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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21507, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728694

RESUMO

The drug delivery system (DDS) often causes toxicity, triggering undesired cellular injuries. Thus, developing supramolecules used as DDS with tunable self-assembly and nontoxic behavior is highly desired. To address this, we aimed to develop a tunable amphiphilic ABA-type triblock copolymer that is nontoxic to human blood cells but also capable of self-assembling, binding and releasing the clinically used drug dexamethasone. We synthesized an ABA-type amphiphilic triblock copolymer (P2L) by incorporating tetra(aniline) TANI as a hydrophobic and redox active segment along with monomethoxy end-capped polyethylene glycol (mPEG2k; Mw = 2000 g mol-1) as biocompatible, flexible and hydrophilic part. Cell cytotoxicity was measured in whole human blood in vitro and lung cancer cells. Polymer-drug interactions were investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy and computational analysis. Our synthesized copolymer P2L exhibited tuned self-assembly behavior with and without external stimuli and showed no toxicity in human blood samples. Computational analysis showed that P2L can encapsulate the clinically used drug dexamethasone and that drug uptake or release can also be triggered under oxidation or low pH conditions. In conclusion, copolymer P2L is nontoxic to human blood cells with the potential to carry and release anticancer/anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone. These findings may open up further investigations into implantable drug delivery systems/devices with precise drug administration and controlled release at specific locations.

2.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(9)2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579426

RESUMO

Herbal and traditional medicines can play a pivotal role in combating cancer and neglected tropical diseases. Ajuga bracteosa, family Lamiaceae, is an important medicinal plant. The genetic transformation of A. bracteosa with rol genes of Agrobacterium rhizogenes further enhances its metabolic content. This study aimed at undertaking the molecular, phytochemical, and in vitro biological analysis of A. bracteosa extracts. We transformed the A. bracteosa plant with rol genes and raised the regenerants from the hairy roots. Transgenic integration and expression of rolB were confirmed by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and qPCR analysis. The methanol: chloroform crude extracts of wild-type plants and transgenic regenerants were screened for in vitro antibacterial, antihemolytic, cytotoxic, anticancer, and leishmanial activity. Among all plants, transgenic line 3 (ABRL3) showed the highest expression of the rolB gene. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) analysis confirmed the enhanced number of functional groups of active compounds in all transgenic lines. Moreover, ABRL3 exhibited the highest antibacterial activity, minimum hemolytic activity (CC50 = 7293.05 ± 7 µg/mL) and maximum antileishmanial activity (IC50 of 56.16 ± 2 µg/mL). ABRL1 demonstrated the most prominent brine shrimp cytotoxicity (LD5039.6 ± 4 µg/mL). ABRL3 was most effective against various human cancer cell lines with an IC50 of 57.1 ± 2.2 µg/mL, 46.2 ± 1.1 µg/mL, 72.4 ± 1.3 µg/mL, 73.3 ± 2.1 µg/mL, 98.7 ± 1.6 µg/mL, and 97.1 ± 2.5 µg/mL against HepG2, LM3, A549, HT29, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231, respectively. Overall, these transgenic extracts may offer a cheaper therapeutic source than the more expensive synthetic drugs.

3.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443462

RESUMO

Ajuga bracteosa Wall. ex Benth. is an endangered medicinal herb traditionally used against different ailments. The present study aimed to create new insight into the fundamental mechanisms of genetic transformation and the biological activities of this plant. We transformed the A. bracteosa plant with rol genes of Agrobacterium rhizogenes and raised the regenerants from the hairy roots. These transgenic regenerants were screened for in vitro antioxidant activities, a range of in vivo assays, elemental analysis, polyphenol content, and different phytochemicals found through HPLC. Among 18 polyphenolic standards, kaempferol was most abundant in all transgenic lines. Furthermore, transgenic line 3 (ABRL3) showed maximum phenolics and flavonoids content among all tested plant extracts. ABRL3 also demonstrated the highest total antioxidant capacity (8.16 ± 1 µg AAE/mg), total reducing power, (6.60 ± 1.17 µg AAE/mg), DPPH activity (IC50 = 59.5 ± 0.8 µg/mL), hydroxyl ion scavenging (IC50 = 122.5 ± 0.90 µg/mL), and iron-chelating power (IC50 = 154.8 ± 2 µg/mL). Moreover, transformed plant extracts produced significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, and antidepressant activities in BALB/c mice models. In conclusion, transgenic regenerants of A. bracteosa pose better antioxidant and pharmacological properties under the effect of rol genes as compared to wild-type plants.


Assuntos
Ajuga/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Regeneração , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Bioensaio , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Elementos Químicos , Flavonoides/análise , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/química , Hidróxidos/química , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Quelantes de Ferro/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fenóis/análise , Picratos/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regeneração/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650709

RESUMO

Human papillomavirus type-16 (HPV-16) is the major HPV type involved in causing cervical cancer among women. The disease burden is high in developing and underdeveloped countries. Previously, the constitutive expression of HPV-16 L1 protein led to male sterility in transplastomic tobacco plants. Here, the HPV-16 L1 gene was expressed in chloroplasts of Nicotiana tabacum under the control of an ethanol-inducible promoter, trans-activated by nucleus-derived signal peptide. Plants containing nuclear component were transformed with transformation vector pEXP-T7-L1 by biolistic gun. The transformation and homoplasmic status of transformed plants was verified by polymerase chain reaction and Southern blotting, respectively. Protein was induced by spraying 5% ethanol for 7 consecutive days. The correct folding of L1 protein was confirmed by antigen-capture ELISA using a conformation-specific antibody. The L1 protein accumulated up to 3 µg/g of fresh plant material. The L1 protein was further purified using affinity chromatography. All transplastomic plants developed normal flowers and produced viable seeds upon self-pollination. Pollens also showed completely normal structure under light microscope and scanning electron microscopy. These data confirm the use of the inducible expression as plant-safe approach for expressing transgenes in plants, especially those genes that cause detrimental effects on plant growth and morphology.

5.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-16, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427586

RESUMO

Synthesis and characterization of novel copper complexes of metronidazole benzoate (MTZ Benz), metronidazole (MTZ) in the presence of another ligand; dichloroacetic acid (DCA) were compared and reported in the present work. Different bacterial and fungus strains were ascertained to evaluate the biological potency of the synthesized complexes, that is, Escherichia coli, Bordetella bronceptica, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Baccilus pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus and yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Agar diffusion method was employed to investigate in vitro antibacterial activities of the synthesized metal complexes and the tested parent ligands. α-Amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition studies of the synthesized complexes were also carried out. The antibacterial potential and α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition studies of complexes were further investigated by molecular docking studies, which supported the experimental results. Significant α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activities were shown by the synthesized complexes. S-1 and S-5 were found to be most inhibitors of α-amylase and α-glucosidase having IC50 42.50, 44.80 and 4.52 µg/mL, 4.80 µg/mL, respectively. The newly synthesized copper complexes showed overall better biological activities compared to each parent ligands used.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

6.
Bioorg Chem ; 106: 104180, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33276979

RESUMO

In the present work synthesis and characterization of five new bisferrocenyl bisthiourea analogues (G2M, S2M, G3F, G4F and T2M) is reported. UV-Visible and electrochemical studies were performed in order to have optical (absorption maximum, Molar absorption coefficient and optical band gap) and electrochemical parameters (Oxidation/reduction potentials and nature of the electrochemical process) of the compounds. In vitro various biological studies such as antibacterial, antifungal, anti-oxidant and antidiabetic activities were carried out to have comparative overview of the phermacochemical strength of the newly synthesized compounds. Similarly, theoretical analysis was accomplished utilizing density functional theory calculations. DFT/B3LYP (6-31G d, p) technique was used. With a view to explore the structure activity relationship (SAR) of the compounds theoretical docking analysis (against α-amylase, α-glucosidase) was also performed to have pictorial view and understanding of the actual interactions responsible for the activity. S2M displayed best antibacterial activity. Similarly, Antifungal and antidiabetic activities showed G3F as a best candidate, whereas T2M proved to be the best antioxidant agent.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Compostos Ferrosos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Metalocenos/farmacologia , Tioureia/análogos & derivados , Tioureia/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/síntese química , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Domínio Catalítico , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Desenho de Fármacos , Compostos Ferrosos/síntese química , Compostos Ferrosos/metabolismo , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/síntese química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/síntese química , Hipoglicemiantes/metabolismo , Metalocenos/síntese química , Metalocenos/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Modelos Químicos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tioureia/metabolismo , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Amilases/química , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , alfa-Glucosidases/química , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
7.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(11)2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105854

RESUMO

Crocus sativus, a medicinally important herbaceous plant, has been traditionally used to cure coughs, colds, insomnia, cramps, asthma, and pain. Moreover, the therapeutic applications of saffron include its immunomodulatory and anticancer properties. The current experimental analysis was performed to explore the potential nutraceutical efficacy of corm, leaf, petal, and stigma of saffron ethanolic extracts as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, and antidepressant using hot plate, carrageenan-induced paw edema, capillary tube and forced swim test, respectively in mice. The results indicated that among all the extracts, stigma ethanolic extract (SEE) represented maximum latency activity (72.85%) and edema inhibition (77.33%) followed by petal ethanolic extract (PEE) with latency activity and edema inhibition of 64.06 and 70.50%, respectively. Corm ethanolic extract (CEE) and leaf ethanolic extract (LEE) displayed mild analgesic activity of 22.40% and 29.07%, respectively. Additionally, LEE (53.29%) and CEE (47.47%) exhibited mild to moderate response against inflammation. The coagulation time of SEE (101.66 s) was almost equivalent to the standard drug, aspirin (101.66 s), suggesting a strong anticoagulant effect followed by PEE (86.5 s). LEE (66.83 s) represented moderate inhibitory effect on coagulation activity while CEE (42.83 s) showed neutral effect. Additionally, PEE and SEE also expressed itself as potential antidepressants with immobility time ≤76.66 s, while CEE (96.50 s) and LEE (106.83 s) indicated moderate to mild antidepressant efficacy. Based on the in vivo activities, saffron extract, particularly SEE and PEE, can be used as a potential nutraceutical and therapeutic agent due to its significant pharmacological activities.

8.
J Mol Evol ; 88(8-9): 674-688, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001284

RESUMO

Presenilin proteins make the catalytic component of γ-secretase, a multiprotein transmembrane protease, and are type II transmembrane proteins. Amyloid protein, Notch, and beta catenin are among more than 90 substrates of Presenilins. Mutations in Presenilins lead to defects in proteolytic cleavage of its substrate resulting in some of the most devastating pathological conditions including Alzheimer disease (AD), developmental disorders, and cancer. In addition to catalytic roles, Presenilin protein is also shown to be involved in many non-catalytic roles, i.e., calcium homeostasis, regulation of autophagy, and protein trafficking, etc. These proteolytic proteins are highly conserved and are present in almost all the major eukaryotic groups. Studies, performed on a wide variety of organisms ranging from human to unicellular dictyostelium, have shown the important catalytic and non-catalytic roles of Presenilins. In this study, we infer the evolutionary patterns and history of Presenilins as well as of other γ-secretase proteins. We show that Presenilins are the most ancient of the γ-secretase proteins and that Presenilins may have their origin in the last common ancestor (LCA) of Eukaryotes. We also demonstrate that Presenilin proteins generally lack diversifying selection during the course of their evolution. Through evolutionary trace analysis, we show that Presenilin protein sites that undergo mutations in Familial Alzheimer disease, are highly conserved in metazoans. Finally, we discuss the evolutionary, physiological, and pathological implications of our findings and propose that the evolutionary profile of Presenilins supports the loss of function hypothesis of AD pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Evolução Molecular , Presenilinas/genética , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/genética , Dictyostelium , Humanos
9.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 293, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease characterized by hyperglycemia that may occur due to genetic, environmental or lifestyle factors. Natural remedies have been used to treat diabetes since long and many antidiabetic compounds of varied efficacies have been isolated from medicinal plants. Rhazya stricta has been used for decades for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and associated ailments. Considering the folkloric use of R. stricta against diabetes, it was aimed to investigate the effectiveness of its root extracts against diabetes through in vitro assays and in vivo studies using animal model along with phytochemical profiling through GCMS. METHODS: Various fractions of Rhazya stricta obtained through column chromatography were evaluated for a variety of assays including α-glucosidase, Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV), ß-secretase and Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion studies. For the in vivo studies the alloxan-induced diabetic mice were treated with root extracts and blood glucose levels, HbA1C, and other biochemical markers along with the histological study of the liver were done. The phytochemical identification was performed using an Agilent 7890B GC coupled to a 7010 Triple Quadrupole (MS/MS) system. GraphPad Prism software version 5.01 was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Majority of the extract fractions showed excellent results against diabetes by inhibiting enzymes DPP-IV (Up to 61%) and ß-secretase (Up to 83%) with IC50s 979 µg/ml and 169 µg/ml respectively with increase in the GLP1 secretion. The results of in vivo studies indicated a marked reduction in blood glucose and HbA1c levels along with positive effects on other parameters like lipid profile, liver functions and renal functions of extract-treated mice as compared to control. The histological examination of the liver demonstrated hepatoprotective effects against diabetes led changes and various classes of phytochemicals were also identified through GCMS in different fractions. CONCLUSION: The results revealed strong antidiabetic activity of R. stricta root with the potential to protect body organs against diabetic changes. Moreover, a variety of phytochemicals has also been identified through GCMS that might be responsible for the antidiabetic potential of Rhazya stricta root.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Aloxano , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Paquistão , Raízes de Plantas
10.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 474(1-2): 159-169, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734538

RESUMO

Plants are major source for discovery and development of anticancer drugs. Several plant-based anticancer drugs are currently in clinical use. Fagonia indica is a plant of medicinal value in the South Asian countries. Using mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy, several compounds were purified from the F. indica extract. We have used one of the purified compounds quinovic acid (QA) and found that QA strongly suppressed the growth and viability of human breast and lung cancer cells. QA did not inhibit growth and viability of non-tumorigenic breast cells. QA mediated its anticancer effects by inducing cell death. QA-induced cell death was associated with biochemical features of apoptosis such as activation of caspases 3 and 8 as well as PARP cleavage. QA also upregulated mRNA and protein levels of death receptor 5 (DR5). Further investigation revealed that QA did not alter DR5 gene promoter activity, but enhanced DR5 mRNA and protein stabilities. DR5 is one of the major components of the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Accordingly, Apo2L/TRAIL, the DR5 ligand, potentiated the anticancer effects of QA. Our results indicate that QA mediates its anticancer effects, at least in part, by engaging DR5-depentent pathway to induce apoptosis. Based on our results, we propose that QA in combination with Apo2L/TRAIL can be further investigated as a novel therapeutic approach for breast and lung cancers.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores do Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/metabolismo , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Zygophyllaceae/química , Apoptose , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Receptores do Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
11.
PeerJ ; 8: e9552, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32775052

RESUMO

Species of the genus Nicotiana (Solanaceae), commonly referred to as tobacco plants, are often cultivated as non-food crops and garden ornamentals. In addition to the worldwide production of tobacco leaves, they are also used as evolutionary model systems due to their complex development history tangled by polyploidy and hybridization. Here, we assembled the plastid genomes of five tobacco species: N. knightiana, N. rustica, N. paniculata, N. obtusifolia and N. glauca. De novo assembled tobacco plastid genomes had the typical quadripartite structure, consisting of a pair of inverted repeat (IR) regions (25,323-25,369 bp each) separated by a large single-copy (LSC) region (86,510-86,716 bp) and a small single-copy (SSC) region (18,441-18,555 bp). Comparative analyses of Nicotiana plastid genomes with currently available Solanaceae genome sequences showed similar GC and gene content, codon usage, simple sequence and oligonucleotide repeats, RNA editing sites, and substitutions. We identified 20 highly polymorphic regions, mostly belonging to intergenic spacer regions (IGS), which could be suitable for the development of robust and cost-effective markers for inferring the phylogeny of the genus Nicotiana and family Solanaceae. Our comparative plastid genome analysis revealed that the maternal parent of the tetraploid N. rustica was the common ancestor of N. paniculata and N. knightiana, and the later species is more closely related to N. rustica. Relaxed molecular clock analyses estimated the speciation event between N. rustica and N. knightiana appeared 0.56 Ma (HPD 0.65-0.46). Biogeographical analysis supported a south-to-north range expansion and diversification for N. rustica and related species, where N. undulata and N. paniculata evolved in North/Central Peru, while N. rustica developed in Southern Peru and separated from N. knightiana, which adapted to the Southern coastal climatic regimes. We further inspected selective pressure on protein-coding genes among tobacco species to determine if this adaptation process affected the evolution of plastid genes. These analyses indicate that four genes involved in different plastid functions, including DNA replication (rpoA) and photosynthesis (atpB, ndhD and ndhF), came under positive selective pressure as a result of specific environmental conditions. Genetic mutations in these genes might have contributed to better survival and superior adaptations during the evolutionary history of tobacco species.

12.
Mol Biol Rep ; 47(8): 6321-6336, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710388

RESUMO

The world is experiencing a cancer epidemic and an increase in the prevalence of the disease. Cancer remains a major killer, accounting for more than half a million deaths annually. There is a wide range of natural products that have the potential to treat this disease. One of these products is artemisinin; a natural product from Artemisia plant. The Nobel Prize for Medicine was awarded in 2015 for the discovery of artemisinin in recognition of the drug's efficacy. Artemisinin produces highly reactive free radicals by the breakdown of two oxygen atoms that kill cancerous cells. These cells sequester iron and accumulate as much as 1000 times in comparison with normal cells. Generally, chemotherapy is toxic to both cancerous cells and normal cells, while no significant cytotoxicity from artemisinin to normal cells has been found in more than 4000 case studies, which makes it far different than conventional chemotherapy. The pleiotropic response of artemisinin in cancer cells is responsible for growth inhibition by multiple ways including inhibition of angiogenesis, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, disruption of cell migration, and modulation of nuclear receptor responsiveness. It is very encouraging that artemisinin and its derivatives are anticipated to be a novel class of broad-spectrum antitumor agents based on efficacy and safety. This review aims to highlight these achievements and propose potential strategies to develop artemisinin and its derivatives as a new class of cancer therapeutic agents.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Artemisininas/química , Artemisininas/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Artemisia/química , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia
13.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(6)2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549379

RESUMO

Within the family Solanaceae, Withania is a small genus belonging to the Solanoideae subfamily. Here, we report the de novo assembled chloroplast genome sequences of W. coagulans, W. adpressa, and W. riebeckii. The length of these genomes ranged from 154,162 to 154,364 base pairs (bp). These genomes contained a pair of inverted repeats (IRa and IRb) ranging from 25,029 to 25,071 bp that were separated by a large single-copy (LSC) region of 85,635-85,765 bp and a small single-copy (SSC) region of 18,457-18,469 bp. We analyzed the structural organization, gene content and order, guanine-cytosine content, codon usage, RNA-editing sites, microsatellites, oligonucleotide and tandem repeats, and substitutions of Withania plastomes, which revealed high similarities among the species. Comparative analysis among the Withania species also highlighted 10 divergent hotspots that could potentially be used for molecular marker development, phylogenetic analysis, and species identification. Furthermore, our analyses showed that even three mutational hotspots (rps4-trnT, trnM-atpE, and rps15) were sufficient to discriminate the Withania species included in current study.

14.
Biomedicines ; 8(5)2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443431

RESUMO

Cancer is one of the greatest causes of mortality worldwide. The prevalence rates of different types of cancer is increasing around the world as well. Limitations in chemotherapy and radiotherapy, owing to multiple side effects including cytotoxic effects of antitumor compounds on normal cells as well as the development of resistance to these treatment options in patients, create a serious threat to successful treatment of cancer. The use of natural compounds to prevent and treat cancers has been found to be quite effective, with fewer adverse effects found in patients. Umbelliprenin (UMB) is a naturally occurring sesquiterpene compound found in Ferula species and recently in Artemisia absinthium. Many studies have highlighted the antitumor potential of UMB in different cancer cell lines as well as in animal models. UMB exerts its anticancer actions by regulating extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways; causing inhibition of the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase; and attenuating migration and invasion by modulating the Wnt signaling, NF-ĸB, TGFß, and Fox3 signaling pathways. UMB also affects the key hallmarks of tumor cells by attenuating tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. This review provides an insight into the role of UMB as a potential antitumor drug for different malignancies and highlights the signaling cascades affected by UMB treatment in diverse tumor cell lines and preclinical models.

15.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(2): 188-206, mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104201

RESUMO

The present study aimed to screen the Rhazya stricta Decne root for its antihyperglycemic and antioxidants potential through invitro assays along with phytochemical and elemental analyses. The crude extract was prepared through maceration and fractionated using solvent-solvent extraction technique. The spectroscopic studies indicated the presence of various phytochemical classes in the extract and its fractions. The antioxidant assays showed notable results along with a good concentration of phenolic and flavonoid contents. Enzyme inhibition assays demonstrated glucose-lowering effects by inhibiting the enzyme activity which could reduce post-prandial blood glucose level. The Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibition assay results showed the novel DPP-IV inhibition activity of the plant extract and all fractions showed noteworthy enzyme inhibition and antihyperglycemic activity. Conclusively, the Rhazya stricta root extract displayed its antioxidant and antihyperglycemic potential due to the presence of various classes of phytochemicals and micro-nutrients.


El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo examinar la raíz de Rhazya stricta Decne por su potencial antihiperglicémico y antioxidante a través de ensayos in vitro junto con análisis fitoquímicos y elementales. El extracto crudo se preparó por maceración y se fraccionó usando una técnica de extracción solvente-solvente. Los estudios espectroscópicos indicaron la presencia de varias clases fitoquímicas en el extracto y sus fracciones. Los ensayos antioxidantes mostraron resultados notables junto con una importante concentración de contenido fenólico y flavonoide. Los ensayos de inhibición enzimática demostraron efectos reductores de la glucosa al inhibir la actividad enzimática que podría reducir el nivel de glucosa posprandial en sangre. Los resultados del ensayo de inhibición de Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) mostraron la nueva actividad de inhibición de DPP-IV del extracto de la planta y todas las fracciones mostraron una notable inhibición enzimática y actividad antihiperglicémica. En conclusión, el extracto de raíz de Rhazya stricta Decne mostró su potencial antioxidante y antihiperglicémico debido a la presencia de varias clases de fitoquímicos y micronutrientes.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Apocynaceae/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fenóis/análise , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Flavonoides/análise , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas In Vitro , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Raízes de Plantas/química , Dipeptidil Peptidases e Tripeptidil Peptidases/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Antioxidantes/química
16.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 108: 110456, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924021

RESUMO

Under different pathological conditions, high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause substantial damage to multiple organs. To counter these ROS levels in multiple organs, we have engineered highly potent novel terpolymers. We found that combination of FDA-approved polyethylene glycol, fumaric acid moieties and electroactive tetra(aniline) by varying the content of tetra(aniline) results into a novel drug composition with biologically active and tunable intrinsic antioxidant properties. To test the intrinsic antioxidative properties of these novel terpolymers, we used alloxan to induce diabetes in rats where ROS generation is known to be higher. The systemic administration of terpolymers to the diabetic rats showed strong electroactive antioxidant behavior which not only normalized ROS levels, but also improved the levels of enzymatic antioxidants including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH). As a proof-of-principle, we here show TANI based novel drug composition of terpolymers with tunable intrinsic antioxidant properties in multiple organs.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina , Antioxidantes , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Anilina/síntese química , Compostos de Anilina/química , Compostos de Anilina/farmacocinética , Compostos de Anilina/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/síntese química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Catalase/sangue , Linhagem Celular , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Glutationa/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue
17.
Biotechnol Appl Biochem ; 67(1): 148-157, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898361

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major infectious diseases caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The development of an effective and economical vaccine for controlling TB is essential especially for developing countries. Edible plants can serve as biofactories to produce vaccine antigens. In this study, 6 kDa early secretory antigenic target (ESAT-6) of M. tuberculosis was expressed in Brassica oleracea var. italica via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to facilitate oral delivery of antigen. ESAT-6 gene was cloned using Gateway® cloning strategy. Transformation and presence of transgene was confirmed through PCR. Expression level of transgene was calculated via quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and the maximum integrated transgene number was two. Maximum amount of total soluble fraction of ESAT-6 was evaluated by immunoblotting, estimated to accumulate up to 0.5% of total soluble protein. The recombinant ESAT-6 protein was further purified and detected using silver staining and Western blotting. ESAT-6 protein induced humoral immune response in mice immunized orally and subcutaneously. The expression of M. tuberculosis antigen in edible plants could aid in the development of cost-effective and oral delivery of an antigen-based subunit vaccine against TB. To the best our knowledge, it is the first report of expression of a vaccine antigen in broccoli.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Brassica/genética , Plantas Comestíveis/genética , Brassica/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/genética , Plantas Comestíveis/metabolismo
18.
Genomics ; 112(2): 1454-1463, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450007

RESUMO

Artemisia L. is a complex genus of medicinal importance. Publicly available chloroplast genomes of few Artemisia species are insufficient to resolve taxonomic discrepancies at species level. We report chloroplast genome sequences of two further Artemisia species: A. maritima (151,061 bp) and A. absinthium (151,193 bp). Both genomes possess typical quadripartite structure comprising of a large single copy, a small single copy and a pair of long inverted repeats. The two genomes exhibited high similarities in genome sizes, gene synteny, GC content, synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions, codon usage, amino acids frequencies, RNA editing sites, microsatellites, and oligonucleotide repeats. Transition to transversion ratio was <1. Maximum likelihood tree showed Artemisia a monophyletic genus, sister to genus Chrysanthemum. We also identified 20 highly polymorphic regions including rpoC2-rps2, trnR-UCU-trnG-UCC, rps18-rpl20, and trnL-UAG-rpl32 that could be used to develop authentic and cost-effective markers to resolve taxonomic discrepancies and infer phylogenetic relationships among Artemisia species.


Assuntos
Artemisia absinthium/genética , Artemisia/genética , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Mutação , Filogenia , Artemisia/classificação , Artemisia absinthium/classificação , Proteínas de Cloroplastos/genética , Proteínas de Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Polimorfismo Genético
19.
Genomics ; 112(1): 581-591, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998967

RESUMO

Previous studies to resolve phylogenetic and taxonomic discrepancies of Hibiscus remained inconclusive. Here, we report chloroplast genome sequence of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis chloroplast genome was 160,951 bp, comprising of large single copy (89,509 bp) and small single copy (20,246 bp) regions, separated by IRa and IRb (25,598 bp each). The genome contained 130 genes including 85 protein-coding genes, 37 transfer RNAs and 8 ribosomal RNAs. Comparative analyses of chloroplast genomes revealed similar structure among 12 species within family Malvaceae. Evolutionary rates of 77 protein-coding genes showed 95% similarities. Analyses of codon usage, amino acid frequency, putative RNA editing sites, and repeats showed a great extent of similarities between Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and Hibiscus syriacus. We identified 30 mutational hotpots including psbZ-trnG, trnK-rps16, trnD-trnY, trnW-trnP, rpl33-rps18, petG-trnW, trnS-trnG, trnH-psbA, atpB-rbcL, and rpl32-trnL that might be used as polymorphic and robust markers to resolve phylogenetic discrepancies in genus Hibiscus.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Cloroplastos/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Hibiscus/genética , Mutação , RNA de Cloroplastos/genética
20.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 38(6): 1670-1682, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074356

RESUMO

In search of achieving less toxic and more potent chemotherapeutics, three novel heterocyclic benzimidazole derivatives: 2-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-4-chlorophenol (BM1), 4-chloro-2-(6-methyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenol (BM2) and 4-chloro-2-(6-nitro-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenol (BM3) with DNA-targeting properties, were synthesized and fully characterized by important physicochemical techniques. The DNA binding properties of the compounds were investigated by UV-Visible absorption titrations and thermal denaturation experiments. These molecules exhibited a good binding propensity to fish sperm DNA (FS-DNA), as evident from the high binding constants (Kb) values: 1.9 × 105, 1.39 × 105 and 1.8 × 104 M‒1 for BM1, BM2 and BM3, respectively. Thermal melting studies of DNA further validated the absorption titration results and best interaction was manifested by BM1 with ΔTm = 4.96 °C. The experimental DNA binding results were further validated theoretically by molecular docking study. It was confirmed that the molecules (BM1-BM3) bind to DNA via an intercalative and groove binding mode. The investigations showed a correlation between binding constants and energies obtained experimentally and through molecular docking, indicating a binding preference of benzimidazole derivatives with the minor groove of DNA. BM1 was the preferential candidate for DNA binding because of its flat structure, π-π interactions and less steric hindrance. To complement the DNA interaction, antimicrobial assays (antibacterial & antifungal) were performed. It was observed that compound BM2 showed promising activity against all bacterial strains (Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes and Escherichia coli) and fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium solani), while rest of the compounds were active against selective strains. The MIC values of BM2 were found to be in the range of 12.5 ± 2.2-25 ± 1.5 µg/mL. Thus, the compound BM2 was found to be the effective DNA binding antimicrobial agent. Furthermore, the preliminary cytotoxic properties of synthesized compounds were evaluated by brine shrimps lethality assay to check their nontoxic nature towards healthy normal cells.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Fusarium , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
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