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JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 59(235): 248-251, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506444


INTRODUCTION: The virus that causes COVID-19 is known as severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2. This new variant of Corona Virus introduced in China has urged the massive health system resources to focus on its screening and management of sick patients worldwide. We aimed to find the prevalence of COVID-19 positive cases diagnosed by Real-time polymerase chain reaction in a tertiary care hospital of Nepal. METHODS: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study that was conducted from 11th of November to 15th December 2020. Nasopharyngeal and Oropharyngeal swabs were collected, and confirmation of cases of COVID-19 was done based on the detection of viral ribonucleic acid by nucleic acid amplification tests such as real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions. The viral genes targeted include the E, N, and ORF. RESULTS: A total of 15247 samples have been processed, of which s (14.81%) positive cases were included in this study. There were 1427 (63.19%) male and 831 (36.68%) females. The majority of the cases were asymptomatic 1386 (61.38%). The most common age group infected was between 15 to 40 years, 841 (58.93%) male and 542 (65.22%) females. The most common presenting symptoms were cough 315 (13.95%) and fever 306 (13.55%). CONCLUSIONS: Most of the individuals reported for real-time polymerase chain reaction were asymptomatic patients who might be contagious and have the potential to transmit infection. Among symptomatic cases, common symptoms were cough and fever.

COVID-19 , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nepal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , SARS-CoV-2 , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(12): 1470-1474, 2020 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378293


INTRODUCTION: Knowledge about the distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype and its correlation with viral load are important for the decision of treatment and the prediction of disease progression, however such information is very limited in Nepal. Here, we investigated the distribution of HCV genotypes and viral load for HCV-infected patients from Kathmandu, Nepal. METHODOLOGY: Ninety-six patients with HCV infection and not on antiviral therapy were enrolled from three different medical centers in Kathmandu valley, Nepal. Demographics were recorded and blood samples were collected. Plasma was separated and HCV RNA was extracted. Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) was performed to measure the viral load, and virus genotype was determined. RESULTS: Genotype 3a (n = 53, 55.2%) was the most prevalent, followed by 1b (n = 19, 19.8%), 1a (n = 18, 18.8%), 5a (n = 3, 3.1%), and mix types (n = 3, 3.1%). The median viral load for HCV genotype 1a was 770,942 IU/mL (IQR, 215,268-3,720,075), 1b was 700,000 IU/mL (IQR, 431,560-919,000), 3a was 1,060,000 IU/mL (IQR, 641,050-6,063,500), 5a was 673,400 IU/mL, and mixed was 6,428,000 IU/mL. A correlation between genotype and viral load was observed (p = 0.02), of which genotype 3a showed a high viral load. CONCLUSIONS: HCV genotypes 1a, 1b, 3a, and 5a were identified in Kathmandu, Nepal, and mixed genotype patients were observed in the patients studied. HCV genotype showed a correlation with viral load in patient plasma. This finding may contribute to the treatment and prevention of hepatitis C in Kathmandu, Nepal.

Genótipo , Hepacivirus/classificação , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Hepatite C/virologia , Carga Viral , Adulto , Feminino , Hepatite C/sangue , Hepatite C Crônica/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Nepal , RNA Viral/sangue , Adulto Jovem
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 58(225): 293-296, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538920


INTRODUCTION: Intestinal parasitic infestation is one of the major health problems in developing countries like Nepal. This study was done to determine the prevalence rate of intestinal parasitic infestation among school children in Duwakot VDC, Bhaktapur, Nepal. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was done in 194 public school children of Duwakot village development committee from August to October, 2019. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Review Committee (reference no. 1207201915). Simple random sampling was done. One hundred and ninety-four public school children individuals of 6 to 14 years of age were enrolled. Collected stools were examined for the presence of parasites macroscopically and microscopically. Microscopic examination was carried out by direct wet mount using normal saline (0.9%) and Lugol's iodine (0.5%) mount. The data obtained were computed and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. RESULTS: A total of 194 stool samples were collected from school children and examined. The prevalence of intestinal parasitosis was 26 (13.40%). The commonest organism was Giardia lamblia in 22 (11.34%) cases. Among helminthic infection, 2 (1.03%) cases each were infected by Hymenolepis nana and Hookworm respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence rate of intestinal parasite infestation in Nepal shows considerable decline in recent years. However, more effort is required by public health resources to minimize the problem further.

Enteropatias Parasitárias , Parasitos , Adolescente , Ancylostomatoidea/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Giardia/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Hymenolepis nana/isolamento & purificação , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Nepal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 57(220): 424-428, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335654


INTRODUCTION: Acinetobacter species are short, stout, gram-negative coccobacilli, generally considered to be a relatively low-grade pathogen. However, its resistance towards multiple classes of antibiotics through an array of resistance mechanisms including its ability to form biofilm has led to its emergence as an important pathogen in hospital settings. This study was done to determine the prevalence of biofilm former and Extended-spectrum Beta-Lactamase producer among Acinetobacter species. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was done in the clinical microbiology laboratory, Kathmandu Medical College from January to June 2019. Convenient sampling method was used. Ethical approval was taken from the Institutional Review Committee, Ref no. 2812201805. Preliminary identification followed by characterization of Acinetobacter species was done. Antibiotic susceptibility test was done using the Kirby-Bauer method following Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Extended-spectrum Beta-Lactamase was detected by combined disc method and Biofilm detection was done using congo red agar method. Statistical Package for Social Sciences 16.0 version statistical software package was used for statistical analysis. Point estimate at 95% Confidence Interval was calculated along with frequencyand proportion for binarydata. RESULTS: Among 108 Acinetobacter species, 86 (79.7%) Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex was seen. Seventy-eight (72%) of the isolates were multidrug-resistant, 34 (31%) of the isolates were Extended-spectrum Beta-Lactamase producer and only 10 (9.3%) of the isolates, were biofilm producers. CONCLUSIONS: Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp. with the ability to produce Extended-spectrum Beta-Lactamase is prevalent in our hospital settings. Strict compliance with infection control practices is necessary to curb its spread.

Infecções por Acinetobacter/microbiologia , Acinetobacter baumannii/fisiologia , Acinetobacter calcoaceticus/fisiologia , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resistência beta-Lactâmica/fisiologia , Acinetobacter/isolamento & purificação , Acinetobacter/fisiologia , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolamento & purificação , Acinetobacter calcoaceticus/isolamento & purificação , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/fisiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nepal , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo