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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 844-853, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585108

RESUMO

Lissencephaly is a severe brain malformation in which failure of neuronal migration results in agyria or pachygyria and in which the brain surface appears unusually smooth. It is often associated with microcephaly, profound intellectual disability, epilepsy, and impaired motor abilities. Twenty-two genes are associated with lissencephaly, accounting for approximately 80% of disease. Here we report on 12 individuals with a unique form of lissencephaly; these individuals come from eight unrelated families and have bi-allelic mutations in APC2, encoding adenomatous polyposis coli protein 2. Brain imaging studies demonstrate extensive posterior predominant lissencephaly, similar to PAFAH1B1-associated lissencephaly, as well as co-occurrence of subcortical heterotopia posterior to the caudate nuclei, "ribbon-like" heterotopia in the posterior frontal region, and dysplastic in-folding of the mesial occipital cortex. The established role of APC2 in integrating the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons to mediate cellular morphological changes suggests shared function with other lissencephaly-encoded cytoskeletal proteins such as α-N-catenin (CTNNA2) and platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b regulatory subunit 1 (PAFAH1B1, also known as LIS1). Our findings identify APC2 as a radiographically distinguishable recessive form of lissencephaly.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 606-615, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474318

RESUMO

Cerebellar malformations are diverse congenital anomalies frequently associated with developmental disability. Although genetic and prenatal non-genetic causes have been described, no systematic analysis has been performed. Here, we present a large-exome sequencing study of Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) and cerebellar hypoplasia (CBLH). We performed exome sequencing in 282 individuals from 100 families with DWM or CBLH, and we established a molecular diagnosis in 36 of 100 families, with a significantly higher yield for CBLH (51%) than for DWM (16%). The 41 variants impact 27 neurodevelopmental-disorder-associated genes, thus demonstrating that CBLH and DWM are often features of monogenic neurodevelopmental disorders. Though only seven monogenic causes (19%) were identified in more than one individual, neuroimaging review of 131 additional individuals confirmed cerebellar abnormalities in 23 of 27 genetic disorders (85%). Prenatal risk factors were frequently found among individuals without a genetic diagnosis (30 of 64 individuals [47%]). Single-cell RNA sequencing of prenatal human cerebellar tissue revealed gene enrichment in neuronal and vascular cell types; this suggests that defective vasculogenesis may disrupt cerebellar development. Further, de novo gain-of-function variants in PDGFRB, a tyrosine kinase receptor essential for vascular progenitor signaling, were associated with CBLH, and this discovery links genetic and non-genetic etiologies. Our results suggest that genetic defects impact specific cerebellar cell types and implicate abnormal vascular development as a mechanism for cerebellar malformations. We also confirmed a major contribution for non-genetic prenatal factors in individuals with cerebellar abnormalities, substantially influencing diagnostic evaluation and counseling regarding recurrence risk and prognosis.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 689-705, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495489

RESUMO

Sphingomyelinases generate ceramide from sphingomyelin as a second messenger in intracellular signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis. Children from 12 unrelated families presented with microcephaly, simplified gyral pattern of the cortex, hypomyelination, cerebellar hypoplasia, congenital arthrogryposis, and early fetal/postnatal demise. Genomic analysis revealed bi-allelic loss-of-function variants in SMPD4, coding for the neutral sphingomyelinase-3 (nSMase-3/SMPD4). Overexpression of human Myc-tagged SMPD4 showed localization both to the outer nuclear envelope and the ER and additionally revealed interactions with several nuclear pore complex proteins by proteomics analysis. Fibroblasts from affected individuals showed ER cisternae abnormalities, suspected for increased autophagy, and were more susceptible to apoptosis under stress conditions, while treatment with siSMPD4 caused delayed cell cycle progression. Our data show that SMPD4 links homeostasis of membrane sphingolipids to cell fate by regulating the cross-talk between the ER and the outer nuclear envelope, while its loss reveals a pathogenic mechanism in microcephaly.

4.
Brain ; 142(11): 3351-3359, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504246

RESUMO

Using trio exome sequencing, we identified de novo heterozygous missense variants in PAK1 in four unrelated individuals with intellectual disability, macrocephaly and seizures. PAK1 encodes the p21-activated kinase, a major driver of neuronal development in humans and other organisms. In normal neurons, PAK1 dimers reside in a trans-inhibited conformation, where each autoinhibitory domain covers the kinase domain of the other monomer. Upon GTPase binding via CDC42 or RAC1, the PAK1 dimers dissociate and become activated. All identified variants are located within or close to the autoinhibitory switch domain that is necessary for trans-inhibition of resting PAK1 dimers. Protein modelling supports a model of reduced ability of regular autoinhibition, suggesting a gain of function mechanism for the identified missense variants. Alleviated dissociation into monomers, autophosphorylation and activation of PAK1 influences the actin dynamics of neurite outgrowth. Based on our clinical and genetic data, as well as the role of PAK1 in brain development, we suggest that gain of function pathogenic de novo missense variants in PAK1 lead to moderate-to-severe intellectual disability, macrocephaly caused by the presence of megalencephaly and ventriculomegaly, (febrile) seizures and autism-like behaviour.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441589

RESUMO

Megalencephaly (MEG) is a developmental abnormality of brain growth characterized by early onset, often progressive, brain overgrowth. Focal forms of megalencephaly associated with cortical dysplasia, such as hemimegalencephaly and focal cortical dysplasia, are common causes of focal intractable epilepsy in children. The increasing use of high throughput sequencing methods, including high depth sequencing to more accurately detect and quantify mosaic mutations, has allowed us to identify the molecular etiologies of many MEG syndromes, including most notably the PI3K-AKT-MTOR related MEG disorders. Thorough molecular and clinical characterization of affected individuals further allow us to derive preliminary genotype-phenotype correlations depending on the gene, mutation, level of mosaicism, and tissue distribution. Our review of published data on these disorders so far shows that mildly activating variants (that are typically constitutional or germline) are associated with diffuse megalencephaly with intellectual disability and/or autism spectrum disorder; moderately activating variants (that are typically high-level mosaic) are associated with megalencephaly with pigmentary abnormalities of the skin; and strongly activating variants (that are usually very low-level mosaic) are associated with focal brain malformations including hemimegalencephaly and focal cortical dysplasia. Accurate molecular diagnosis of these disorders is undoubtedly crucial to more optimally treat children with these disorders using PI3K-AKT-MTOR pathway inhibitors.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 631-639, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353024

RESUMO

Notch signaling is an established developmental pathway for brain morphogenesis. Given that Delta-like 1 (DLL1) is a ligand for the Notch receptor and that a few individuals with developmental delay, intellectual disability, and brain malformations have microdeletions encompassing DLL1, we hypothesized that insufficiency of DLL1 causes a human neurodevelopmental disorder. We performed exome sequencing in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders. The cohort was identified using known Matchmaker Exchange nodes such as GeneMatcher. This method identified 15 individuals from 12 unrelated families with heterozygous pathogenic DLL1 variants (nonsense, missense, splice site, and one whole gene deletion). The most common features in our cohort were intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, seizures, variable brain malformations, muscular hypotonia, and scoliosis. We did not identify an obvious genotype-phenotype correlation. Analysis of one splice site variant showed an in-frame insertion of 12 bp. In conclusion, heterozygous DLL1 pathogenic variants cause a variable neurodevelopmental phenotype and multi-systemic features. The clinical and molecular data support haploinsufficiency as a mechanism for the pathogenesis of this DLL1-related disorder and affirm the importance of DLL1 in human brain development.

7.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263215

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Haploinsufficiency of DYRK1A causes a recognizable clinical syndrome. The goal of this paper is to investigate congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and genital defects (GD) in patients with DYRK1A variants. METHODS: A large database of clinical exome sequencing (ES) was queried for de novo DYRK1A variants and CAKUT/GD phenotypes were characterized. Xenopus laevis (frog) was chosen as a model organism to assess Dyrk1a's role in renal development. RESULTS: Phenotypic details and variants of 19 patients were compiled after an initial observation that one patient with a de novo pathogenic variant in DYRK1A had GD. CAKUT/GD data were available from 15 patients, 11 of whom presented with CAKUT/GD. Studies in Xenopus embryos demonstrated that knockdown of Dyrk1a, which is expressed in forming nephrons, disrupts the development of segments of embryonic nephrons, which ultimately give rise to the entire genitourinary (GU) tract. These defects could be rescued by coinjecting wild-type human DYRK1A RNA, but not with DYRK1AR205* or DYRK1AL245R RNA. CONCLUSION: Evidence supports routine GU screening of all individuals with de novo DYRK1A pathogenic variants to ensure optimized clinical management. Collectively, the reported clinical data and loss-of-function studies in Xenopus substantiate a novel role for DYRK1A in GU development.

8.
Hum Mutat ; 40(7): 908-925, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817854

RESUMO

Pathogenic de novo variants in the X-linked gene SLC35A2 encoding the major Golgi-localized UDP-galactose transporter required for proper protein and lipid glycosylation cause a rare type of congenital disorder of glycosylation known as SLC35A2-congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG; formerly CDG-IIm). To date, 29 unique de novo variants from 32 unrelated individuals have been described in the literature. The majority of affected individuals are primarily characterized by varying degrees of neurological impairments with or without skeletal abnormalities. Surprisingly, most affected individuals do not show abnormalities in serum transferrin N-glycosylation, a common biomarker for most types of CDG. Here we present data characterizing 30 individuals and add 26 new variants, the single largest study involving SLC35A2-CDG. The great majority of these individuals had normal transferrin glycosylation. In addition, expanding the molecular and clinical spectrum of this rare disorder, we developed a robust and reliable biochemical assay to assess SLC35A2-dependent UDP-galactose transport activity in primary fibroblasts. Finally, we show that transport activity is directly correlated to the ratio of wild-type to mutant alleles in fibroblasts from affected individuals.

9.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30513141

RESUMO

CACNA1C (NM_000719.6) encodes an L-type calcium voltage-gated calcium channel (Cav 1.2), and pathogenic variants have been associated with two distinct clinical entities: Timothy syndrome and Brugada syndrome. Thus far, CACNA1C has not been reported as a gene associated with epileptic encephalopathy and is less commonly associated with epilepsy. We report three individuals from two families with variants in CACNA1C. Patient 1 presented with neonatal onset epileptic encephalopathy (NOEE) and was found to have a de novo missense variant in CACNA1C (c.4087G>A (p.V1363M)) on exome sequencing. In Family 2, Patient 2 presented with congenital cardiac anomalies and cardiomyopathy and was found to have a paternally inherited splice site variant, c.3717+1_3717+2insA, on a cardiomyopathy panel. Her father, Patient 3, presented with learning difficulties, late-onset epilepsy, and congenital cardiac anomalies. Family 2 highlights variable expressivity seen within a family. This case series expands the clinical and molecular phenotype of CACNA1C-related disorders and highlights the need to include CACNA1C on epilepsy gene panels.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 752-768, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388402

RESUMO

The nuclear factor I (NFI) family of transcription factors play an important role in normal development of multiple organs. Three NFI family members are highly expressed in the brain, and deletions or sequence variants in two of these, NFIA and NFIX, have been associated with intellectual disability (ID) and brain malformations. NFIB, however, has not previously been implicated in human disease. Here, we present a cohort of 18 individuals with mild ID and behavioral issues who are haploinsufficient for NFIB. Ten individuals harbored overlapping microdeletions of the chromosomal 9p23-p22.2 region, ranging in size from 225 kb to 4.3 Mb. Five additional subjects had point sequence variations creating a premature termination codon, and three subjects harbored single-nucleotide variations resulting in an inactive protein as determined using an in vitro reporter assay. All individuals presented with additional variable neurodevelopmental phenotypes, including muscular hypotonia, motor and speech delay, attention deficit disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and behavioral abnormalities. While structural brain anomalies, including dysgenesis of corpus callosum, were variable, individuals most frequently presented with macrocephaly. To determine whether macrocephaly could be a functional consequence of NFIB disruption, we analyzed a cortex-specific Nfib conditional knockout mouse model, which is postnatally viable. Utilizing magnetic resonance imaging and histology, we demonstrate that Nfib conditional knockout mice have enlargement of the cerebral cortex but preservation of overall brain structure and interhemispheric connectivity. Based on our findings, we propose that haploinsufficiency of NFIB causes ID with macrocephaly.

11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30471716

RESUMO

To date, mutations in 15 actin- or microtubule-associated genes have been associated with the cortical malformation lissencephaly and variable brainstem hypoplasia. During a multicenter review, we recognized a rare lissencephaly variant with a complex brainstem malformation in three unrelated children. We searched our large brain-malformation databases and found another five children with this malformation (as well as one with a less severe variant), analyzed available whole-exome or -genome sequencing data, and tested ciliogenesis in two affected individuals. The brain malformation comprised posterior predominant lissencephaly and midline crossing defects consisting of absent anterior commissure and a striking W-shaped brainstem malformation caused by small or absent pontine crossing fibers. We discovered heterozygous de novo missense variants or an in-frame deletion involving highly conserved zinc-binding residues within the GAR domain of MACF1 in the first eight subjects. We studied cilium formation and found a higher proportion of mutant cells with short cilia than of control cells with short cilia. A ninth child had similar lissencephaly but only subtle brainstem dysplasia associated with a heterozygous de novo missense variant in the spectrin repeat domain of MACF1. Thus, we report variants of the microtubule-binding GAR domain of MACF1 as the cause of a distinctive and most likely pathognomonic brain malformation. A gain-of-function or dominant-negative mechanism appears likely given that many heterozygous mutations leading to protein truncation are included in the ExAC Browser. However, three de novo variants in MACF1 have been observed in large schizophrenia cohorts.

12.
Neuron ; 2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30449657

RESUMO

Corpus callosum malformations are associated with a broad range of neurodevelopmental diseases. We report that de novo mutations in MAST1 cause mega-corpus-callosum syndrome with cerebellar hypoplasia and cortical malformations (MCC-CH-CM) in the absence of megalencephaly. We show that MAST1 is a microtubule-associated protein that is predominantly expressed in post-mitotic neurons and is present in both dendritic and axonal compartments. We further show that Mast1 null animals are phenotypically normal, whereas the deletion of a single amino acid (L278del) recapitulates the distinct neurological phenotype observed in patients. In animals harboring Mast1 microdeletions, we find that the PI3K/AKT3/mTOR pathway is unperturbed, whereas Mast2 and Mast3 levels are diminished, indicative of a dominant-negative mode of action. Finally, we report that de novo MAST1 substitutions are present in patients with autism and microcephaly, raising the prospect that mutations in this gene give rise to a spectrum of neurodevelopmental diseases.

13.
Hum Mutat ; 39(11): 1476-1484, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30311377

RESUMO

The field of epilepsy genetics is advancing rapidly and epilepsy is emerging as a frequent indication for diagnostic genetic testing. Within the larger ClinGen framework, the ClinGen Epilepsy Gene Curation Expert Panel is tasked with connecting two increasingly separate fields: the domain of traditional clinical epileptology, with its own established language and classification criteria, and the rapidly evolving area of diagnostic genetic testing that adheres to formal criteria for gene and variant curation. We identify critical components unique to the epilepsy gene curation effort, including: (a) precise phenotype definitions within existing disease and phenotype ontologies; (b) consideration of when epilepsy should be curated as a distinct disease entity; (c) strategies for gene selection; and (d) emerging rules for evaluating functional models for seizure disorders. Given that de novo variants play a prominent role in many of the epilepsies, sufficient genetic evidence is often awarded early in the curation process. Therefore, the emphasis of gene curation is frequently shifted toward an iterative precuration process to better capture phenotypic associations. We demonstrate that within the spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders, gene curation for epilepsy-associated genes is feasible and suggest epilepsy-specific conventions, laying the groundwork for a curation process of all major epilepsy-associated genes.

15.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2018 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30063105

RESUMO

PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS) refers to a group of disorders of segmental overgrowth of a wide variety of tissues as well as venous and lymphatic malformations. Clinical and molecular diagnosis can be challenging due to phenotypic heterogeneity and difficulties detecting low-level mosaicism using standard methods. Here, we report a patient with a severe presentation of PIK3CA-related overgrowth with analysis of 27 posthumously collected tissues by droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at autopsy. This patient had a complicated medical course, with coagulopathy, ischemic brain injury, and sepsis resulting in multi-organ failure and death at age 2 months despite sirolimus therapy. Five of the 27 tissues analyzed possessed a mosaic PIK3CA mutation (p.E545K), with mutation levels ranging from 3 to 20% across affected tissues. We found no correlation between tissue-specific disease severity and mutation levels, likely reflecting sampling limitations. We also tested a series of 22 individuals with somatic overgrowth and/or vascular-lymphatic malformations using a targeted next generation sequencing panel and found PIK3CA mutations in nine individuals, identifying three novel PIK3CA variants. This report expands the clinical and molecular spectrum of PROS, emphasizes that different molecular methods can be complimentary in the diagnosis of these disorders, and highlights the risk of coagulopathy in a subset of patients with PIK3CA-related overgrowth.

16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(2): 245-260, 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30057031

RESUMO

Interferon regulatory factor 2 binding protein-like (IRF2BPL) encodes a member of the IRF2BP family of transcriptional regulators. Currently the biological function of this gene is obscure, and the gene has not been associated with a Mendelian disease. Here we describe seven individuals who carry damaging heterozygous variants in IRF2BPL and are affected with neurological symptoms. Five individuals who carry IRF2BPL nonsense variants resulting in a premature stop codon display severe neurodevelopmental regression, hypotonia, progressive ataxia, seizures, and a lack of coordination. Two additional individuals, both with missense variants, display global developmental delay and seizures and a relatively milder phenotype than those with nonsense alleles. The IRF2BPL bioinformatics signature based on population genomics is consistent with a gene that is intolerant to variation. We show that the fruit-fly IRF2BPL ortholog, called pits (protein interacting with Ttk69 and Sin3A), is broadly detected, including in the nervous system. Complete loss of pits is lethal early in development, whereas partial knockdown with RNA interference in neurons leads to neurodegeneration, revealing a requirement for this gene in proper neuronal function and maintenance. The identified IRF2BPL nonsense variants behave as severe loss-of-function alleles in this model organism, and ectopic expression of the missense variants leads to a range of phenotypes. Taken together, our results show that IRF2BPL and pits are required in the nervous system in humans and flies, and their loss leads to a range of neurological phenotypes in both species.

17.
Hum Mutat ; 39(9): 1226-1237, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29897170

RESUMO

Malan syndrome is an overgrowth disorder described in a limited number of individuals. We aim to delineate the entity by studying a large group of affected individuals. We gathered data on 45 affected individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis through an international collaboration and compared data to the 35 previously reported individuals. Results indicate that height is > 2 SDS in infancy and childhood but in only half of affected adults. Cardinal facial characteristics include long, triangular face, macrocephaly, prominent forehead, everted lower lip, and prominent chin. Intellectual disability is universally present, behaviorally anxiety is characteristic. Malan syndrome is caused by deletions or point mutations of NFIX clustered mostly in exon 2. There is no genotype-phenotype correlation except for an increased risk for epilepsy with 19p13.2 microdeletions. Variants arose de novo, except in one family in which mother was mosaic. Variants causing Malan and Marshall-Smith syndrome can be discerned by differences in the site of stop codon formation. We conclude that Malan syndrome has a well recognizable phenotype that usually can be discerned easily from Marshall-Smith syndrome but rarely there is some overlap. Differentiation from Sotos and Weaver syndrome can be made by clinical evaluation only.

18.
Genes Dev ; 32(11-12): 763-780, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29899142

RESUMO

Proper organization and orderly mitosis of radial glial progenitors (RGPs) drive the formation of a laminated mammalian cortex in the correct size. However, the molecular underpinnings of the intricate process remain largely unclear. Here we show that RGP behavior and cortical development are controlled by temporally distinct actions of partitioning-defective 3 (PARD3) in concert with dynamic HIPPO signaling. RGPs lacking PARD3 exhibit developmental stage-dependent abnormal switches in division mode, resulting in an initial overproduction of RGPs located largely outside the ventricular zone at the expense of deep-layer neurons. Ectopically localized RGPs subsequently undergo accelerated and excessive neurogenesis, leading to the formation of an enlarged cortex with massive heterotopia and increased seizure susceptibility. Simultaneous removal of HIPPO pathway effectors Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) suppresses cortical enlargement and heterotopia formation. These results define a dynamic regulatory program of mammalian cortical development and highlight a progenitor origin of megalencephaly with ribbon heterotopia and epilepsy.


Assuntos
Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Convulsões/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Células Ependimogliais/fisiologia , Deleção de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Tamanho do Órgão/genética , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Células-Tronco/fisiologia
19.
Eur J Med Genet ; 61(12): 738-740, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29883676

RESUMO

We report a 16-month-old male with congenital megalencephaly, polymicrogyria and persistent hypoglycemia caused by a mosaic PIK3CA pathogenic variant. Hypoinsulinaemic, hypoketotic hypoglycaemia is a rare complication of pathogenic variants in the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway genes including AKT2, AKT3, CCND2, PIK3R2 and PIK3CA, and has been identified in a PIK3CA mutant mouse model. Our case highlights the importance of considering PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway variants as a cause for megalencephaly and cortical malformation when the phenotype includes hypoglycaemia. Recognizing the association of hypoglycemia with PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway variants can provide a clue to the genetic basis of the cortical malformation. Patients with megalencephaly and a cortical malformation may be considered at risk of hypoglycaemia and monitored accordingly, at least until a PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway variant has been excluded.

20.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(5): 1232-1237, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29681094

RESUMO

Animal studies have demonstrated the critical roles of the patatin-like protein family plays in cellular growth, lipid homeostasis, and second messenger signaling the nervous system. Of the nine known calcium-independent phospholipase A2γ, only PNPLA2, PNLPA6, PNPLA9 and most recently a single patient with PNPLA8 are associated with mitochondrial-related neurodegeneration. Using whole exome sequencing, we report two unrelated individuals with variable but similar clinical features of microcephaly, severe global developmental delay, spasticity, lactic acidosis, and progressive cerebellar atrophy with biallelic loss-of-function variants in PNPLA8.

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