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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10925, 2024 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740826

RESUMO

Blood-based biomarkers that reliably indicate disease activity in the intestinal tract are an important unmet need in the management of patients with IBD. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived membranous microparticles, which reflect the cellular and functional state of their site of site of origin. As ultrasound waves may lead to molecular shifts of EV contents, we hypothesized that application of ultrasound waves on inflamed intestinal tissue in IBD may amplify the inflammation-specific molecular shifts in EVs like altered EV-miRNA expression, which in turn can be detected in the peripheral blood. 26 patients with IBD were included in the prospective clinical study. Serum samples were collected before and 30 min after diagnostic transabdominal ultrasound. Differential miRNA expression was analyzed by sequencing. Candidate inducible EV-miRNAs were functionally assessed in vitro by transfection of miRNA mimics and qPCR of predicted target genes. Serum EV-miRNA concentration at baseline correlated with disease severity, as determined by clinical activity scores and sonographic findings. Three miRNAs (miR-942-5p, mir-5588, mir-3195) were significantly induced by sonography. Among the significantly regulated EV-miRNAs, miR-942-5p was strongly induced in higher grade intestinal inflammation and correlated with clinical activity in Crohn's disease. Prediction of target regulation and transfection of miRNA mimics inferred a role of this EV-miRNA in regulating barrier function in inflammation. Induction of mir-5588 and mir-3195 did not correlate with inflammation grade. This proof-of-concept trial highlights the principle of induced molecular shifts in EVs from inflamed tissue through transabdominal ultrasound. These inducible EVs and their molecular cargo like miRNA could become novel biomarkers for intestinal inflammation in IBD.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , MicroRNAs , Ultrassonografia , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/genética , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38468525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Green Coffee Bean (GCB) is covered with silver skin that is shed as a by-product of the roasting process. For the first time, a comparative study was conducted to differentiate the compositional analysis of green coffee beans with silver skin and without silver skin. OBJECTIVE: The study aims comparatively assessing nutritional, anti-nutritional and fatty acids composition of green coffee beans with silver skin and without silver skin. The present study is also intended to find out various organic compounds of green coffee beans. METHODS: The proximate analysis was used to study nutritional composition. Mineral analysis was assessed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The antinutrients like phytic acid and tannin were assessed by UV-visible spectroscopy whereas volumetric and gravimetric analysis was used to determine oxalates and alkaloids. Gas chromatography and Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy were used for studying fatty acids and organic compounds, respectively. RESULTS: Protein content was significantly (p<0.05) high in green coffee beans with silver skin, indicating 15% higher protein. Macro mineral content was also found significantly (p<0.05 and p<0.01) high in green coffee beans with silver skin, whereby 5.11% higher Phosphorus and 24.12% higher Calcium content was observed. However, iron content was 68.10% lower in green coffee beans with silver skin which might be due to its higher tannin content. Trace minerals zinc and copper were also found to contain 57.18% to 18.11% higher concentrations respectively in silver skin. Anti-nutritional analysis revealed the content of phytic acid and tannin as 161 and 77.29 mg/100g, respectively in green coffee beans with silver skin. The percentages of oxalates and alkaloids were found to be 0.64 and 14.30. These anti-nutritional compounds were significantly (p<0.05 and p<0.01) higher from green coffee beans without silver skin. Green coffee beans have been found with an utmost number of saturated fatty acids having palmitic acid as the most abundant. The unsaturated part is mainly composed of linoleic and oleic acid. Chlorogenic acid isomers and caffeine were the organic compounds detected through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. CONCLUSION: These findings reveal the presence of both nutritional and anti-nutritional components in Coffee silver skin, with significantly higher levels of anti-nutritional factors in green coffee with silver skin, emphasizing the need for caution in the consumption of green coffee and utilization of coffee silver skin as a valuable bioresource.

3.
iScience ; 27(3): 109173, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38496294

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel diseases are characterized by the chronic relapsing inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. While the molecular causality between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and intestinal inflammation is widely accepted, the metabolic consequences of chronic ER stress on the pathophysiology of IBD remain unclear. By using in vitro, in vivo models, and patient datasets, we identified a distinct polarization of the mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism and a fine-tuning of the amino acid uptake in intestinal epithelial cells tailored to support GSH and NADPH metabolism upon ER stress. This metabolic phenotype strongly correlates with IBD severity and therapy response. Mechanistically, we uncover that both chronic ER stress and serine limitation disrupt cGAS-STING signaling, impairing the epithelial response against viral and bacterial infection and fueling experimental enteritis. Consequently, the antioxidant treatment restores STING function and virus control. Collectively, our data highlight the importance of serine metabolism to allow proper cGAS-STING signaling and innate immune responses upon gut inflammation.

4.
Mol Carcinog ; 63(6): 1188-1204, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38506376

RESUMO

Recent preclinical studies have shown that the intake of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) aspirin and naproxen could be an effective intervention strategy against TMPRSS2-ERG fusion-driven prostate tumorigenesis. Herein, as a follow-up mechanistic study, employing TMPRSS2-ERG (fusion) positive tumors and plasma from TMPRSS2-ERG. Ptenflox/flox mice, we profiled the stage specific proteomic changes (focused on inflammatory circulating and prostate tissue/tumor-specific cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors/growth signaling-associated molecules) that contribute to prostate cancer (PCa) growth and progression in the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion-driven mouse model of tumorigenesis. In addition, the association of the protective effects of NSAIDs (aspirin 1400 ppm and naproxen 400 ppm) with the modulation of these specific molecular pathways was determined. A sandwich Elisa based membrane array-proteome profiler identifying 111 distinct signaling molecules was employed. Overall, the plasma and prostate tissue sample analyses identified 54 significant and differentially expressed cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors/growth signaling-associated molecules between PCa afflicted mice (TMPRSS2-ERG. Ptenflox/flox, age-matched noncancerous controls, NSAIDs-supplemented and no-drug controls). Bioinformatic analysis of the array outcomes indicated that the protective effect of NSAIDs was associated with reduced expression of (a) tumor promoting inflammatory molecules (M-CSF, IL-33, CCL22, CCL12, CX3CL1, CHI3L1, and CD93), (b) growth factors- growth signaling-associated molecules (Chemerin, FGF acidic, Flt-3 ligand, IGFBP-5, and PEDF), and (c) tumor microenvironment/stromal remodeling proteins MMP2 and MMP9. Overall, our findings corroborate the pathological findings that protective effects of NSAIDs in TMPSS2-ERG fusion-driven prostate tumorigenesis are associated with antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects and possible modulation of the immune cell enriched microenvironment.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides , Aspirina , Naproxeno , Neoplasias da Próstata , Animais , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Aspirina/farmacologia , Camundongos , Naproxeno/farmacologia , Proteômica/métodos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/metabolismo , Próstata/patologia , Próstata/metabolismo , Próstata/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/sangue
5.
bioRxiv ; 2024 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328235

RESUMO

Despite the development of various drug delivery technologies, there remains a significant need for vehicles that can improve targeting and biodistribution in "hard-to-penetrate" tissues. Some solid tumors, for example, are particularly challenging to penetrate due to their dense extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, we have formulated a new family of rod-shaped delivery vehicles named Janus base nanopieces (Rod JBNps), which are more slender than conventional spherical nanoparticles, such as lipid nanoparticles (LNPs). These JBNp nanorods are formed by bundles of DNA-inspired Janus base nanotubes (JBNts) with intercalated delivery cargoes. To develop this novel family of delivery vehicles, we employed a computation-aided design (CAD) methodology that includes molecular dynamics and response surface methodology. This approach precisely and efficiently guides experimental designs. Using an ovarian cancer model, we demonstrated that JBNps markedly improve penetration into the dense ECM of solid tumors, leading to better treatment outcomes compared to FDA-approved spherical LNP delivery. This study not only successfully developed a rod-shaped delivery vehicle for improved tissue penetration but also established a CAD methodology to effectively guide material design.

6.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 483: 116834, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38266871

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sulfur mustard (SM), a bi-functional alkylating agent, was used during World War I and the Iran-Iraq war. SM toxicity is ten times higher in eyes than in other tissues. Cornea is exceptionally susceptible to SM-injuries due to its anterior positioning and mucous-aqueous interphase. Ocular SM exposure induces blepharitis, photosensitivity, dry eye, epithelial defects, limbal ischemia and stem cell deficiency, and mustard gas keratopathy leading to temporary or permanent vision impairments. We demonstrated that dexamethasone (Dex) is a potent therapeutic intervention against SM-induced corneal injuries; however, its mechanism of action is not well known. Investigations employing proteomic profiling (LC-MS/MS) to understand molecular mechanisms behind SM-induced corneal injury and Dex efficacy were performed in the rabbit cornea exposed to SM and then received Dex treatment. PEAKS studio was used to extract, search, and summarize peptide identity. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used for pathway identification. Validation was performed using immunofluorescence. One-Way ANOVA (FDR < 0.05; p < 0.005) and Student's t-test (p < 0.05) were utilized for analyzing proteomics and IF data, respectively. Proteomic analysis revealed that SM-exposure upregulated tissue repair pathways, particularly actin cytoskeleton signaling and inflammation. Prominently dysregulated proteins included lipocalin2, coronin1A, actin-related protein2, actin-related protein2/3 complex subunit2, actin-related protein2/3 complex subunit4, cell division cycle42, ezrin, bradykinin/kininogen1, moesin, and profilin. Upregulated actin cytoskeleton signaling increases F-actin formation, dysregulating cell shape and motility. Dex reversed SM-induced increases in the aforementioned proteins levels to near control expression profiles. Dex aids corneal wound healing and improves corneal integrity via actin cytoskeletal signaling and anti-inflammatory effects following SM-induced injuries.


Assuntos
Substâncias para a Guerra Química , Lesões da Córnea , Gás de Mostarda , Animais , Coelhos , Gás de Mostarda/toxicidade , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/toxicidade , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Actinas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Proteômica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Córnea/metabolismo , Lesões da Córnea/induzido quimicamente , Lesões da Córnea/tratamento farmacológico , Citoesqueleto de Actina/metabolismo , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos
7.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol ; 168: 106527, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38242199

RESUMO

High structural flexibility has been reported in the central region of BRCA1, which hinders the structural and functional evaluations of mutations identified in the domain. Additionally, the need to categorize variants of unknown significance (VUS) has increased due to the growth in the number of variants reported in clinical settings. Therefore, unraveling the disease-causing mechanism of VUS identified in different functional domains of BRCA1 is still challenging. The current study uses a multidisciplinary approach to assess the structural impact of BRCA1 Arg866Cys mutation discovered in the central domain of BRCA1. The structural alterations have been characterized using Circular-Dichroism spectroscopy, nano-DSF, and molecular-dynamics simulations. BRCA1 Arg866Cys mutant demonstrated more flexibility and lesser affinity to DNA than the wild-type protein. The BRCA1(759-1064) wild-type protein was shown to be a ßII-rich protein with an induced D-O transition in the presence of DNA and 2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol (TFE). The protein's alpha-helical composition did not significantly change in the presence of TFE, besides an increase in ß-turns and loops. Under Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEM), amyloid-like fibrils structure was detected for Arg866Cys mutant whereas the wild-type protein showed amorphous aggregates. An increased ThT fluorescence indicated ß-rich composition and aggregation-prone behaviour for BRCA1 wild-type protein, while the fluorescence intensity was significantly quenched in the Arg866Cys mutant. Furthermore, increased conformational flexibility in the Arg866Cys variant was observed by principal component analysis. This work aims to comprehend the inherently disordered region of BRCA1 as well as the impact of missense mutations on folding patterns and binding to DNA for functional aspects.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1 , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA1/química , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , DNA , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Mutação , Humanos , Feminino
8.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 388(2): 469-483, 2024 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37316330

RESUMO

Sulfur mustard (SM) is an ominous chemical warfare agent. Eyes are extremely susceptible to SM toxicity; injuries include inflammation, fibrosis, neovascularization (NV), and vision impairment/blindness, depending on the exposure dosage. Effective countermeasures against ocular SM toxicity remain elusive and are warranted during conflicts/terrorist activities and accidental exposures. We previously determined that dexamethasone (DEX) effectively counters corneal nitrogen mustard toxicity and that the 2-hour postexposure therapeutic window is most beneficial. Here, the efficacy of two DEX dosing frequencies [i.e., every 8 or 12 hours (initiated, as previously established, 2 hours after exposure)] until 28 days after SM exposure was assessed. Furthermore, sustained effects of DEX treatments were observed up to day 56 after SM exposure. Corneal clinical assessments (thickness, opacity, ulceration, and NV) were performed at the day 14, 28, 42, and 56 post-SM exposure time points. Histopathological assessments of corneal injuries (corneal thickness, epithelial degradation, epithelial-stromal separation, inflammatory cell, and blood vessel counts) using H&E staining and molecular assessments (COX-2, MMP-9, VEGF, and SPARC expressions) were performed at days 28, 42, and 56 after SM exposure. Statistical significance was assessed using two-way ANOVA, with Holm-Sidak post hoc pairwise multiple comparisons; significance was established if P < 0.05 (data represented as the mean ± S.E.M.). DEX administration every 8 hours was more potent than every 12 hours in reversing ocular SM injury, with the most pronounced effects observed at days 28 and 42 after SM exposure. These comprehensive results are novel and provide a comprehensive DEX treatment regimen (therapeutic-window and dosing-frequency) for counteracting SM-induced corneal injuries. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The study aims to establish a dexamethasone (DEX) treatment regimen by comparing the efficacy of DEX administration at 12 versus 8 hours initiated 2 hours after exposure. DEX administration every 8 hours was more effective in reversing sulfur mustard (SM)-induced corneal injuries. SM injury reversal during DEX administration (initial 28 days after exposure) and sustained [further 28 days after cessation of DEX administration (i.e., up to 56 days after exposure)] effects were assessed using clinical, pathophysiological, and molecular biomarkers.


Assuntos
Substâncias para a Guerra Química , Lesões da Córnea , Gás de Mostarda , Animais , Coelhos , Gás de Mostarda/toxicidade , Gás de Mostarda/metabolismo , Córnea , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/toxicidade , Lesões da Córnea/metabolismo , Lesões da Córnea/patologia , Dexametasona/farmacologia
9.
Proteins ; 92(4): 540-553, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38037760

RESUMO

Preliminary studies have shown BRCA1 (170-1600) residues to be intrinsically disordered with unknown structural details. However, thousands of clinically reported variants have been identified in this central region of BRCA1. Therefore, we aimed to characterize h-BRCA1(260-553) to assess the structural basis for pathogenicity of two rare missense variants Ser282Leu, Gln356Arg identified from the Indian and Russian populations respectively. Small-angle X-ray scattering analysis revealed WT scores Rg -32 Å, Dmax -93 Å, and Rflex-51% which are partially disordered, whereas Ser282Leu variant displayed a higher degree of disorderedness and Gln356Arg was observed to be aggregated. WT protein also possesses an inherent propensity to undergo a disorder-to-order transition in the presence of cruciform DNA and 2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol (TFE). An increased alpha-helical pattern was observed with increasing concentration of TFE for the Gln356Arg mutant whereas Ser282Leu mutant showed significant differences only at the highest TFE concentration. Furthermore, higher thermal shift was observed for WT-DNA complex compared to the Gln356Arg and Ser282Leu protein-DNA complex. Moreover, mature amyloid-like fibrils were observed with 30 µM thioflavin T (ThT) at 37°C for Ser282Leu and Gln356Arg proteins while the WT protein exists in a protofibril state as observed by TEM. Gln356Arg formed higher-order aggregates with amyloidogenesis over time as monitored by ThT fluorescence. In addition, computational analyses confirmed larger conformational fluctuations for Ser282Leu and Gln356Arg mutants than for the WT. The global structural alterations caused by these variants provide a mechanistic approach for further classification of the variants of uncertain clinical significance in BRCA1 into amyloidogenic variants which may have a significant role in disease pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Amiloide , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , DNA
10.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 388(2): 484-494, 2024 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37474260

RESUMO

Sulfur mustard (SM), a vesicating agent first used during World War I, remains a potent threat as a chemical weapon to cause intentional/accidental chemical emergencies. Eyes are extremely susceptible to SM toxicity. Nitrogen mustard (NM), a bifunctional alkylating agent and potent analog of SM, is used in laboratories to study mustard vesicant-induced ocular toxicity. Previously, we showed that SM-/NM-induced injuries (in vivo and ex vivo rabbit corneas) are reversed upon treatment with dexamethasone (DEX), a US Food and Drug Administration-approved, steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Here, we optimized NM injuries in ex vivo human corneas and assessed DEX efficacy. For injury optimization, one cornea (randomly selected from paired eyes) was exposed to NM: 100 nmoles for 2 hours or 4 hours, and 200 nmoles for 2 hours, and the other cornea served as a control. Injuries were assessed 24 hours post NM-exposure. NM 100 nmoles exposure for 2 hours was found to cause optimal corneal injury (epithelial thinning [∼69%]; epithelial-stromal separation [6-fold increase]). In protein arrays studies, 24 proteins displayed ≥40% change in their expression in NM exposed corneas compared with controls. DEX administration initiated 2 hours post NM exposure and every 8 hours thereafter until 24 hours post-exposure reversed NM-induced corneal epithelial-stromal separation [2-fold decrease]). Of the 24 proteins dysregulated upon NM exposure, six proteins (delta-like canonical Notch ligand 1, FGFbasic, CD54, CCL7, endostatin, receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-4) associated with angiogenesis, immune/inflammatory responses, and cell differentiation/proliferation, showed significant reversal upon DEX treatment (Student's t test; P ≤ 0.05). Complementing our animal model studies, DEX was shown to mitigate vesicant-induced toxicities in ex vivo human corneas. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Nitrogen mustard (NM) exposure-induced injuries were optimized in an ex vivo human cornea culture model and studies were carried out at 24 h post 100 nmoles NM exposure. Dexamethasone (DEX) administration (started 2 h post NM exposure and every 8 h thereafter) reversed NM-induced corneal injuries. Molecular mediators of DEX action were associated with angiogenesis, immune/inflammatory responses, and cell differentiation/proliferation, indicating DEX aids wound healing via reversing vesicant-induced neovascularization (delta-like canonical Notch ligand 1 and FGF basic) and leukocyte infiltration (CD54 and CCL7).


Assuntos
Substâncias para a Guerra Química , Lesões da Córnea , Gás de Mostarda , Animais , Humanos , Coelhos , Mecloretamina/toxicidade , Irritantes/efeitos adversos , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/toxicidade , Ligantes , Córnea , Lesões da Córnea/induzido quimicamente , Lesões da Córnea/tratamento farmacológico , Lesões da Córnea/metabolismo , Gás de Mostarda/toxicidade , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico
11.
FEBS J ; 291(7): 1422-1438, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38129745

RESUMO

Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by the fusion gene promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor-alpha (PML-RARA) and is conventionally treated with arsenic trioxide (ATO). ATO binds directly to the RING finger, B-box, coiled-coil (RBCC) domain of PML and initiates degradation of the fusion oncoprotein PML-RARA. However, the mutational hotspot at C212-S220 disrupts ATO binding, leading to drug resistance in APL. Therefore, structural consequences of these point mutations in PML that remain uncertain require comprehensive analysis. In this study, we investigated the structure-based ensemble properties of the promyelocytic leukemia-RING-B-box-coiled-coil (PML-RBCC) domains and ATO-resistant mutations. Oligomeric studies reveal that PML-RBCC wild-type and mutants C212R, S214L, A216T, L217F, and S220G predominantly form tetramers, whereas mutants C213R, A216V, L218P, and D219H tend to form dimers. The stability of the dimeric mutants was lower, exhibiting a melting temperature (Tm) reduction of 30 °C compared with the tetrameric mutants and wild-type PML protein. Furthermore, the exposed surface of the C213R mutation rendered it more prone to protease digestion than that of the C212R mutation. The spectroscopic analysis highlighted ATO-induced structural alterations in S214L, A216V, and D219H mutants, in contrast to C213R, L217F, and L218P mutations. Moreover, the computational analysis revealed that the ATO-resistant mutations C213R, A216V, L217F, and L218P caused changes in the size, shape, and flexibility of the PML-RBCC wild-type protein. The mutations C213R, A216V, L217F, and L218P destabilize the wild-type protein structure due to the adaptation of distinct conformational changes. In addition, these mutations disrupt several hydrogen bonds, including interactions involving C212, C213, and C215, which are essential for ATO binding. The local and global structural features induced by these mutations provide mechanistic insight into ATO resistance and APL pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Arsenicais , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda , Humanos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Trióxido de Arsênio/uso terapêutico , Arsenicais/farmacologia , Arsenicais/uso terapêutico , Cisteína/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/genética , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/patologia , Mutação , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/metabolismo , Óxidos/farmacologia , Óxidos/uso terapêutico
12.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 209(Pt 2): 265-281, 2023 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38088264

RESUMO

Phenylarsine oxide (PAO), an analog of lewisite, is a highly toxic trivalent arsenical and a potential chemical warfare agent. PAO-induced toxicity has been studied in lung, liver, and skin tissues. Nevertheless, very few studies have been published to comprehend the impact of PAO-induced toxicity on ocular tissues, even though eyes are uniquely vulnerable to injury by vesicants. Notably, arsenical vesicants such as lewisite have been shown to cause edema of eyelids, inflammation, massive corneal necrosis, and blindness. Accordingly, human corneal epithelial cells were used to study the effects of PAO exposure. PAO (100 and 200 nM) induced significant oxidative stress in corneal epithelial cells. Simultaneous treatment with N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), an FDA-approved antioxidant, reversed the PAO-induced toxicity in human corneal epithelial cells. Furthermore, oxidative stress induction by PAO was accompanied by unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling activation and ferroptotic cell death. Further, to validate the findings of our in vitro studies, we optimized injury biomarkers and developed an ex vivo rabbit corneal culture model of PAO exposure. Investigations using PAO in ex vivo rabbit corneas revealed similar results. PAO (5 or 10 µg) for 3, 5, and 10 min caused moderate to extensive corneal epithelial layer degradation and reduced the epithelial layer thickness in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Similar to human corneal cells, injuries by PAO in ex vivo cultured rabbit corneas were also associated with elevated oxidative stress, UPR signaling, and ferroptosis induction. NAC mitigated PAO-induced corneal injuries in rabbit ex vivo cornea culture as well. The reversal of PAO toxicity upon NAC treatment observed in our studies could be attributed to its antioxidant properties. These findings suggest that PAO exposure can cause significant corneal injury and highlight the need for further mechanistic studies to better understand the pathobiology of different arsenical vesicants, including PAO and lewisite.


Assuntos
Arsenicais , Lesões da Córnea , Animais , Humanos , Coelhos , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Irritantes , Lesões da Córnea/induzido quimicamente , Estresse Oxidativo , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas , Morte Celular
13.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 16(12)2023 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38139779

RESUMO

Phytochemicals are natural plant-derived products that provide significant nutrition, essential biomolecules, and flavor as part of our diet. They have long been known to confer protection against several diseases via their anti-inflammatory, immune-regulatory, anti-microbial, and several other properties. Deciphering the role of phytochemicals in the prevention, inhibition, and treatment of cancer-unrestrained cell proliferation due to the loss of tight regulation on cell growth and replication-has been the focus of recent research. Particularly, the immunomodulatory role of phytochemicals, which is pivotal in unchecked cell proliferation and metastasis, has recently been studied extensively. The immune system is a critical component of the tumor microenvironment, and it plays essential roles in both preventing and promoting oncogenesis. Immunomodulation includes stimulation, amplification, or inactivation of some stage(s) of the immune response. Phytochemicals and their products have demonstrated immune regulation, such as macrophage migration, nitric oxide synthase inhibition, lymphocyte, T-cell, and cytokine stimulation, natural killer cell augmentation, and NFκB, TNF, and apoptosis regulation. There is a dearth of extensive accounts of the immunomodulatory effects of phytochemicals in cancer; thus, we have compiled these effects with mechanistic aspects of dietary phytochemicals in cancer, highlighting promising candidates and ongoing clinical trials on immunotherapeutic strategies to mitigate oncogenesis.

14.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1257321, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38022524

RESUMO

Chronic inflammatory diseases (CIDs), including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are thought to emerge from an impaired complex network of inter- and intracellular biochemical interactions among several proteins and small chemical compounds under strong influence of genetic and environmental factors. CIDs are characterised by shared and disease-specific processes, which is reflected by partially overlapping genetic risk maps and pathogenic cells (e.g., T cells). Their pathogenesis involves a plethora of intracellular pathways. The translation of the research findings on CIDs molecular mechanisms into effective treatments is challenging and may explain the low remission rates despite modern targeted therapies. Modelling CID-related causal interactions as networks allows us to tackle the complexity at a systems level and improve our understanding of the interplay of key pathways. Here we report the construction, description, and initial applications of the SYSCID map (https://syscid.elixir-luxembourg.org/), a mechanistic causal interaction network covering the molecular crosstalk between IBD, RA and SLE. We demonstrate that the map serves as an interactive, graphical review of IBD, RA and SLE molecular mechanisms, and helps to understand the complexity of omics data. Examples of such application are illustrated using transcriptome data from time-series gene expression profiles following anti-TNF treatment and data from genome-wide associations studies that enable us to suggest potential effects to altered pathways and propose possible mechanistic biomarkers of treatment response.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Humanos , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral , Artrite Reumatoide/etiologia , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Resultado do Tratamento , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/etiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética
15.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 168: 115635, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37816303

RESUMO

Primary and acquired therapy resistance is a major problem in patients with BRAF-mutant melanomas being treated with BRAF and MEK inhibitors (BRAFI, MEKi). Therefore, development of alternative therapy regimes is still required. In this regard, new drug combinations targeting different pathways to induce apoptosis could offer promising alternative approaches. Here, we investigated the combination of proteasome and Kv1.3 potassium channel inhibition on chemo-resistant, BRAF inhibitor-resistant as well as sensitive human melanoma cells. Our experiments demonstrated that all analyzed melanoma cell lines were sensitive to proteasome inhibitor treatment at concentrations that are not toxic to primary human fibroblasts. To further reduce proteasome inhibitor-associated side effects, and to foster apoptosis, potassium channels, which are other targets to induce pro-apoptotic effects in cancer cells, were blocked. In support, combined exposure of melanoma cells to proteasome and Kv1.3 channel inhibitor resulted in synergistic effects and significantly reduced cell viability. On the molecular level, enhanced apoptosis correlated with an increase of intracellular Kv1.3 channels and pro-apoptotic proteins such as Noxa and Bak and a reduction of anti-apoptotic proteins. Thus, use of combined therapeutic strategies triggering different apoptotic pathways may efficiently prevent the outgrowth of drug-resistant and -sensitive BRAF-mutant melanoma cells. In addition, this could be the basis for an alternative approach to treat other tumors expressing mutated BRAF such as non-small-cell lung cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Melanoma , Humanos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Canal de Potássio Kv1.3/genética , Inibidores de Proteassoma/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteassoma/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Mutação
16.
Genomics Inform ; 21(3): e30, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37813626

RESUMO

Ephs belong to the largest family of receptor tyrosine kinase and are highly conserved both sequentially and structurally. The structural organization of Eph is similar to other receptor tyrosine kinases; constituting the extracellular ligand binding domain, a fibronectin domain followed by intracellular juxtamembrane kinase, and SAM domain. Eph binds to respective ephrin ligand, through the ligand binding domain and forms a tetrameric complex to activate the kinase domain. Eph-ephrin regulates many downstream pathways that lead to physiological events such as cell migration, proliferation, and growth. Therefore, considering the importance of Eph-ephrin class of protein in tumorigenesis, 7,620 clinically reported missense mutations belonging to the class of variables of unknown significance were retrieved from cBioPortal and evaluated for pathogenicity. Thirty-two mutations predicted to be pathogenic using SIFT, Polyphen-2, PROVEAN, SNPs&GO, PMut, iSTABLE, and PremPS in-silico tools were found located either in critical functional regions or encompassing interactions at the binding interface of Eph-ephrin. However, seven were reported in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Considering the relevance of receptor tyrosine kinases and Eph in NSCLC, these seven mutations were assessed for change in the folding pattern using molecular dynamic simulation. Structural alterations, stability, flexibility, compactness, and solvent-exposed area was observed in EphA3 Trp790Cys, EphA7 Leu749Phe, EphB1 Gly685Cys, EphB4 Val748Ala, and Ephrin A2 Trp112Cys. Hence, it can be concluded that the evaluated mutations have potential to alter the folding pattern and thus can be further validated by in-vitro, structural and in-vivo studies for clinical management.

17.
Recent Adv Food Nutr Agric ; 14(2): 84-93, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37787150

RESUMO

Vernonia is a woody shrub of the family Asteraceae. Over 1500 species are distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and Asia. There are more than 54 species known to possess similar morphological features with the characteristic bitter taste. The pharmacological properties of different parts like seeds, leaves, and roots are well documented in folk medicine. They are rich in biologically active constituents such as alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroid tannins, and carotenoids having broad therapeutic activities like antiinflammatory, hypoglycemic, hyperlipidemia, antimicrobial, antitumor, antioxidative, antiproliferative, antihypertensive, hepatoprotective, etc. The present study summarizes and discusses the phytochemical profile, pharmacological properties, and toxicological effects of the Vernonia plant.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Vernonia , Vernonia/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Medicina Tradicional , Alcaloides/análise , Folhas de Planta/química
18.
Exp Eye Res ; 236: 109672, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37797797

RESUMO

Lewisite (LEW) is an arsenical vesicant that can be a potentially dangerous chemical warfare agent (CWA). Eyes are particularly susceptible to vesicant induced injuries and ocular LEW exposure can act swiftly, causing burning of eyes, edema, inflammation, cell death and even blindness. In our previous studies, we developed a LEW exposure-induced corneal injury model in rabbit and showed increased inflammation, neovascularization, cell death, and structural damage to rabbit corneas upon LEW exposure. In the present study, we further assessed the metabolomic changes to delineate the possible mechanisms underlying the LEW-induced corneal injuries. This information is vital and could help in the development of effective targeted therapies against ocular LEW injuries. Thus, the metabolomic changes associated with LEW exposures in rabbit corneas were assessed as a function of time, to delineate pathways from molecular perturbations at the genomic and proteomic levels. New Zealand white rabbit corneas (n = 3-6) were exposed to LEW vapor (0.2 mg/L; flow rate: 300 ml/min) for 2.5 min (short exposure; low dose) or 7.5 min (long-exposure; high dose) and then collected at 1, 3, 7, or 14 days post LEW exposure. Samples were prepared using the automated MicroLab STAR® system, and proteins precipitated to recover the chemically diverse metabolites. Metabolomic analysis was carried out by reverse phase UPLC-MS/MS and gas chromatography (GC)-MS. The data obtained were analyzed using Metabolon's software. The results showed that LEW exposures at high doses were more toxic, particularly at the day 7 post exposure time point. LEW exposure was shown to dysregulate metabolites associated with all the integral functions of the cornea and cause increased inflammation and immune response, as well as generate oxidative stress. Additionally, all important metabolic functions of the cells were also affected: lipid and nucleotide metabolism, and energetics. The high dose LEW exposures were more toxic, particularly at day 7 post LEW exposure (>10-fold increased levels of histamine, quinolinate, N-acetyl-ß-alanine, GMP, and UPM). LEW exposure dysregulated integral functions of the cornea, caused inflammation and heightened immune response, and generated oxidative stress. Lipid and nucleotide metabolism, and energetics were also affected. The novel information about altered metabolic profile of rabbit cornea following LEW exposure could assist in delineating complex molecular events; thus, aid in identifying therapeutic targets to effectively ameliorate ocular trauma.


Assuntos
Arsenicais , Lesões da Córnea , Animais , Coelhos , Irritantes/efeitos adversos , Irritantes/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Proteômica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Córnea/metabolismo , Lesões da Córnea/induzido quimicamente , Lesões da Córnea/metabolismo , Arsenicais/efeitos adversos , Arsenicais/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Nucleotídeos/efeitos adversos , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Lipídeos
19.
Cancers (Basel) ; 15(20)2023 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37894421

RESUMO

The consumption of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) aspirin is associated with a significant reduction in the risk of developing TMPRSS2-ERG (fusion)-positive prostate cancer (PCa) compared to fusion-negative PCa in population-based case-control studies; however, no extensive preclinical studies have been conducted to investigate and confirm these protective benefits. Thus, the focus of this study was to determine the potential usefulness of aspirin and another NSAID, naproxen, in PCa prevention, employing preclinical models of both TMPRSS2-ERG (fusion)-driven (with conditional deletion of Pten) and non-TMPRSS2-ERG-driven (Hi-Myc+/- mice) PCa. Male mice (n = 25 mice/group) were fed aspirin- (700 and 1400 ppm) and naproxen- (200 and 400 ppm) supplemented diets from (a) 6 weeks until 32 weeks of Hi-Myc+/- mice age; and (b) 1 week until 20 weeks post-Cre induction in the fusion model. In all NSAID-fed groups, compared to no-drug controls, there was a significant decrease in higher-grade adenocarcinoma incidence in the TMPRSS2-ERG (fusion)-driven PCa model. Notably, there were no moderately differentiated (MD) adenocarcinomas in the dorsolateral prostate of naproxen groups, and its incidence also decreased by ~79-91% in the aspirin cohorts. In contrast, NSAIDs showed little protective effect against prostate tumorigenesis in Hi-Myc+/- mice, suggesting that NSAIDs exert a specific protective effect against TMPRSS2-ERG (fusion)-driven PCa.

20.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 9(10): 5782-5792, 2023 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37769114

RESUMO

The high retear rate after a successful repair of the rotator cuff (RC) is a major clinical challenge. Muscle atrophy and fat accumulation of RC muscles over time adversely affect the rate of retear. Since current surgical techniques do not improve muscle degenerative conditions, new treatments are being developed to reduce muscle atrophy and fat accumulation. In the previous study, we have shown the efficacy of aligned electroconductive nanofibrous fabricated by coating poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) nanoparticles onto aligned poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) electrospun nanofibers (PEDOT:PSS matrix) to reduce muscle atrophy in acute and subacute models of RC tears (RCTs). In this study, we further evaluated the efficacy of the PEDOT:PSS matrix to reduce muscle atrophy and fat accumulation in a rat model of chronic massive full-thickness RCTs (MRCTs). The matrices were transplanted on the myotendinous junction to the belly of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles at 16 weeks after MRCTs. The biomechanics and histological assessments showed the potential of the PEDOT:PSS matrix to suppress the progression of muscle atrophy, fat accumulation, and fibrosis in both supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles at 24 and 32 weeks after MRCTs. We also demonstrated that the PEDOT:PSS matrix implantation significantly improved the tendon morphology and tensile properties compared with current surgical techniques.


Assuntos
Lesões do Manguito Rotador , Ratos , Animais , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/cirurgia , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/patologia , Ombro/patologia , Manguito Rotador/cirurgia , Manguito Rotador/patologia , Atrofia Muscular/patologia , Tendões/patologia
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