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1.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arteriovenous fistulas placed surgically for dialysis vascular access have a high primary failure rate resulting from excessive inward remodeling, medial fibrosis, and thrombosis. No clinically established pharmacologic or perisurgical therapies currently address this unmet need. Statins' induction of multiple anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic effects suggests that these drugs might reduce arteriovenous fistula failure. Yet, the in vivo physiologic and molecular effects of statins on fistula patency and maturation remain poorly understood. METHODS: We randomized 108 C57Bl/6J mice to receive daily atorvastatin 1.14 mg/kg or PBS (control) starting 7 days before end-to-side carotid artery-jugular vein fistula creation and for up to 42 days after fistula creation. We then assessed longitudinally the effects of statin therapy on primary murine fistula patency and maturation. We concomitantly analyzed the in vivo arteriovenous fistula thrombogenic and inflammatory macrophage response to statin therapy, using the fibrin-targeted, near-infrared fluorescence molecular imaging agent FTP11-CyAm7 and dextranated, macrophage-avid nanoparticles CLIO-VT680. RESULTS: In vivo molecular-structural imaging demonstrated that atorvastatin significantly reduced fibrin deposition at day 7 and macrophage accumulation at days 7 and 14, findings supported by histopathologic and gene-expression analyses. Structurally, atorvastatin promoted favorable venous limb outward remodeling, preserved arteriovenous fistula blood flow, and prolonged primary arteriovenous fistula patency through day 42 (P<0.05 versus control for all measures). CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide new in vivo evidence that statins improve experimental arteriovenous fistula patency and maturation, indicating that additional clinical evaluation of statin therapy in patients on dialysis undergoing arteriovenous fistula placement is warranted.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200666

RESUMO

Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is a vexing problem and more than 70 million patients undergo studies utilizing iodinated contrast. The molecular mechanisms responsible for CI-AKI are poorly understood. The goal of the present paper was to determine the role of tissue growth factor-beta1 (TGF-ß1)/ mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (SMAD3) signaling and associated collagen expression in a murine model of intraarterial CI-AKI. Murine model of CI-AKI after intra-arterial contrast agent administration was created by first performing a partial nephrectomy to induce chronic kidney disease (CKD). Twenty-eight days later, 100µLof contrast agent (Iodixanol 320mgl/ml) or saline was administered via the carotid artery. Two days later, after contrast administration when compared to saline, the average serum creatinine was significantly elevated (P<0.05). In the cortex, there was a significant increase in the expression of pSMAD3 and gene expression of TGF-ß1, TGFßR1 and TGFßR2 at day 2 in contrast group compared to saline group. The average gene expression of connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, -9, collagen (Col) -Ia, and -IVa were significantly increased at 2 days after contrast administration (all P<0.05). Moreover, there was a decrease in Ki-67 staining in the cortex with increase in TUNEL in the cortex and medulla after contrast administration (P<0.05). In the murine intra-arterial CI-AKI model, there was increased hypoxia and TGF-ß1/pSMAD3 pathway activation and collagen expression resulting in renal fibrosis. Together these results suggest TGF-ß1/pSMAD3 pathway could be a potential target in alleviating tissue fibrosis in CI-AKI.

3.
Kidney Int ; 97(4): 793-804, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093917

RESUMO

Atherosclerotic renovascular disease (ARVD) reduces tissue perfusion and eventually leads to loss of kidney function with limited therapeutic options. Here we describe results of Phase 1a escalating dose clinical trial of autologous mesenchymal stem cell infusion for ARVD. Thirty-nine patients with ARVD were studied on two occasions separated by three months. Autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells were infused through the renal artery in 21 patients at three different dose levels (1, 2.5 and 5.0 × 105 cells/kg) in seven patients each. We measured renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (iothalamate and estimated GFR), renal vein cytokine levels, blood pressure, and tissue oxygenation before and three months after stem cell delivery. These indices were compared to those of 18 patients with ARVD matched for age, kidney function and blood pressure receiving medical therapy alone that underwent an identical study protocol. Cultured mesenchymal stem cells were also studied in vitro. For the entire stem cell treated-cohort, mean renal blood flow in the treated stenotic kidney significantly increased after stem cell infusion from (164 to 190 ml/min). Hypoxia, renal vein inflammatory cytokines, and angiogenic biomarkers significantly decreased following stem cell infusion. Mean systolic blood pressure significantly fell (144 to 136 mmHg) and the mean two-kidney GFR (Iothalamate) modestly but significantly increased from (53 to 56 ml/min). Changes in GFR and blood pressure were largest in the high dose stem cell treated individuals. No such changes were observed in the cohort receiving medical treatment alone. Thus, our data demonstrate the potential for autologous mesenchymal stem cell to increase blood flow, GFR and attenuate inflammatory injury in post-stenotic kidneys. The observation that some effects are dose-dependent and related to in-vitro properties of mesenchymal stem cell may direct efforts to maximize potential therapeutic efficacy.

4.
Neuromodulation ; 23(1): 3-9, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965667

RESUMO

The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ensures that patients in the United States have access to safe and effective medical devices. The division of neurological and physical medicine devices reviews medical technologies that interface with the nervous system, including many neuromodulation devices. This article focuses on neuromodulation devices and addresses how to navigate the FDA's regulatory landscape to successfully bring devices to patients.

5.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 318(3): F565-F575, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813252

RESUMO

Failure to mature and venous neointimal hyperplasia formation are the two major causes of hemodialysis arteriovenous fistula (AVF) vascular access failure. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is the firstline treatment for both of these conditions, but, clinically, women have decreased patency rates compared with men. The hypothesis to be tested in the present study was that female mice after PTA of venous areas of higher intimal thickening have increased gene expression of transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1) and TGF-ß receptor 1 (TGFß-R1) accompanied with histological changes of fibrosis compared with male mice. Seventeen male and eighteen female C57BL/6J mice were used in this study. Chronic kidney disease was induced by partial nephrectomy, and, 28 days later, an AVF was created to connect the left carotid artery to the right jugular vein. Two weeks later, the higher intimal thickening area was treated with PTA, and mice were euthanized 3 days later for gene expression analysis or 14 days later for histopathological analysis. Doppler ultrasound was performed weekly after AVF creation. At day 3, female AVF had significantly higher average gene expression of TGF-ß1 and TGFß-R1 compared with male AVF. At day 14, female outflow veins had a smaller venous diameter, lumen vessel area, decreased wall shear stress, lower average peak systolic velocity, and an increased neointima area-to-media area ratio. Moreover, female outflow veins showed a significant increase in α-smooth muscle actin and fibroblast-specific protein-1. There was a decrease in M1/M2 with an increase in CD68.

7.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530493

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the impact of renal function trajectory, defined as the change in renal function over time before and after renal artery stent placement, on long-term risk for renal replacement therapy (RRT) and mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) 6-12 months before renal artery stent placement, at the time of intervention, and 6-12 months after intervention were determined in 398 patients. The effect of eGFR change before and after renal artery stent placement was calculated. Cox proportional-hazards ratio was used to determine the risks for RRT and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: The risk for RRT was significantly influenced by eGFR change from the time of intervention to follow-up at 6-12 month after treatment (P = .02). In addition, among patients with a postintervention eGFR ≤ 40 mL/min/1.73 m2, for every 1 unit of eGFR increase, there was a significant decrease in RRT and all-cause mortality (P < .001 and P < .001, respectively). Secondary parameters that increased RRT risk included diabetes at the time of intervention (P = .03), increased baseline proteinuria (P < .001), and stage 4 or 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD; P = .01 and P = .003, respectively). Multivariate analysis demonstrated higher all-cause mortality rates among patients with diabetes at the time of intervention (P = .009). CONCLUSIONS: Postintervention eGFR trajectory improvement approaching 40 mL/min/1.73 m2 was associated with decreased RRT and mortality risk. These findings suggest that patients with advanced CKD and renal artery stenosis may benefit from revascularization regardless of their preinterventional renal function measurement.

8.
Math Biosci Eng ; 16(5): 5490-5503, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499722

RESUMO

Water and food are two of the most important commodities in the world, which makes agriculture crucial to mankind as it utilizes water (irrigation) to provide us with food. Climate change and a rapid increase in population have put a lot of pressure on agriculture which has a snowball effect on the earth's water resource, which has been proven to be crucial for sustainable development. The need to do away with fossil fuel in powering irrigation systems cannot be over emphasized due to climate change. Smart Irrigation systems powered by renewable energy sources (RES) have been proven to substantially improve crop yield and the profitability of agriculture. Here we show how the control and monitoring of a solar powered smart irrigation system can be achieved using sensors and environmental data from an Internet of Everything (IoE). The collected data is used to predict environment conditions using the Radial Basis Function Network (RBFN). The predicted values of water level, weather forecast, humidity, temperature and irrigation data are used to control the irrigation system. A web platform was developed for monitoring and controlling the system remotely.

9.
Circulation ; 140(12): e657-e672, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401843

RESUMO

There are >12 million patients with peripheral artery disease in the United States. The most severe form of peripheral artery disease is critical limb ischemia (CLI). The diagnosis and management of CLI is often challenging. Ethnic differences in comorbidities and presentation of CLI exist. Compared with white patients, black and Hispanic patients have higher prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus and chronic renal disease and are more likely to present with gangrene, whereas white patients are more likely to present with ulcers and rest pain. A thorough evaluation of limb perfusion is important in the diagnosis of CLI because it can not only enable timely diagnosis but also reduce unnecessary invasive procedures in patients with adequate blood flow or among those with other causes for ulcers, including venous, neuropathic, or pressure changes. This scientific statement discusses the current tests and technologies for noninvasive assessment of limb perfusion, including the ankle-brachial index, toe-brachial index, and other perfusion technologies. In addition, limitations of the current technologies along with opportunities for improvement, research, and reducing disparities in health care for patients with CLI are discussed.

10.
Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol ; 42(9): 1293-1301, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267151

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine primary rates in small-diameter renal arteries, including complex bifurcation lesions, treated with drug-eluting stents (DES) in patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective single-institution study. A total of 37 patients with 39 stented renal arteries were included. Patient and procedural data were obtained from the electronic medical record. Survival free from restenosis was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method with patients stratified into two groups based on renal artery diameters (≤ 3.5 mm or > 3.5 mm). Univariate Cox proportional models were used to estimate hazard ratios associated with clinical and angiographic variables. RESULTS: Average renal artery diameter at time of treatment was 3.4 mm ± 0.4 mm. The median survival free from restenosis was 992 days, with 11 out of 37 (29.7%) developing an in-stent restenosis. Renal arteries < 3.5 mm in diameter had similar patency rates as renal arteries > 3.5 mm (P = 0.33). The 1-, 2-, and 5-year patency rates were 71%, 63%, and 38%, respectively. History of stroke was the only comorbidity to portend a significantly greater rate of restenosis (hazard ratio 3.77; 95%CI, 1.05-13.6; P = 0.04). Medications did not statistically alter the risk of restenosis. CONCLUSION: Revascularization of renal arteries with DES achieved similar primary patency rates irrespective of renal artery diameter. Stent configuration was not associated with time to renal replacement therapy or all-cause mortality. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3, Cohort Study.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Aterosclerose/terapia , Stents Farmacológicos , Obstrução da Artéria Renal/epidemiologia , Obstrução da Artéria Renal/terapia , Artéria Renal/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aterosclerose/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Constrição Patológica , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Recidiva , Obstrução da Artéria Renal/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Mol Ther ; 27(9): 1681-1693, 2019 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326400

RESUMO

The molecular mechanism of hemodialysis access arteriovenous fistula (AVF) failure due to venous neointimal hyperplasia (VNH) is not known. The role of microRNA-21 (miR-21) in VNH associated with AVF failure was investigated by performing in vivo and in vitro experiments. In situ hybridization results revealed that miR-21 expression increased and was associated with fibroblasts in failed AVFs from patients. In a murine AVF model, qRT-PCR gene expression results showed a significant increase in miR-21 and a decrease in miR-21 target genes in graft veins (GVs) compared to contralateral veins in mouse AVF. miR-21 knockdown in GVs was performed using a lentivirus-mediated small hairpin RNA (shRNA), and this improved AVF patency with a decrease in neointima compared to control GVs. Moreover, loss of miR-21 in GVs significantly decreased the Tgfß1, Col-Ia, and Col-Iva genes. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated a significant decrease in myofibroblasts and proliferation with an increase in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining in miR-21-knockdown vessels, along with a decrease in hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) and phospho-SMAD2 (pSMAD-2) and phospho-SMAD3 (pSMAD-3) and an increase in phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) staining. Hypoxic fibroblast knockdown for miR-21 showed a significant decrease in Tgfß-1 expression and pSMAD-2 and -3 levels and a decrease in myofibroblasts. These results indicate that miR-21 upregulation causes VNH formation by fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation.

12.
Radiology ; 292(3): 762-770, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361208

RESUMO

Background Embolization is the standard of care for treatment of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs). Persistence of PAVMs after embolization occurs for undefined reasons but may include inflammation related to smoking in dysregulated angiogenesis. Purpose To determine whether patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) who smoke tobacco are more prone to PAVM persistence after embolization. Materials and Methods Patients with HHT treated for PAVMs between January 2000 and August 2017 were retrospectively identified. Only PAVMs with no previous treatment and patients with both clinical and imaging follow-up were included. Age, sex, PAVM characteristics (size, complexity, and location), embolization material used, microcatheter type, smoking history, active tobacco use, and other risk factors for arterial disease were analyzed by using a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model to determine risk factors for persistence. Results Five-year persistence-free survival rates in nonsmokers, smokers of 1-20 pack-years, and smokers of more than 20 pack-years were 12.2%, 21.9%, and 37.4% respectively. Smokers with more than 20 pack-years relative to nonsmokers had greater risk of persistence after adjusting for arterial feeder size (hazard ratio, 3.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5, 10.0; P = .007). Patients who reported active tobacco use at the time of PAVM embolization had a 5-year cumulative incidence of persistence of 26.3% compared with 13.5% in inactive smokers. After adjusting for arterial feeder size, the risk of persistence was greater in tobacco users versus inactive smokers at the time of treatment (hazard ratio, 2.4; 95% CI: 1.2, 4.7; P = .01). Conclusion Smoking is associated with pulmonary arteriovenous malformation persistence after embolization in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Trerotola and Pyeritz in this issue.

13.
Vasc Med ; 24(5): 442-451, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354089

RESUMO

Few studies have documented relationships between endovascular therapy, duplex ultrasonography (DUS), post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS), and quality of life (QOL). The Acute Venous Thrombosis: Thrombus Removal with Adjunctive Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis (ATTRACT) trial randomized 692 patients with acute proximal deep vein thrombosis (DVT) to receive anticoagulation or anticoagulation plus pharmacomechanical catheter-directed thrombolysis (PCDT). Compression DUS was obtained at baseline, 1 month and 12 months. Reflux DUS was obtained at 12 months in a subset of 126 patients. Clinical outcomes were collected over 24 months. At 1 month, patients who received PCDT had less residual thrombus compared to Control patients, evidenced by non-compressible common femoral vein (CFV) (21% vs 35%, p < 0.0001), femoral vein (51% vs 70%, p < 0.0001), and popliteal vein (61% vs 74%, p < 0.0001). At 12 months, in the ultrasound substudy, valvular reflux prevalence was similar between groups (85% vs 91%, p = 0.35). CFV non-compressibility at 1 month was associated with higher rates of any PTS (61% vs 46%, p < 0.001), a higher incidence of moderate-or-severe PTS (30% vs 19%, p = 0.003), and worse QOL (difference 8.2 VEINES-QOL (VEnous INsufficiency Epidemiological and Economic Study on Quality of Life) points; p = 0.004) at 24 months. Valvular reflux at 12 months was associated with moderate-or-severe PTS at 24 months (30% vs 0%, p = 0.01). In summary, PCDT results in less residual thrombus but does not reduce venous valvular reflux. CFV non-compressibility at 1 month is associated with more PTS, more severe PTS, and worse QOL at 24 months. Valvular reflux may predispose to moderate-or-severe PTS. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00790335.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Periférico , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Terapia Trombolítica , Ultrassonografia Doppler Dupla , Trombose Venosa/terapia , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Cateterismo Periférico/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte , Síndrome Pós-Trombótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome Pós-Trombótica/etiologia , Síndrome Pós-Trombótica/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Venosa/fisiopatologia
14.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 58(1S): S1-S109.e33, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182334

RESUMO

GUIDELINE SUMMARY: Chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI) is associated with mortality, amputation, and impaired quality of life. These Global Vascular Guidelines (GVG) are focused on definition, evaluation, and management of CLTI with the goals of improving evidence-based care and highlighting critical research needs. The term CLTI is preferred over critical limb ischemia, as the latter implies threshold values of impaired perfusion rather than a continuum. CLTI is a clinical syndrome defined by the presence of peripheral artery disease (PAD) in combination with rest pain, gangrene, or a lower limb ulceration >2 weeks duration. Venous, traumatic, embolic, and nonatherosclerotic etiologies are excluded. All patients with suspected CLTI should be referred urgently to a vascular specialist. Accurately staging the severity of limb threat is fundamental, and the Society for Vascular Surgery Threatened Limb Classification system, based on grading of Wounds, Ischemia, and foot Infection (WIfI) is endorsed. Objective hemodynamic testing, including toe pressures as the preferred measure, is required to assess CLTI. Evidence-based revascularization (EBR) hinges on three independent axes: Patient risk, Limb severity, and ANatomic complexity (PLAN). Average-risk and high-risk patients are defined by estimated procedural and 2-year all-cause mortality. The GVG proposes a new Global Anatomic Staging System (GLASS), which involves defining a preferred target artery path (TAP) and then estimating limb-based patency (LBP), resulting in three stages of complexity for intervention. The optimal revascularization strategy is also influenced by the availability of autogenous vein for open bypass surgery. Recommendations for EBR are based on best available data, pending level 1 evidence from ongoing trials. Vein bypass may be preferred for average-risk patients with advanced limb threat and high complexity disease, while those with less complex anatomy, intermediate severity limb threat, or high patient risk may be favored for endovascular intervention. All patients with CLTI should be afforded best medical therapy including the use of antithrombotic, lipid-lowering, antihypertensive, and glycemic control agents, as well as counseling on smoking cessation, diet, exercise, and preventive foot care. Following EBR, long-term limb surveillance is advised. The effectiveness of nonrevascularization therapies (eg, spinal stimulation, pneumatic compression, prostanoids, and hyperbaric oxygen) has not been established. Regenerative medicine approaches (eg, cell, gene therapies) for CLTI should be restricted to rigorously conducted randomizsed clinical trials. The GVG promotes standardization of study designs and end points for clinical trials in CLTI. The importance of multidisciplinary teams and centers of excellence for amputation prevention is stressed as a key health system initiative.

15.
J Vasc Surg ; 69(6S): 3S-125S.e40, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159978

RESUMO

Chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI) is associated with mortality, amputation, and impaired quality of life. These Global Vascular Guidelines (GVG) are focused on definition, evaluation, and management of CLTI with the goals of improving evidence-based care and highlighting critical research needs. The term CLTI is preferred over critical limb ischemia, as the latter implies threshold values of impaired perfusion rather than a continuum. CLTI is a clinical syndrome defined by the presence of peripheral artery disease (PAD) in combination with rest pain, gangrene, or a lower limb ulceration >2 weeks duration. Venous, traumatic, embolic, and nonatherosclerotic etiologies are excluded. All patients with suspected CLTI should be referred urgently to a vascular specialist. Accurately staging the severity of limb threat is fundamental, and the Society for Vascular Surgery Threatened Limb Classification system, based on grading of Wounds, Ischemia, and foot Infection (WIfI) is endorsed. Objective hemodynamic testing, including toe pressures as the preferred measure, is required to assess CLTI. Evidence-based revascularization (EBR) hinges on three independent axes: Patient risk, Limb severity, and ANatomic complexity (PLAN). Average-risk and high-risk patients are defined by estimated procedural and 2-year all-cause mortality. The GVG proposes a new Global Anatomic Staging System (GLASS), which involves defining a preferred target artery path (TAP) and then estimating limb-based patency (LBP), resulting in three stages of complexity for intervention. The optimal revascularization strategy is also influenced by the availability of autogenous vein for open bypass surgery. Recommendations for EBR are based on best available data, pending level 1 evidence from ongoing trials. Vein bypass may be preferred for average-risk patients with advanced limb threat and high complexity disease, while those with less complex anatomy, intermediate severity limb threat, or high patient risk may be favored for endovascular intervention. All patients with CLTI should be afforded best medical therapy including the use of antithrombotic, lipid-lowering, antihypertensive, and glycemic control agents, as well as counseling on smoking cessation, diet, exercise, and preventive foot care. Following EBR, long-term limb surveillance is advised. The effectiveness of nonrevascularization therapies (eg, spinal stimulation, pneumatic compression, prostanoids, and hyperbaric oxygen) has not been established. Regenerative medicine approaches (eg, cell, gene therapies) for CLTI should be restricted to rigorously conducted randomizsed clinical trials. The GVG promotes standardization of study designs and end points for clinical trials in CLTI. The importance of multidisciplinary teams and centers of excellence for amputation prevention is stressed as a key health system initiative.


Assuntos
Cardiologia/normas , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Isquemia/terapia , Doença Arterial Periférica/terapia , Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca/normas , Doença Crônica , Consenso , Testes de Função Cardíaca/normas , Humanos , Isquemia/diagnóstico , Isquemia/mortalidade , Isquemia/fisiopatologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/mortalidade , Doença Arterial Periférica/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Terminologia como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 44(7): 2627-2631, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949784

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of left gastric artery embolization (LGAE) on computed tomography (CT) body composition change. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen overweight or obese patients who had abdominal CT scans before and after LGAE for gastric bleeding were retrospectively reviewed. Body composition analysis was performed with semiautomated imaging processing algorithms (MATLAB 13.0, Math Works, MA). Adipose tissue and lean skeletal muscle were measured using threshold attenuation values. Total body fat index (BFI), subcutaneous fat index (SFI), visceral fat index (VFI), intramuscular fat index (IMFI), and skeletal muscle index (SMI) were determined ([tissue area (cm)]2/[height (m)]2). Excess body weight (EBW) was determined based on the Lorentz formula for ideal body weight. RESULTS: Mean follow-up was 1.5 ± 0.8 months. Following LGAE, patients experienced significantly decreased body weight (p = 0.003), BMI (p = 0.005), EBW (p = 0.003), BFI (p = 0.03), SFI (p = 0.03), and SMI (p < 0.001). Changes in VFI and IMFI did not significantly change (p = 0.13 and p = 0.83, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Patients who underwent LGAE had significant unintended weight loss as a result of decreased body fat and skeletal muscle. Body composition analysis can readily assess the extent of fat loss and identify muscle wasting.

17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(7)2019 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935104

RESUMO

Depth-based reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) shape of objects is one of core problems in computer vision with a lot of commercial applications. However, the 3D scanning for point cloud-based video streaming is expensive and is generally unattainable to an average user due to required setup of multiple depth sensors. We propose a novel hybrid modular artificial neural network (ANN) architecture, which can reconstruct smooth polygonal meshes from a single depth frame, using a priori knowledge. The architecture of neural network consists of separate nodes for recognition of object type and reconstruction thus allowing for easy retraining and extension for new object types. We performed recognition of nine real-world objects using the neural network trained on the ShapeNetCore model dataset. The results evaluated quantitatively using the Intersection-over-Union (IoU), Completeness, Correctness and Quality metrics, and qualitative evaluation by visual inspection demonstrate the robustness of the proposed architecture with respect to different viewing angles and illumination conditions.

18.
Int J Hypertens ; 2019: 3872065, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838132

RESUMO

Background: Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA) improves blood pressure (BP) and renal function only in selected patients with atherosclerotic renovascular disease (ARVD). Hyperuricemia is associated with elevated risk for hypertension and chronic renal disease, but its role in renovascular hypertension is unclear. We hypothesized that hyperuricemia negatively impacts renal and BP outcomes among patients with ARVD undergoing PTRA. Methods: This retrospective, observational cohort study included 94 patients with ARVD and preserved systolic cardiac function, who underwent PTRA at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Renal, BP, and mortality outcomes were compared among patients according to their serum uric acid (SUA) levels. Multivariate analysis was used to determine significant predictors of renal, BP, and mortality outcomes after PTRA. Results: Compared to patients with normal basal SUA levels (≤5.7 mg/dl), patients with very high SUA (≥8.7 mg/dl) had lower baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), more extensive use of antihypertensive and diuretic drugs, increased baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP), and elevated left ventricular mass index. After PTRA, multiple logistic regression analysis showed that, compared to normal SUA, very high SUA was associated with decreased odds ratio (OR) of change in eGFR (adjusted OR=0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86-0.95), but not of change in SBP. In multivariate linear analysis SUA independently predicted delta urine protein/creatinine ratio (ß: 26.0; 95% confidence interval, 13.9 to 38.1). Conclusion: Severe hyperuricemia in patients with AVRD may have a negative impact on outcomes of renal revascularization.

19.
Hypertension ; 73(5): e35-e66, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827125

RESUMO

The accurate measurement of blood pressure (BP) is essential for the diagnosis and management of hypertension. This article provides an updated American Heart Association scientific statement on BP measurement in humans. In the office setting, many oscillometric devices have been validated that allow accurate BP measurement while reducing human errors associated with the auscultatory approach. Fully automated oscillometric devices capable of taking multiple readings even without an observer being present may provide a more accurate measurement of BP than auscultation. Studies have shown substantial differences in BP when measured outside versus in the office setting. Ambulatory BP monitoring is considered the reference standard for out-of-office BP assessment, with home BP monitoring being an alternative when ambulatory BP monitoring is not available or tolerated. Compared with their counterparts with sustained normotension (ie, nonhypertensive BP levels in and outside the office setting), it is unclear whether adults with white-coat hypertension (ie, hypertensive BP levels in the office but not outside the office) have increased cardiovascular disease risk, whereas those with masked hypertension (ie, hypertensive BP levels outside the office but not in the office) are at substantially increased risk. In addition, high nighttime BP on ambulatory BP monitoring is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Both oscillometric and auscultatory methods are considered acceptable for measuring BP in children and adolescents. Regardless of the method used to measure BP, initial and ongoing training of technicians and healthcare providers and the use of validated and calibrated devices are critical for obtaining accurate BP measurements.


Assuntos
American Heart Association , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Consenso , Gerenciamento Clínico , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Estados Unidos
20.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 30(9): 1512-1521.e3, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902494

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop a clinically relevant model of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of venous stenosis in mice with arteriovenous fistula (AVF); to test the hypothesis that there is increased wall shear stress (WSS) after PTA; and to histologically characterize the vessels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen C57BL/6J male mice, 6-8 weeks old, underwent partial nephrectomy to create chronic kidney disease. Twenty-eight days later, an AVF was created from the right external jugular vein to the left carotid artery. Fourteen days later, an angioplasty or sham procedure was performed, and the mice were sacrificed 14 days later for histologic evaluation to identify the cells contributing to the vascular remodeling (α-SMA, FSP-1, CD31, and CD68), proliferation (Ki-67), cell death (TUNEL), and hypoxia staining (HIF-1α). Histomorphometric analysis was performed to assess lumen area, neointima+media area, and cellular density. Ultrasound was performed weekly after creation of the AVF. RESULTS: Venous stenosis occurred 14 days after the creation of an AVF. PTA-treated vessels had significantly higher WSS; average peak systolic velocity, with increased lumen vessel area; and decreased neointima + media area compared to sham controls. There was a significant decrease in the staining of smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, macrophages, HIF-1α, proliferation, and apoptosis and an increase in CD31-(+) cells. CONCLUSIONS: A clinically relevant model of PTA of venous stenosis in mice was created. PTA-treated vessels had increased lumen vessel area and WSS. The alterations in tissue markers of vascular remodeling, tissue hypoxia, proliferation, and cell death may be implications for future design of drug and device development.

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