, hyperlipidemia, and home value. Results are expressed in terms of the odds ratio (OR). A 23% decrease in residential distance to major roadways was associated with higher prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (OR=1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.55) and hypertension (OR=1.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.31). Associations with peripheral arterial disease were strongest in men (OR=1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-1.74) while associations with hypertension were strongest in women (OR=1.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-1.49). Neither myocardial infarction nor the number of diseased coronary vessels were associated with traffic exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Traffic-related exposure is associated with peripheral arterial disease and hypertension while no associations are observed for 2 coronary-specific vascular outcomes.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Características de Residência , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego/efeitos adversos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
18.
J Pediatr Surg ; 53(4): 784-788, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29055488

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Inguinal hernias are common in premature infants, but there is substantial variation with regards to timing of repair. We sought to quantify and explain this variation. METHODS: Cohort study of infants <34weeks gestation diagnosed with an inguinal hernia and discharged from one of 329 neonatal intensive units between 1998 and 2012. Multivariable logistic regression clustered by site was used to evaluate demographic, clinical, maternal, and socioeconomic variables associated with pre-discharge repair. RESULTS: A total of 8037 infants met study criteria, and 3230 (40%) received a pre-discharge repair. The frequency of pre-discharge repair varied by site from 9% to 84%, and increased over the study period from 20% in 1998 to 45% in 2012. Concurrent gastrostomy or fundoplication and lower socioeconomic status were associated with an increased odds of receiving a pre-discharge repair. CONCLUSION: There is substantial variation with regards to the timing of repair of inguinal hernias in premature infants, with an increasing number of infants receiving repair prior to hospital discharge over time. Concurrent gastrostomy or fundoplication and socioeconomic status are associated with timing of repair. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.


Assuntos
Hérnia Inguinal/cirurgia , Herniorrafia/métodos , Doenças do Prematuro/cirurgia , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Feminino , Herniorrafia/tendências , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
19.
Malar J ; 16(1): 309, 2017 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28764717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measurements of anti-malarial antibodies are increasingly used as a proxy of transmission intensity. Most serological surveys are based on the use of cross-sectional data that, when age-stratified, approximates historical patterns of transmission within a population. Comparatively few studies leverage longitudinal data to explicitly relate individual infection events with subsequent antibody responses. METHODS: The occurrence of seroconversion and seroreversion events for two Plasmodium falciparum asexual stage antigens (MSP-1 and AMA-1) was examined using three annual measurements of 691 individuals from a cohort of individuals in a malaria-endemic area of rural east-central Tanzania. Mixed-effect logistic regression models were employed to determine factors associated with changes in serostatus over time. RESULTS: While the expected population-level relationship between seroprevalence and disease incidence was observed, on an individual level the relationship between individual infections and the antibody response was complex. MSP-1 antibody responses were more dynamic in response to the occurrence and resolution of infection events than AMA-1, while the latter was more correlated with consecutive infections. The MSP-1 antibody response to an observed infection seemed to decay faster over time than the corresponding AMA-1 response. Surprisingly, there was no evidence of an age effect on the occurrence of a conversion or reversion event. CONCLUSIONS: While the population-level results concur with previously published sero-epidemiological surveys, the individual-level results highlight the more complex relationship between detected infections and antibody dynamics than can be analysed using cross-sectional data. The longitudinal analysis of serological data may provide a powerful tool for teasing apart the complex relationship between infection events and the corresponding immune response, thereby improving the ability to rapidly assess the success or failure of malaria control programmes.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Proteína 1 de Superfície de Merozoito/imunologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , População Rural , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 217(3): 367.e1-367.e9, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28526450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oxytocin is a potent uterotonic agent that is widely used for induction and augmentation of labor. Oxytocin has a narrow therapeutic index and the optimal dosing for any individual woman varies widely. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether genetic variation in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) or in the gene encoding G protein-coupled receptor kinase 6 (GRK6), which regulates desensitization of the oxytocin receptor, could explain variation in oxytocin dosing and labor outcomes among women being induced near term. STUDY DESIGN: Pregnant women with a singleton gestation residing in Durham County, NC, were prospectively enrolled as part of the Healthy Pregnancy, Healthy Baby cohort study. Those women undergoing an induction of labor at 36 weeks or greater were genotyped for 18 haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms in OXTR and 7 haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms in GRK6 using TaqMan assays. Linear regression was used to examine the relationship between maternal genotype and maximal oxytocin infusion rate, total oxytocin dose received, and duration of labor. Logistic regression was used to test for the association of maternal genotype with mode of delivery. For each outcome, backward selection techniques were utilized to control for important confounding variables and additive genetic models were used. Race/ethnicity was included in all models because of differences in allele frequencies across populations, and Bonferroni correction for multiple testing was used. RESULTS: DNA was available from 482 women undergoing induction of labor at 36 weeks or greater. Eighteen haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms within OXTR and 7 haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms within GRK6 were examined. Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms in OXTR showed nominal significance with maximal infusion rate of oxytocin, and two single-nucleotide polymorphisms in OXTR were associated with total oxytocin dose received. One single-nucleotide polymorphism in OXTR and two single-nucleotide polymorphisms in GRK6 were associated with duration of labor, one of which met the multiple testing threshold (P = .0014, rs2731664 [GRK6], mean duration of labor, 17.7 hours vs 20.2 hours vs 23.5 hours for AA, AC, and CC genotypes, respectively). Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms, two in OXTR and one in GRK6, showed nominal significance with mode of delivery. CONCLUSION: Genetic variation in OXTR and GRK6 is associated with the amount of oxytocin required as well as the duration of labor and risk for cesarean delivery among women undergoing induction of labor near term. With further research, pharmacogenomic approaches may potentially be utilized to develop personalized treatment to improve safety and efficacy outcomes among women undergoing induction of labor.


Assuntos
Quinases de Receptores Acoplados a Proteína G/genética , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Ocitócicos/administração & dosagem , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de Ocitocina/genética , Adulto , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Testes Farmacogenômicos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
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