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1.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 717, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Premarital sex can increase the risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in adolescents, and lack of premarital sex can be considered as a reliable policy for STD prevention, which is used by some countries such as Iran. Since the success of this policy is related to the concept of virginity, the present study was conducted to determine the concept of virginity from the perspective of Iranian adolescents. METHODS: In this qualitative study with phenomenological approach, the research team visited public places, including parks and coffee shops, and interviewed a number of 15-19-year-old adolescents. The data were collected using in-depth interviews with semi-structured questions and analysed using thematic analysis method. RESULTS: Several themes, including virginity as the lack of emotional relationship with the opposite sex, lack of physical contact, nonpenetrative relationship, virginity as a myth, virginity as a commitment, having an intact hymen, and not knowing the meaning of virginity, were extracted from the data. CONCLUSION: The most reliable policy on STD prevention is the lack of premarital sex. The success of this policy is related to the concept of virginity. The findings of this study showed that the participants did not consider physical contact as the breach of virginity. This may indicate that the policy of not having sex before marriage or lack of premarital sex is not enough and Iranian adolescents are at risk of STDs. Therefore, policymakers must take steps towards modifying the concept of virginity in the adolescents' value system and provide and implement educational programs on sexual health for adolescents.

2.
Med J Islam Repub Iran ; 33: 92, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696086

RESUMO

Background: According to census 2011, general fertility rate in Iran was 1.6 children. The United Nations published a low population growth scenario for Iran in 2010, and if Iran continues to experience population replacement and does not have a plan to balance it, it will experience a population of 31 million, with a high percentage of elderly people in the next 80 years. This study was conducted to identify the causes of a decrease in population growth rate. Methods: This was a secondary study conducted by reviewing the scientific texts, papers, and upstream documents. The upstream documents contain all national documents related to population decline in Iran. Causal layered analysis (CLA) was used for data analysis. Results: The 9 most important identified causes for a decrease in population were litany (child mortality, maternal mortality, diseases burden, fertility rate, marriage squeeze, abortion, marriage age, high-risk behaviors, and badly supervised and neglected children. Also, 5 causes in structural layer were urbanization, education rate, economic participation rate and unemployment rate, new structures, a change in family structure, and intergenerational gap. Moreover, three causes in discourse layer included welfare, materialism, individualism, and 2 causes in metaphor layer were changing the perception of life and family formation, and women as workforce. Conclusion: It seems that the decrease in population growth in Iranian society is less the result of social planning and population control and more the result of the value and structural changes that have been occurred due to modernization in the society. It is recommended that policymakers primarily address the discourse and metaphor layers to solve the problems.

3.
Addict Health ; 11(2): 81-92, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321005

RESUMO

Background: Drug abuse is one of the main problems of human's life; thus communities have been thinking about the solution of this problem. The present study aimed to compare the general features of drug abuse treatment policies, war on drugs (WOD), and harm reduction (HR), in the selected countries. Methods: The present study was a comparative and desk research that sought to compare context, stewardship, financing, type of substance abuse treatment services, reasons of paradigm shift, and executive challenges of treatment policies in the selected countries (China, Malaysia, Germany, Netherland, and Iran). The necessary data for comparison of the countries were collected through valid databases, review of documents, and reports of international organizations. Findings: Context conditions were better in the HR countries. In most countries, the central government played a key role in the stewardship, financing, and service providing. In WOD countries, the presence of judicial structure was higher in the treatment of drug abuse. The policy-making approach was ideological in WOD countries, but evidence-based in HR countries. Conclusion: It seems that performance of HR countries is better than WOD countries.

4.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 34(2): e1293-e1301, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the recent years, clinical governance model has been applied to improve the quality of university and private hospitals in Iran. In addition to university hospitals, military hospitals have an effective role in the preservation and promotion of public health. The challenges of clinical governance implementation have not been investigated in such settings. Hence, the present study objective is to identify the administrative challenges of clinical governance in military and university hospitals of Kerman/Iran METHODS: This qualitative study was carried out through phenomenology in 2017. A sample of managers and experts in the implementation and execution of clinical governance was purposefully selected from three university hospitals and three military hospitals in Kerman, Iran. A total of 39 managers and experts were interviewed, and data were gathered via semistructured interviews with open questions. For data analysis, conventional content analysis method was employed. RESULTS: In this study, five main codes and 17 subcodes were obtained. Main codes were structural challenges, educational challenges, limitations, evaluation, and human resource challenges. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical governance is being implemented hastily with no appropriate structural, financial, and training facilities, ensuing a waste of resources, more difficult work for staff and a negative view of personnel.


Assuntos
Governança Clínica/organização & administração , Hospitais Militares/organização & administração , Hospitais Universitários/organização & administração , Administradores Hospitalares , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Irã (Geográfico) , Inovação Organizacional , Administração de Recursos Humanos em Hospitais , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração
5.
Zookeys ; (737): 57-73, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29674872

RESUMO

Jumping plant lice (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) are considered important vectors of plant diseases and also economically important pests in agriculture and forest ecosystems. Three psyllid species Psyllopsis repens Loginova, 1963, Psyllopsis securicola Loginova, 1963, and Psyllopsis machinosus Loginova, 1963 associated with the ash tree Fraxinus are morphologically very similar. So far, their distinction has been possible only by comparing their male and female genitalia. In this research, forewing shape and size characteristics, sexual dimorphism and their allometric effects, using geometric morphometric analysis, were examined for identification purposes. The results showed significant differences in wing shape and size between the species studied. Based on the results, two species P. machinosus and P. securicola can be differentiated with the vein M1+2, as in P. securicola the vein M1+2 is located between Rs and M3+4 veins, but the vein M1+2 is closer to the vein M3+4 in P. machinosus; also, P. repens can be differentiated from the two species P. machinosus and P. securicola by vein M. Hence, the veins M1+2, M3+4, Rs and M were the most important wing characters for discrimination of the three species, especially in the field. The analysis also showed significant differences in wing shape and size between male and female of the three species, and the allometric analysis showed that significant shape differences still remain in constant size in P. machinosus and P. repens. Geometric changes in the forewings of both sexes for the three species are illustrated.

6.
Photosynth Res ; 136(3): 357-369, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29230609

RESUMO

Chloroplast functional genomics, in particular understanding the chloroplast transcriptional response is of immense importance mainly due to its role in oxygenic photosynthesis. As a photosynthetic unit, its efficiency and transcriptional activity is directly regulated by reactive oxygen species during abiotic and biotic stress and subsequently affects carbon assimilation, and plant biomass. In crops, understanding photosynthesis is crucial for crop domestication by identifying the traits that could be exploited for crop improvement. Transcriptionally and translationally active chloroplast plays a key role by regulating the PSI and PSII photo-reaction centres, which ubiquitously affects the light harvesting. Using a comparative transcriptomics mapping approach, we identified differential regulation of key chloroplast genes during salt stress across Triticeae members with potential genes involved in photosynthesis and electron transport system such as CytB6f. Apart from differentially regulated genes involved in PSI and PSII, we found widespread evidence of intron splicing events, specifically uniquely spliced petB and petD in Triticum aestivum and high proportion of RNA editing in ndh genes across the Triticeae members during salt stress. We also highlight the role and differential regulation of ATP synthase as member of CF0CF1 and also revealed the effect of salt stress on the water-splitting complex under salt stress. It is worthwhile to mention that the observed conserved down-regulation of psbJ across the Triticeae is limiting the assembly of water-splitting complexes and thus making the BEP clade Triticeae members more vulnerable to high light during the salt stress. Comparative understanding of the chloroplast transcriptional dynamics and photosynthetic regulation will improve the approaches for improved crop domestication.


Assuntos
Transporte de Elétrons/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Poaceae/genética , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Triticum/genética , Cloroplastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloroplastos/genética , Cloroplastos/fisiologia , Éxons/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Cloroplastos/genética , Íntrons/genética , Oxirredução , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Poaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Poaceae/fisiologia , Edição de RNA , Processamento de RNA , Estresse Fisiológico , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/fisiologia
7.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 8878, 2017 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28827708

RESUMO

The CLAVATA pathway that regulates stem cell numbers of the shoot apical meristem has exclusively been studied in Arabidopsis; as such insight into other species is warranted. In this study, a GmCLV1A mutant (F-S562L) with altered lateral organ development, and two mutants of GmNARK, isolated from a Forrest M2 population (EMS-mutated soybean) were studied. GmCLV1A and GmNARK encode for LRR receptor kinases, and share 92% of protein sequence. While GmNARK is critical for systemic regulation of nodulation (new organ made on the root through symbiosis), we show that GmCLV1A functions locally and has no apparent function in nodulation or root development. However, a recessive, loss-of-function mutation (S562L) in a putative S-glycosylation site of GmCLV1A causes stem nodal identity alterations as well as flower and pod abnormalities (deformed flower and pod). The mutant also exhibits a homeotic phenotype, displaying abnormal leaf development/number, vein-derived leaf emergence, and a thick, faciated stem. The mutant phenotype is also temperature-sensitive. Interestingly, a novel truncated version of GmCLV1A was identified upstream of GmCLV1A that is absent from GmNARK, but is present upstream of the GmNARK orthologues, MtSUNN and PvNARK. Taken together, our findings indicate that GmCLV1A acts on shoot architecture, whereas GmNARK, functions in controlling nodule numbers.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Soja/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Meio Ambiente , Genes de Plantas , Estudos de Associação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Mutação , Fenótipo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
8.
J Plant Physiol ; 172: 128-36, 2015 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25240795

RESUMO

Much of modern agriculture is based on immense populations of genetically identical or near-identical varieties, called cultivars. However, advancement of knowledge, and thus experimental utility, is found through biodiversity, whether naturally-found or induced by the experimenter. Globally we are confronted by ever-growing food and energy challenges. Here we demonstrate how such biodiversity from the food legume crop soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) and the bioenergy legume tree Pongamia (Millettia) pinnata is a great value. Legume plants are diverse and are represented by over 18,000 species on this planet. Some, such as soybean, pea and medics are used as food and animal feed crops. Others serve as ornamental (e.g., wisteria), timber (e.g., acacia/wattle) or biofuel (e.g., Pongamia pinnata) resources. Most legumes develop root organs (nodules) after microsymbiont induction that serve as their habitat for biological nitrogen fixation. Through this, nitrogen fertiliser demand is reduced by the efficient symbiosis between soil Rhizobium-type bacteria and the appropriate legume partner. Mechanistic research into the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of legumes is thus strategically essential for future global agriculture. Here we demonstrate how molecular plant science analysis of the genetics of an established food crop (soybean) and an emerging biofuel P. pinnata feedstock contributes to their utility by sustainable production aided by symbiotic nitrogen fixation.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Biocombustíveis , Millettia/genética , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Soja/genética , Biodiversidade , Variação Genética , Millettia/metabolismo , Millettia/microbiologia , Soja/metabolismo , Soja/microbiologia , Simbiose
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