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1.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 760873, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795653

RESUMO

Integral and membrane-anchored proteins are pivotal to survival and virulence of the dental pathogen, Streptococcus mutans. The bacterial chaperone/insertase, YidC, contributes to membrane protein translocation. Unlike Escherichia coli, most Gram-positive bacteria contain two YidC paralogs. Herein, we evaluated structural features that functionally delineate S. mutans YidC1 and YidC2. Bacterial YidCs contain five transmembrane domains (TMD), two cytoplasmic loops, and a cytoplasmic tail. Because S. mutans YidC1 (SmYidC1) and YidC2 (SmYidC2) cytoplasmic domains (CD) are less well conserved than are TMD, we engineered ectopic expression of the 14 possible YidC1-YidC2 CD domain swap combinations. Growth and stress tolerance of each was compared to control strains ectopically expressing unmodified yidC1 or yidC2. Acid and osmotic stress sensitivity are associated with yidC2 deletion. Sensitivity to excess zinc was further identified as a ΔyidC1 phenotype. Overall, YidC1 tolerated CD substitutions better than YidC2. Preferences toward particular CD combinations suggested potential intramolecular interactions. In silico analysis predicted salt-bridges between C1 and C2 loops of YidC1, and C1 loop and C-terminal tail of YidC2, respectively. Mutation of contributing residues recapitulated ΔyidC1- and ΔyidC2-associated phenotypes. Taken together, this work revealed the importance of cytoplasmic domains in distinct functional attributes of YidC1 and YidC2, and identified key residues involved in interdomain interactions.

2.
mSphere ; 6(2)2021 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658280

RESUMO

Virulence properties of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans depend on integral membrane proteins. Bacterial cotranslational protein trafficking involves the signal recognition particle (SRP) pathway components Ffh and FtsY, the SecYEG translocon, and YidC chaperone/insertases. Unlike Escherichia coli, S. mutans survives loss of the SRP pathway and has two yidC paralogs. This study characterized YidC1 and YidC2 interactomes to clarify respective functions alone and in concert with the SRP and/or Sec translocon. Western blots of formaldehyde cross-linked or untreated S. mutans lysates were reacted with anti-Ffh, anti-FtsY, anti-YidC1, or anti-YidC2 antibodies followed by mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of gel-shifted bands. Cross-linked lysates of wild-type and ΔyidC2 strains were reacted with anti-YidC2-coupled Dynabeads, and cocaptured proteins were identified by MS. Last, YidC1 and YidC2 C-terminal tail-captured proteins were subjected to two-dimensional (2D) difference gel electrophoresis and MS analysis. Direct interactions of putative YidC1 and YidC2 binding partners were confirmed by bacterial two-hybrid assay. Our results suggest YidC2 works preferentially with the SRP pathway, while YidC1 is preferred for SRP-independent Sec translocon-mediated translocation. YidC1 and YidC2 autonomous pathways were also apparent. Two-hybrid assay identified interactions between holotranslocon components SecYEG/YajC and YidC1. Both YidC1 and YidC2 interacted with Ffh, FtsY, and chaperones DnaK and RopA. Putative membrane-localized substrates HlyX, LemA, and SMU_591c interacted with both YidC1 and YidC2. Identification of several Rgp proteins in the YidC1 interactome suggested its involvement in bacitracin resistance, which was decreased in ΔyidC1 and SRP-deficient mutants. Collectively, YidC1 and YidC2 interactome analyses has further distinguished these paralogs in the Gram-positive bacterium S. mutans IMPORTANCE Streptococcus mutans is a prevalent oral pathogen and major causative agent of tooth decay. Many proteins that enable this bacterium to thrive in its environmental niche and cause disease are embedded in its cytoplasmic membrane. The machinery that transports proteins into bacterial membranes differs between Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms, an important difference being the presence of multiple YidC paralogs in Gram-positive bacteria. Characterization of a protein's interactome can help define its physiological role. Herein, we characterized the interactomes of S. mutans YidC1 and YidC2. Results demonstrated substantial overlap between their interactomes but also revealed several differences in their direct protein binding partners. Membrane transport machinery components were identified in the context of a large network of proteins involved in replication, transcription, translation, and cell division/cell shape. This information contributes to our understanding of protein transport in Gram-positive bacteria in general and informs our understanding of S. mutans pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Streptococcus mutans/genética , Streptococcus mutans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Transporte Proteico , Streptococcus mutans/enzimologia , Streptococcus mutans/patogenicidade
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 765842, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35004346

RESUMO

Curcumin is a potential natural remedy for preventing Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric inflammation and cancer. Here, we analyzed the effect of a phospholipid formulation of curcumin on H. pylori growth, translocation and phosphorylation of the virulence factor CagA and host protein kinase Src in vitro and in an in vivo mouse model of H. pylori infection. Growth of H. pylori was inhibited dose-dependently by curcumin in vitro. H. pylori was unable to metabolically reduce curcumin, whereas two enterobacteria, E. coli and Citrobacter rodentium, which efficiently reduced curcumin to the tetra- and hexahydro metabolites, evaded growth inhibition. Oxidative metabolism of curcumin was required for the growth inhibition of H. pylori and the translocation and phosphorylation of CagA and cSrc, since acetal- and diacetal-curcumin that do not undergo oxidative transformation were ineffective. Curcumin attenuated mRNA expression of the H. pylori virulence genes cagE and cagF in a dose-dependent manner and inhibited translocation and phosphorylation of CagA in gastric epithelial cells. H. pylori strains isolated from dietary curcumin-treated mice showed attenuated ability to induce cSrc phosphorylation and the mRNA expression of the gene encoding for IL-8, suggesting long-lasting effects of curcumin on the virulence of H. pylori. Our work provides mechanistic evidence that encourages testing of curcumin as a dietary approach to inhibit the virulence of CagA.

4.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 570219, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193163

RESUMO

Extracellular membrane vesicles (EMVs) are produced by many Gram-positive organisms, but information regarding vesiculogenesis is incomplete. We used single gene deletions to evaluate the impacts on Streptococcus mutans EMV biogenesis of Sortase A (SrtA), which affects S. mutans EMV composition, and Sfp, a 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase that affects Bacillus subtilis EMV stability. ΔsrtA EMVs were notably larger than Δsfp and wild-type (WT) EMVs. EMV proteins identified from all three strains are known to be involved in cell wall biogenesis and cell architecture, bacterial adhesion, biofilm cell density and matrix development, and microbial competition. Notably, the AtlA autolysin was not processed to its mature active form in the ΔsrtA mutant. Proteomic and lipidomic analyses of all three strains revealed multiple dissimilarities between vesicular and corresponding cytoplasmic membranes (CMs). A higher proportion of EMV proteins are predicted substrates of the general secretion pathway (GSP). Accordingly, the GSP component SecA was identified as a prominent EMV-associated protein. In contrast, CMs contained more multi-pass transmembrane (TM) protein substrates of co-translational transport machineries than EMVs. EMVs from the WT, but not the mutant strains, were enriched in cardiolipin compared to CMs, and all EMVs were over-represented in polyketide flavonoids. EMVs and CMs were rich in long-chain saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids, except for Δsfp EMVs that contained exclusively polyunsaturated fatty acids. Lipoproteins were less prevalent in EMVs of all three strains compared to their CMs. This study provides insight into biophysical characteristics of S. mutans EMVs and indicates discrete partitioning of protein and lipid components between EMVs and corresponding CMs of WT, ΔsrtA, and Δsfp strains.

5.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 9(4): 1792-1794, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32670918

RESUMO

With declaration of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) as a pandemic on 11 March 2020 by World Health Organization, India came to alert for its being at next potential risk. It reached alert Level 2, i.e. local transmission for virus spread in early March 2020 and soon thereafter alert Level 3, i.e. community transmission. With on-going rise in COVID-19 cases in country, Government of India (GoI) has been taking multiple intense measures in coordination with the state governments, such as urban lockdown, active airport screening, quarantining, aggressive calls for 'work from home', public awareness, and active case detection with contact tracing in most places. Feedback from other countries exhibits COVID-19 transmission levels to have shown within country variations. With two-third of Indian population living in rural areas, present editorial hypothesizes that if India enters Level 3, rural hinterland would also be at risk importation (at least Level 1). Hence, we have to call for stringent containment on rural-urban and inter-state fringes. This along with other on-going measures can result in flattening curve and also in staggering 'lockdowns', and thus, helping sustain national economy.

6.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(5): 1163-1169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A variety of risk factors have been reported for the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). But limited review on the role of antenatal perceived stress necessitated the design of the present study to evaluate the association between GDM and perceived stress during pregnancy. METHODS: A prospective case-control study was carried out among 100 GDM cases and 273 matched controls, attending regular antenatal clinic at two private hospitals of Karnataka. Data was collected by personal interviews using a standard questionnaire. Perceived stress was assessed using the Cohen 10-item Perceived Stress Scale. Score of ≥20 was identified as high stress. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 15 was used for analysis. RESULTS: Exposure rates for high maternal perceived stress among cases during pregnancy were noted. The odds of GDM were 13 folds higher among those with high antenatal stress (≥20) compared to those with low (<20) (p < 0.001) perceived stress. No correlation between maternal antenatal stress and blood glucose following OGTT was noted. CONCLUSIONS: The study identified high perceived stress during pregnancy as a potential risk factor for GDM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Gestacional/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5138, 2020 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198417

RESUMO

Streptococcus mutans is an etiologic agent of human dental caries that forms dental plaque biofilms containing functional amyloids. Three amyloidogenic proteins, P1, WapA, and Smu_63c were previously identified. C123 and AgA are naturally occurring amyloid-forming fragments of P1 and WapA, respectively. We determined that four amyloidophilic dyes, ThT, CDy11, BD-oligo, and MK-H4, differentiate C123, AgA, and Smu_63c amyloid from monomers, but non-specific binding to bacterial cells in the absence of amyloid precludes their utility for identifying amyloid in biofilms. Congo red-induced birefringence is a more specific indicator of amyloid formation and differentiates biofilms formed by wild-type S. mutans from a triple ΔP1/WapA/Smu_63c mutant with reduced biofilm forming capabilities. Amyloid accumulation is a late event, appearing in older S. mutans biofilms after 60 hours of growth. Amyloid derived from pure preparations of all three proteins is visualized by electron microscopy as mat-like structures. Typical amyloid fibers become evident following protease digestion to eliminate non-specific aggregates and monomers. Amyloid mats, similar in appearance to those reported in S. mutans biofilm extracellular matrices, are reconstituted by co-incubation of monomers and amyloid fibers. X-ray fiber diffraction of amyloid mats and fibers from all three proteins demonstrate patterns reflective of a cross-ß amyloid structure.


Assuntos
Amiloide/química , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Placa Dentária/química , Streptococcus mutans/metabolismo , Amiloide/biossíntese , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Matriz Extracelular/química , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas/química , Humanos , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína/fisiologia
9.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 22(3): 479-482, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955516

RESUMO

Systemic hypertension and its related complications are the important contributing factors for major adverse cardiovascular events all over the world. Evidence from Asia and even from India reveals that both its incidence and prevalence are increasing even in young population both in urban and rural areas. The HOPE (Hypertension Cardiovascular Outcome Prevention and Evidence) Asia network data clearly say that most of these hypertensive patients are undiagnosed and undertreated. Even among the treated patients, the regular follow-up visits and compliance of antihypertensive drug intake are not effective. The blood pressure variability (BPV) and the exaggerated morning blood pressure surge (MBPS) leading to high cardiovascular mortality and morbidity have been demonstrated in many studies. The role of home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) to detect BPV and MBPS to treat hypertensive patients more effectively has been published by the HOPE Asia Network. This article is to review the evidence and literature from the Indian perspective and the role of HBPM for the effective control of hypertension in general population.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Ásia , Pressão Sanguínea , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Índia/epidemiologia
10.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 9(12): 5837-5845, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681004

RESUMO

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) risks the affected mother-child duos not only with respect to adverse perinatal outcomes but also for chronic diseases later in life. Therefore, in 2014, the Government of India (GoI) mandated universal GDM screening for all pregnant women as a part of essential obstetric care within the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) programme. Later in 2018, the domain experts from GoI envisaged pan India implementation of GDM screening services within its RCH framework by 2023. As Uttarakhand-a hilly, EAG state of north India-would also be part of this nation-wide drive; prior identification of RCH services coverage in the State assumes paramount importance, as it reflects probable executability of GDM screening services within its delivery platform. Therefore, the present review aims to assess the readiness of Uttarakhand maternal health functionary system in view of GDM national guidelines implementation at both state and district levels. In this regard, freely accessible, full-text GoI documents pertaining to GDM implementation guidelines and maternal health program of India and Uttarakhand available in public domain in English language were reviewed. The present review favors the pilot implementation in district Dehradun prior to implementing in all districts of the state. It may, however, require overall improvement in maternal health programmatic services in all parts of the State for much efficient service delivery. Effective implementation of GDM guidelines requires urgent correction in the background performance of RCH program.

12.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 8(8): 2558-2560, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548930

RESUMO

World Health Organization Global Status 2018 Report on alcohol and health states that global total alcohol per capita consumption has drastically risen from 2005 to 2016. Presence of inherited metabolic traits (MTs) such as diabetes, hypertension, and obesity predisposes to early and more severe liver damage, even with smaller quantity and shorter duration of exposure to alcohol. This editorial highlights the need for screening of individuals with either addiction of alcohol or alcoholic liver disease for personal and family history of diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and other MTs for risk stratification and specific interventions. Health education and awareness regarding deleterious effects of alcohol among those who have a personal or family history of MTs should be ensured.

13.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 8(7): 2354-2360, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463256

RESUMO

Background: Viral hepatitis is preventable, yet a global health priority. As hepatitis B (Hep B) remains an occupational risk for healthcare workers (HCWs), the Government of India recently mandated universal adult Hep B vaccination for all HCWs. However, in the absence of institutional policy, its real-time utilization in a hospital was dependent on individual's general awareness. Therefore, this study was designed to assess baseline knowledge, attitude, and practices among undergraduate medical and nursing students, the future HCWs, regarding Hep B at an apex healthcare institute at Uttarakhand. Materials and Methods: A descriptive survey was carried out using self-administered questionnaire among undergraduate medical and nursing students of a medical college between July and September 2018. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Ver 22.0) was used for analysis. Results: The study comprised 180 medical and 183 nursing students. About 55.0% of medical and 33.9% of nursing students were correctly aware about the disease; 98.3% of medical and 86.9% of nursing students were aware about vaccine. About 80.6% of medical and 87.4% of nursing students showed positive attitude, recognizing disease as a public health problem. However, only 82.8% of medical and 70.0% of nursing students underwent vaccination; mere 62.4% and 49.2% of vaccinated completed three-dose vaccination schedule, respectively. Furthermore, around 7% of them checked their titer post vaccination. Conclusion: Despite comparatively low awareness level about the disease, most students had sufficiently high knowledge about vaccine and underwent vaccination. However, only half of them could complete three-dose vaccination schedule. Only a handful of subjects underwent post-vaccination titer assessment, an instrumental approach to safeguard them against accidental Hep B exposure.

14.
Mol Oral Microbiol ; 34(4): 131-152, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034136

RESUMO

A comparative proteomic analysis was utilized to evaluate similarities and differences in membrane samples derived from the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans, including the wild-type strain and four mutants devoid of protein translocation machinery components, specifically ∆ffh, ∆yidC1, ∆yidC2, or ∆ffh/yidC1. The purpose of this work was to determine the extent to which the encoded proteins operate individually or in concert with one another and to identify the potential substrates of the respective pathways. Ffh is the principal protein component of the signal recognition particle (SRP), while yidC1 and yidC2 are dual paralogs encoding members of the YidC/Oxa/Alb family of membrane-localized chaperone insertases. Our results suggest that the co-translational SRP pathway works in concert with either YidC1 or YidC2 specifically, or with no preference for paralog, in the insertion of most membrane-localized substrates. A few instances were identified in which the SRP pathway alone, or one of the YidCs alone, appeared to be most relevant. These data shed light on underlying reasons for differing phenotypic consequences of ffh, yidC1 or yidC2 deletion. Our data further suggest that many membrane proteins present in a ∆yidC2 background may be non-functional, that ∆yidC1 is better able to adapt physiologically to the loss of this paralog, that shared phenotypic properties of ∆ffh and ∆yidC2 mutants can stem from impacts on different proteins, and that independent binding to ribosomal proteins is not a primary functional activity of YidC2. Lastly, genomic mutations accumulate in a ∆yidC2 background coincident with phenotypic reversion, including an apparent W138R suppressor mutation within yidC1.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias , Streptococcus mutans , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/fisiologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/fisiologia , Chaperonas Moleculares , Mutação , Proteômica , Partícula de Reconhecimento de Sinal , Streptococcus mutans/genética , Streptococcus mutans/metabolismo
15.
Indian J Pediatr ; 86(7): 633-638, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895443

RESUMO

Vaccines are globally accepted as instrumental in drastically bringing down vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs) related mortality and morbidity. Despite global relentless efforts, about 19.3 million children still go missing for full immunization and are at risk for VPDs. Government of India has tried to rejuvenate its four decades old Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) by recently launching Mission Indradhanush in 2014, followed by Intensified Mission Indradhanush in 2017 to boost up immunization coverage. UIP have also brought in newer vaccines, changed dose schedules, open vial policy and a robust surveillance system. Even then, country's average immunization coverage is much below par. Thus, there is a pressing need for transforming immunization program from simple vaccine delivery platform to a comprehensive disease control programme. Country should introduce newer vaccines through evidence-based policies and increase access to immunization services through system strengthening.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Imunização/métodos , Vacinação/métodos , Criança , Programas Governamentais/organização & administração , Programas Governamentais/normas , Política de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Imunização/normas , Programas de Imunização/normas , Esquemas de Imunização , Índia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Vacinação/normas , Vacinas/administração & dosagem
16.
Indian J Endocrinol Metab ; 22(5): 661-671, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30294578

RESUMO

Aims: The present study evaluates association between physical activity and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM), for it can be an effective intervention for its management. Though physical activity helps maintain glucose homeostasis, evidences of GDM risk are less extensive. Therefore, this study also identifies its correlation with maternal blood glucose levels. Materials and Methods: A prospective case-control study was carried out among pregnant women attending regular antenatal clinic at two private hospitals. The study comprised of 100 cases and 273 matched controls. Data was collected by personal interviews using a standard questionnaire. Physical activity was assessed using long form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) reported as Metabolic Equivalent-Minutes per week (MET-Minutes/Week). Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for analysis. Results: Results shows high exposure rates for low-to-moderate physical activity among cases, across all domains and sub-activities. The odds of GDM engaged in domestic and gardening activities for <2999 MET-minutes per week are 10 times higher than involved for ≥3000 MET-minutes per week (P < 0.001). The study also shows poor or no correlation between physical activity during pregnancy and maternal blood glucose levels. Conclusion: Despite existence of poor or no relationship with maternal blood glucose levels, prolonged sedentary behavior and decreased physical activities, especially domestic, are potential risk factors for GDM, a major finding of the study.

17.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 7(6): 1169-1172, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30613492

RESUMO

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has emerged as a global public health problem, both globally and in India. Despite government of India (GoI) prior mandate to screen all Indian pregnant women for GDM, its real operationalization at primary health-care level is suboptimal. Adding new operational component, GoI revised its existing recommendations and released new technical operational guidelines on GDM diagnosis and management in February 2018. The revised guideline highlights integration of two vertical programs, ensuring effective GDM service delivery to all antenatal women at every pause point of existing service delivery platform within public health system. However, its real success depends on knowledge and commitment level of health-care providers. Despite maternal and child health holding high public health relevance since long, community-level delivery of services still persists to be at high risk of fragmentation and inefficiency.

18.
Theriogenology ; 105: 90-96, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28941409

RESUMO

In the present study, distribution of steroid hormones (estradiol-17ß (E2), testosterone (T), corticosteroids and progestins) in the testis and seminal vesicles (SV) of the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis were investigated in two seasons (pre-spawning and spawning phases) of the reproductive cycle. The data showed that the levels of the steroid hormones varied significantly in both reproductive phases and exhibited organ-related differences. Sex steroid levels were highest in the pre-spawning phase and lowest in the spawning phase. The concentration of E2 and cortisol was highest in the testis. However, E2 level was higher in the SV compared to the testis in the pre-spawning phase and during spawning phase there was no significant difference in the E2 level of testis and SV. Seminal vesicle and testis recorded higher levels of cortisol in the spawning phase. The concentration of corticosterone was significantly higher in testis during pre-spawning phase and in seminal vesicle during the spawning phase. 21-deoxycortisol was higher in the pre-spawning phase in the SV but not in the testis and deoxycorticosterone was significantly higher in the pre-spawning phase than spawning phase. Progesterone was high in the pre-spawning phase and low in all tissues in the spawning phase. 17-P4 concentration was the highest in both SV and testis during spawning phase. In the testis 17, 20ß-DP concentration was the highest in the pre-spawning phase. In contrast, in the SV, 17, 20ß-DP was lowest during pre-spawning phase. This study shows high levels of corticosteroid profile in the testis and SV. The physiological significance of the steroids other than T is not clear at present. However, knowledge of seasonal profile of key steroid hormones in the male catfish may be helpful in monitoring reproductive capability and important for fish breeding in captivity.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/metabolismo , Peixes-Gato/metabolismo , Estradiol/metabolismo , Glândulas Seminais/fisiologia , Testículo/fisiologia , Testosterona/metabolismo , Animais , Masculino , Progestinas/metabolismo
19.
3 Biotech ; 7(6): 357, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29038774

RESUMO

Curcuma longa L., commonly known as turmeric, is a rhizomatous herb of the family Zingiberaceae. It is mostly used as a spice, a coloring agent and broadly used in traditional medicine such as Ayurveda, Unani, etc., Turmeric rhizomes interact with a large numbers of rhizosphere-associated microbial species, and some enter the plant tissue and act as endophytes. Both rhizospheric and endophytic species are directly or indirectly involved in growth promotion and disease management in plants and also play an important role in the modulation of morphological growth, secondary metabolite production, curcumin content, antioxidant properties, etc. The present review focuses on the rhizobacterial and endophytic bacterial and fungal populations associated with the turmeric.

20.
mSphere ; 2(3)2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28656173

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of catheter-related bloodstream infections. Biofilms form on these implants and are held together by a matrix composed of proteins, polysaccharides, and extracellular DNA (eDNA). Heparin is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan that is routinely used in central venous catheters to prevent thrombosis, but it has been shown to stimulate S. aureus biofilm formation through an unknown mechanism. Data presented here reveal that heparin enhances biofilm capacity in many S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococcal strains, and it is incorporated into the USA300 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) biofilm matrix. The S. aureus USA300 biofilms containing heparin are sensitive to proteinase K treatment, which suggests that proteins have an important structural role during heparin incorporation. Multiple heparin-binding proteins were identified by proteomics of the secreted and cell wall fractions. Proteins known to contribute to biofilm were identified, and some proteins were reported to have the ability to bind eDNA, such as the major autolysin (Atl) and the immunodominant surface protein B (IsaB). Mutants defective in IsaB showed a moderate decrease in biofilm capacity in the presence of heparin. Our findings suggested that heparin is substituting for eDNA during S. aureus biofilm development. To test this model, eDNA content was increased in biofilms through inactivation of nuclease activity, and the heparin enhancement effect was attenuated. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that S. aureus can incorporate heparin into the matrix and enhance biofilm capacity by taking advantage of existing eDNA-binding proteins. IMPORTANCEStaphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are the leading causes of catheter implant infections. Identifying the factors that stimulate catheter infection and the mechanism involved is important for preventing such infections. Heparin, the main component of catheter lock solutions, has been shown previously to stimulate S. aureus biofilm formation through an unknown pathway. This work identifies multiple heparin-binding proteins in S. aureus, and it reveals a potential mechanism through which heparin enhances biofilm capacity. Understanding the details of the heparin enhancement effect could guide future use of appropriate lock solutions for catheter implants.

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