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1.
Front Plant Sci ; 11: 1000, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32793251

RESUMO

In many non-cultivated angiosperm species, seed dispersal is facilitated by the shattering of the seed head at maturity; in the Triticeae tribe, to which several of the world's most important cereals belong, shattering takes the form of a disarticulation of the rachis. The products of the genes Btr1 and Btr2 are both required for disarticulation to occur above the rachis nodes within the genera Hordeum (barley) and Triticum/Aegilops (wheat). Here, it has been shown that both Btr1 and Btr2 are specific to the Triticeae tribe, although likely paralogs (Btr1-like and Btr2-like) are carried by the family Poaceae including Triticeae. Aegilops tauschii (the donor of the bread wheat D genome) lacks a copy of Btr1 and disarticulation in this species occurs below, rather than above the rachis node; thus, the product of Btr1 appears to be required for disarticulation to occur above the rachis node.

2.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(5)2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392904

RESUMO

Crop cultivars with larger root systems have an increased ability to absorb water and nutrients under conditions of water deficit. To unravel the molecular mechanism of water-stress tolerance in wheat, we performed RNA-seq analysis on the two genotypes, Colotana 296-52 (Colotana) and Tincurrin, contrasting the root growth under polyethylene-glycol-induced water-stress treatment. Out of a total of 35,047 differentially expressed genes, 3692 were specifically upregulated in drought-tolerant Colotana under water stress. Transcription factors, pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase and late-embryogenesis-abundant proteins were among upregulated genes in Colotana. Variant calling between Colotana and Tincurrin detected 15,207 SNPs and Indels, which may affect protein function and mediate the contrasting root length phenotype. Finally, the expression patterns of five triads in response to water, high-salinity, heat, and cold stresses were analyzed using qRT-PCR to see if there were differences in homoeologous gene expression in response to those conditions. The five examined triads showed variation in the contribution of homoeologous genes to water, high-salinity, heat, and cold stresses in the two genotypes. The variation of homoeologous gene expression in response to environmental stresses may enable plants to better cope with stresses in their natural environments.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230820, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298285

RESUMO

The high toxicity of cadmium (Cd) and its ready uptake by plants has become a major agricultural problem. To investigate the genetic architecture and genetic regulation of Cd tolerance in barley, we conducted quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis in the phenotypically polymorphic Oregon Wolfe Barley (OWB) mapping population, derived from a cross between Rec and Dom parental genotypes. Through evaluating the Cd tolerance of 87 available doubled haploid lines of the OWB mapping population at the seedling stage, one minor and one major QTL were detected on chromosomes 2H and 6H, respectively. For chlorosis and necrosis traits, the major QTL explained 47.24% and 38.59% of the phenotypic variance, respectively. RNA-Seq analysis of the parental seedlings under Cd treatment revealed 542 differentially expressed genes between Cd-tolerant Rec and Cd-susceptible Dom genotypes. By analyzing sequence variations in transcribed sequences of the parental genotypes, 155,654 SNPs and 1,525 InDels were identified between the two contrasting genotypes and may contribute to Cd tolerance. Finally, by integrating the data from the identified QTLs and RNA-Seq analysis, 16 Cd tolerance-related candidate genes were detected, nine of which were metal ion transporters. These results provide promising candidate genes for further gene cloning and improving Cd tolerance in barley.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Tolerância a Medicamentos/genética , Hordeum/efeitos dos fármacos , Hordeum/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Cromossomos de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Haploidia , Oregon , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , RNA-Seq/métodos , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
4.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 1312, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30405643

RESUMO

The gibberellin-responsive dwarfing gene Rht12 can significantly reduce plant height without changing seedling vigor and substantially increase ear fertility in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum. L). However, Rht12 delays heading date and anthesis date, hindering the use of Rht12 in wheat improvement. To promote early flowering of the Rht12 dwarf plants, the photoperiod-insensitive allele Ppd-D1a was introduced through a cross between Jinmai47 (Ppd-D1a) and Karcagi (Rht12). The results showed that Ppd-D1a can rescue the delaying effect of Rht12 on flowering time and promote earlier flowering by 9.0 days (163.2°Cd) in the Rht12 dwarf plants by shortening the late reproduction phase. Plant height was reduced by Rht12 (43.2%) and Ppd-D1a (10.9%), achieving dwarf plants with higher lodging resistance. Ear fertility, like the grain number per spike, was significantly increased by Rht12 (21.3%), while it was reduced by Ppd-D1a (6.5%). However, thousand kernel weight was significantly reduced by Rht12 (12.9%) but significantly increased by Ppd-D1a (16.9%). Finally, plant yield was increased by 16.4 and 8.2%, and harvest index was increased by 24.9 and 15.4% in the Rht12 dwarf lines and tall lines with Ppd-D1a, respectively. Clearly, there was an additive interaction between Rht12 and Ppd-D1 and the introduction of Ppd-D1a advanced the flowering time and improved the yield traits of Rht12 dwarf plants, suggesting that the combination of Rht12 and Ppd-D1a would be conducive to the successful use of Rht12 in wheat breeding programs.

5.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 59(4): 806-822, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29401261

RESUMO

The cuticle coats the primary aerial surfaces of land plants. It consists of cutin and waxes, which provide protection against desiccation, pathogens and herbivores. Acyl cuticular waxes are synthesized via elongase complexes that extend fatty acyl precursors up to 38 carbons for downstream modification pathways. The leaves of 21 barley eceriferum (cer) mutants appear to have less or no epicuticular wax crystals, making these mutants excellent tools for identifying elongase and modification pathway biosynthetic genes. Positional cloning of the gene mutated in cer-zh identified an elongase component, ß-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (CER-ZH/HvKCS1) that is one of 34 homologous KCSs encoded by the barley genome. The biochemical function of CER-ZH was deduced from wax and cutin analyses and by heterologous expression in yeast. Combined, these experiments revealed that CER-ZH/HvKCS1 has a substrate specificity for C16-C20, especially unsaturated, acyl chains, thus playing a major role in total acyl chain elongation for wax biosynthesis. The contribution of CER-ZH to water barrier properties of the cuticle and its influence on the germination of barley powdery mildew fungus were also assessed.


Assuntos
3-Oxoacil-(Proteína de Transporte de Acila) Sintase/metabolismo , Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hordeum/enzimologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ceras/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Sequência Conservada , Cristalografia por Raios X , Desidratação , Secas , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Estudos de Associação Genética , Hordeum/genética , Lipídeos de Membrana/metabolismo , Mutação/genética , Fenótipo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Transcrição Genética
6.
Theor Appl Genet ; 130(6): 1169-1178, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28258370

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: The barley eceriferum-b.2 (cer-b.2) mutant produces glossy leaf sheaths and is deficient in the cuticular wax component 14,16-hentriacontanedione. The mutated gene maps to a 1.3-cM interval on chromosome 3HL flanked by the genes MLOC_10972 and MLOC_69561. The cuticular wax coating of leaves and stems in many grass species is responsible for the plants' glaucous appearance. A major component of the wax is a group of ß-diketone compounds. The barley eceriferum-b.2 (cer-b.2) mutant produces glossy leaf sheaths and is deficient for the compound 14,16-hentriacontanedione. A linkage analysis based on 708 gametes allowed the gene responsible for the mutant phenotype to be mapped to a 1.3-cM interval on chromosome 3HL flanked by the two genes MLOC_10972 and _69561. The product of the wild type allele may represent a step in the ß-diketone synthesis pathway.


Assuntos
Hordeum/genética , Cetonas/química , Epiderme Vegetal/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Ceras/química , Alelos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Ligação Genética , Hordeum/química , Mutação , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
7.
Plant Direct ; 1(5): e00025, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31245672

RESUMO

The hydrophobic cuticle covers the surface of the most aerial organs of land plants. The barley mutant eceriferum-zv (cer-zv), which is hypersensitive to drought, is unable to accumulate a sufficient quantity of cutin in its leaf cuticle. The mutated locus has been mapped to a 0.02 cM segment in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 4H. As a map-based cloning approach to isolate the gene was therefore considered unlikely to be feasible, a comparison was instead made between the transcriptomes of the mutant and the wild type. In conjunction with extant genomic information, on the basis of predicted functionality, only two genes were considered likely to encode a product associated with cutin formation. When eight independent cer-zv mutant alleles were resequenced with respect to the two candidate genes, it was confirmed that the gene underlying the mutation in each allele encodes a Gly-Asp-Ser-Leu (GDSL)-motif esterase/acyltransferase/lipase. The gene was transcribed in the epidermis, and its product was exclusively deposited in cell wall at the boundary of the cuticle in the leaf elongation zone, coinciding with the major site of cutin deposition. CER-ZV is speculated to function in the deposition of cutin polymer. Its homologs were found in green algae, moss, and euphyllophytes, indicating that it is highly conserved in plant kingdom.

8.
Plant Mol Biol ; 86(6): 627-39, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25255860

RESUMO

The isolation of Brassica napus leaf protoplasts induces reactive oxygen species generation and accumulation in the chloroplasts. An activated isoform of NADPH oxidase-like protein was detected in the protoplasts and the protoplast chloroplasts. The purpose of this study is to define the NADH oxidase-like activities in the H2O2-accumulating protoplast chloroplasts. Proteomic analysis of this protein revealed an isoform of ferredoxin:NADPH oxidoreductase (FNR1). While leaves highly expressed the LFNR1 transcript, protoplasts decreased the expression significantly. The protoplast chloroplasts predominantly expressed soluble FNR1 proteins. While the albino leaves of white kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala f. tricolor cv. white pigeon) expressed FNR1 protein at the same level as B. napus leaves, the protoplasts of albino leaves displayed reduced FNR1 expression. The albino leaf protoplasts of white kale generated and accumulated H2O2 in the cytoplasm and on the plasma membrane. Intracellular pH showed that the chloroplasts were acidic, which suggest that excess H(+) was generated in chloroplast stroma. NADPH content of the protoplast chloroplasts increased by over sixfold during the isolation of protoplasts. This study reports a possibility of mediating electrons to oxygen by an overproduced soluble FNR, and suggests that the FNR has a function in utilizing any excess reducing power of NADPH.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/enzimologia , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , NADPH Oxidases/genética , Brassica napus/genética , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Ferredoxinas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Isoenzimas , NADP/metabolismo , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , Folhas de Planta/enzimologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estômatos de Plantas/enzimologia , Estômatos de Plantas/genética , Proteômica , Protoplastos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
9.
Genes Genet Syst ; 89(5): 215-25, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25832748

RESUMO

Allopolyploidization is an important evolutionary event in plants, but its genome-wide effects are not fully understood. Common wheat, Triticum aestivum (AABBDD), evolved through amphidiploidization between T. turgidum (AABB) and Aegilops tauschii (DD). Here, global gene expression patterns in the seedlings of a synthetic triploid wheat line (ABD), its chromosome-doubled hexaploid (AABBDD) and stable synthetic hexaploid (AABBDD), and the parental lines T. turgidum (AABB) and Ae. tauschii (DD) were compared using an oligo-DNA microarray to identify metabolic pathways affected by the genome conflict that occurs during allopolyploidization and genome stabilization. Characteristic gene expression patterns of non-additively expressed genes were detected in the newly synthesized triploid and hexaploid, and in the stable synthetic hexaploid. Hierarchical clustering of all differentially expressed and non-additively expressed genes revealed that the gene expression patterns of the triploid (ABD) were similar to those of the maternal parent (AABB), and that expression patterns in successive generations arising from self-pollination became closer to that of the pollen parent (DD). The non-additive gene expression profiles markedly differed between the triploid (ABD) and chromosome-doubled hexaploid (AABBDD), as supported by Gene Ontology (GOSlim) analysis. Four hundred and nineteen non-additively expressed genes were commonly detected in all three generations. GOSlim analysis indicated that these non-additively expressed genes were predominantly involved in "biological pathways". Notably, four of 11 genes related to sugar metabolism displayed elevated expression throughout allopolyploidization. These may be useful candidates for promoting heterosis and adaptation in plants.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Instabilidade Genômica/genética , Poliploidia , Triticum/genética , Análise de Variância , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Análise em Microsséries , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
10.
Mol Biol Rep ; 36(8): 2111-8, 2009 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19105046

RESUMO

Intergeneric hybridization is an important strategy to introgress alien genes into common wheat for its improvement. But presence of cross ability barrier mechanism regulated by Kr1 gene played a major destructive role for hybridization than other reported genes. In order to know the underlying molecular mechanism and to dissect out this barrier, a new annealing system, ACP (anneling control primer) system was used in chromosome 5B (containing Kr1 gene) specific Recombinant Inbred Line (RIL) population. Two differentially expressed fragments for Kr1 gene was identified, cloned and sequenced. Further the expression was confirmed by northern blotting analysis. Sequence analysis of the resulted clones revealed classes of putative genes, including stress responsive and signal transduction.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Triticum/genética , Alelos , Primers do DNA , Flores/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Recombinação Genética , Triticum/metabolismo
11.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 54(2): 254-8, 2007 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17142017

RESUMO

Many methods are available for total RNA extraction from plants, except the floral organs like wheat pistils containing high levels of polysaccharides that bind/or co-precipitate with RNA. In this protocol, a simple and effective method for extracting total RNA from small and feathery wheat pistils has been developed. Lithium chloride (LiCl) and phenol:chloroform:isoamylalcohol (PCI) were employed and the samples were ground in microcentrifuge tube using plastic pestle. A jacket of liquid nitrogen and simplified procedures were applied to ensure thorough grinding of the pistils and to minimize the samples loss. These measures substantially increased the recovery of total RNA (approximately 50%) in the extraction process. Reliable differential display by cDNA-AFLP was successfully achieved with the total RNA after DNase treatment and reverse transcription. This method is also practicable for gene expression and gene regulation studies in floral parts of other plants.


Assuntos
Flores/química , RNA/isolamento & purificação , Triticum/química , DNA Complementar/química , Flores/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , RNA/química , Transcrição Reversa/fisiologia , Triticum/genética
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