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Nat Commun ; 10(1): 987, 2019 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804336


The original version of this Article contained an error in the spelling of the author Matthew Holwill, which was incorrectly given as Mathew Holwill. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

Nat Commun ; 10(1): 230, 2019 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30651554


Despite a rich choice of two-dimensional materials, which exists these days, heterostructures, both vertical (van der Waals) and in-plane, offer an unprecedented control over the properties and functionalities of the resulted structures. Thus, planar heterostructures allow p-n junctions between different two-dimensional semiconductors and graphene nanoribbons with well-defined edges; and vertical heterostructures resulted in the observation of superconductivity in purely carbon-based systems and realisation of vertical tunnelling transistors. Here we demonstrate simultaneous use of in-plane and van der Waals heterostructures to build vertical single electron tunnelling transistors. We grow graphene quantum dots inside the matrix of hexagonal boron nitride, which allows a dramatic reduction of the number of localised states along the perimeter of the quantum dots. The use of hexagonal boron nitride tunnel barriers as contacts to the graphene quantum dots make our transistors reproducible and not dependent on the localised states, opening even larger flexibility when designing future devices.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 6(2): 786-94, 2014 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24341793


Work function (WF) tuning of the contact electrodes is a key requirement in several device technologies, including organic photovoltaics (OPVs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) transistors. Here, we demonstrate that the WF of the gate electrode in an MOS structure can be modulated from 4.35 eV (n-type metal) to 5.28 eV (p-type metal) by sandwiching different thicknesses of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) layers between top contact metals and gate dielectric SiO2. The WF of the gate electrode shows strong dependence on the rGO thickness and is seen to be nearly independent of the contact metals used. The observed WF modulation is attributed to the different amounts of oxygen concentrations in different thicknesses of rGO layers. Importantly, this oxygen concentration can also be varied by the reduction extent of the graphene oxide as experimentally demonstrated. The results are verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. The obtained WF values are thermally stable up to 800 °C. At further high temperatures, diffusion of metal through the rGO sheets is the main cause for WF instability, as confirmed by cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis. These findings are not limited to MOS devices, and the WF modulation technique has the potential for applications in other technologies such as OLEDs and OPVs involving graphene as conducting electrodes.

Nanotechnology ; 24(18): 185201, 2013 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23575106


We nominate the nickel filled multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) as potential candidates to cope with challenges in persistent scaling for future interconnect technology. The insights into electrical transport through nickel filled carbon nanotubes provide an effective solution for major performance and reliability issues such as the increasing resistivity of metals at reduced scales, electromigration at high current densities and the problem of diffusion and corrosion faced by the existing copper interconnect technology. Furthermore, the nickel filled MWNTs outperform their hollow counterparts, the unfilled MWNTs, carrying at least one order higher current density, with increased time to failure. The results suggest that metal filled carbon nanotubes can provide a twofold benefit: (1) the metal filling provides an increased density of states for the system leading to a higher current density compared to hollow MWNTs, (2) metal out-diffusion and corrosion is prevented by the surrounding graphitic walls.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 5(8): 3424-30, 2013 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23489064


We demonstrate here the effect of electron beam induced deposited platinum on the electrical transport through multilayer graphene sheets. Platinum metal is deposited at different positions on the graphene multilayers, i.e., including as well as excluding the bottom contact sites and the change in electrical conductance of the same multilayer graphene sheets before and after platinum deposition is segregated. An improvement in electrical conductance is observed even if the metal is deposited at the part of the graphene sheets that does not touch the bottom gold electrodes, and hence this experimental approach directly demonstrates that the contact improvement is not the sole reason for the improved electrical conduction. The improvement in electrical performance of the graphene sheets is explained in terms of the doping of graphene sheets caused by the charge transfer between the deposited metal and the graphene and thereby modified density of states for electrical conduction. Metal deposition also leads to the increased interlayer interaction of the graphene sheets as revealed by the transmission electron microscopy analysis. Further, two types of breakdown behaviors viz. sharp and stepped breakdowns observed for these graphene devices are explained in terms of the effective graphene-metal contact area. These studies reveal the implications of top metal contact fabrication on graphene for electronic devices.

ACS Nano ; 5(3): 1724-30, 2011 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21344873


We report the healing of electrically broken multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) using very low energy electrons (3-10 keV) in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Current-induced breakdown caused by Joule heating has been achieved by applying suitably high voltages. The broken tubes were examined and exposed to electrons of 3-10 keV in situ in SEM with careful maneuvering of the electron beam at the broken site, which results in the mechanical joining of the tube. Electrical recovery of the same tube has been confirmed by performing the current-voltage measurements after joining. This easy approach is directly applicable for the repairing of carbon nanotubes incorporated in ready devices, such as in on-chip horizontal interconnects or on-tip probing applications, such as in scanning tunneling microscopy.

Cristalização/métodos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/métodos , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Elétrons , Teste de Materiais , Conformação Molecular/efeitos da radiação , Nanoestruturas/efeitos da radiação , Tamanho da Partícula , Doses de Radiação