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2.
BMJ ; 372: n530, 2021 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762255

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of spontaneous abortion with the risk of all cause and cause specific premature mortality (death before the age of 70). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: The Nurses' Health Study II (1993-2017), United States. PARTICIPANTS: 101 681 ever gravid female nurses participating in the Nurses' Health Study II. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Lifetime occurrence of spontaneous abortion in pregnancies lasting less than 6 months, determined by biennial questionnaires. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for all cause and cause specific premature death according to the occurrence of spontaneous abortion, estimated with time dependent Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: During 24 years of follow-up, 2936 premature deaths were recorded, including 1346 deaths from cancer and 269 from cardiovascular disease. Crude all cause mortality rates were comparable for women with and without a history of spontaneous abortion (1.24 per 1000 person years in both groups) but were higher for women experiencing three or more spontaneous abortions (1.47 per 1000 person years) and for women reporting their first spontaneous abortion before the age of 24 (1.69 per 1000 person years). The corresponding age adjusted hazard ratios for all cause premature death during follow-up were 1.02 (95% confidence interval 0.94 to 1.11), 1.39 (1.03 to 1.86), and 1.27 (1.11 to 1.46), respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors and updated dietary and lifestyle factors, the occurrence of spontaneous abortion was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.19 (95% confidence interval 1.08 to 1.30) for premature mortality during follow-up. The association was stronger for recurrent spontaneous abortions (hazard ratio 1.59, 95% confidence interval 1.17 to 2.15 for three or more spontaneous abortions; 1.23, 1.00 to 1.50 for two; and 1.16, 1.05 to 1.28 for one compared with none), and for spontaneous abortions occurring early in a woman's reproductive life (1.32, 1.14 to 1.53 for age ≤23; 1.16, 1.01 to 1.33 for ages 24-29; and 1.12, 0.98 to 1.28 for age ≥30 compared with none). When cause specific mortality was evaluated, the association of spontaneous abortion with premature death was strongest for deaths from cardiovascular disease (1.48, 1.09 to 1.99). Spontaneous abortion was not related to premature death from cancer (1.08, 0.94 to 1.24). CONCLUSIONS: Spontaneous abortion was associated with an increased risk of premature mortality, particularly death from cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Causas de Morte , Mortalidade Prematura , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Fertil Res Pract ; 7(1): 7, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infertility history may have important implications for clinical practice and scientific discovery. Previous research on the validity of self-reported infertility measurements has been limited in scope and duration (< 5 years). In this study, we validated self-reported infertility history measures 15-23 years after fertility treatment initiation among women who utilized assisted reproductive technology (ART). METHODS: Women who received ART treatments from three Boston infertility clinics and who enrolled in a prior study (1994-2003) were re-contacted in 2018 for the AfteR Treatment Follow-up Study (ART-FS). Infertility history was collected from clinical records and two self-report questionnaires (at ART initiation and at ART-FS enrollment). Treatment history included specific details (fresh or frozen embryo transfers, number of cycles) and treatment recall prior to ART initiation. Self-reported infertility diagnoses included polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), endometriosis, uterine factor infertility, tubal factor infertility, diminished ovarian reserve/advanced maternal age, male factor infertility, and other/unknown. We compared self-reported measures from 2018 to self-reported and clinical data from prior study initiation, using Cohen's kappa, sensitivity, specificity, and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Of 2644 women we attempted to recontact, 808 completed the ART-FS, with an average follow-up of 19.6 years (standard deviation: 2.7). Recall of fertility treatment usage had moderate sensitivity (IVF = 0.85, Clomiphene/Gonadotropin = 0.81) but low specificity across different infertility treatment modalities (IVF = 0.63, Clomiphene/Gonadotropin = 0.55). Specific IVF details had low to moderate validity and reliability with clinical records. Reliability of recalled infertility diagnosis was higher when compared to self-report at ART initiation (PCOS K = 0.66, Endometriosis K = 0.76, Tubal K = 0.73) than when compared to clinical records (PCOS K = 0.31, Endometriosis K = 0.48, Tubal K = 0.62) and varied by diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: The ability of women to recall specific IVF treatment details was moderately accurate and recall of self-reported infertility diagnosis varied by diagnosis and measurement method.

5.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; : e13404, 2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583078

RESUMO

PROBLEM: Associations between immune dysfunction conditions (eg, systemic lupus erythematous, rheumatoid arthritis) and endometriosis have been observed in adult women, but not assessed among a younger population. We investigated the association between immune-mediated conditions and endometriosis among young women. METHOD OF STUDY: This cross-sectional analysis in the Women's Health Study: From Adolescence to Adulthood included 551 participants with surgically diagnosed endometriosis (median age=19) and 652 controls without endometriosis (median age=24). Participants completed an expanded Endometriosis Phenome and Biobanking Harmonization Project questionnaire. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to investigate the associations between autoimmune/inflammatory, atopic, chronic pain/fatigue, and endocrine disorders with endometriosis, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: Participants with any autoimmune and/or inflammatory condition had an increased odds of co-occurring endometriosis (OR: 1.87; CI: 0.92-3.80), as did participants with allergies (OR: 1.76; CI: 1.32-2.36), asthma (OR: 1.35; CI: 0.97-1.88), chronic fatigue syndrome and/or fibromyalgia (OR: 5.81; CI: 1.89-17.9), or previous mononucleosis (OR: 1.75; CI: 1.14-2.68). Odds of endometriosis were lower among participants with eczema (OR: 0.68; CI: 0.44-1.04). We observed a positive trend between the number of immune-mediated conditions and the odds of endometriosis (p-trend=0.0002). Endocrine disorders were not associated with endometriosis. CONCLUSIONS: Among this population of adolescents and adult women, endometriosis was more likely among participants with autoimmune and/or inflammatory diseases, allergies, asthma, previous mononucleosis infection, and chronic fatigue and/or fibromyalgia. We observed that an increasing number of immune-mediated conditions were positively associated with endometriosis risk. It is important for clinicians who care for adolescents and women with these conditions to consider endometriosis as a comorbidity.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606146

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We previously developed a subfertile comparison group with which to compare outcomes of assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment. In this study, we evaluated whether insurance claims data in the Massachusetts All Payers Claims Database (APCD) defined a more appropriate comparison group. METHODS: We used Massachusetts vital records of women who delivered between 2013 and 2017 on whom APCD data were available. ART deliveries were those linked to a national ART database. Deliveries were subfertile if fertility treatment was marked on the birth certificate, had prior hospitalization with ICD code for infertility, or prior fertility treatment. An infertile group included women with an APCD outpatient or inpatient ICD 9/10 infertility code prior to delivery. Fertile deliveries were none of the above. Demographics, health risks, and obstetric outcomes were compared among groups. Multivariable generalized estimating equations were used to calculate adjusted relative risk (aRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: There were 70,726 fertile, 4,763 subfertile, 11,970 infertile, and 7,689 ART-treated deliveries. Only 3,297 deliveries were identified as both subfertile and infertile. Both subfertile and infertile were older, and had more education, chronic hypertension, and diabetes than the fertile group and less than the ART-treated group. Prematurity (aRR = 1.15-1.17) and birthweight (aRR = 1.10-1.21) were increased in all groups compared with the fertile group. CONCLUSION: Although the APCD allowed identification of more women than the previously defined subfertile categorization and allowed us to remove previously unidentified infertile women from the fertile group, it is not clear that it offered a clinically significantly improved comparison group.

7.
Diabetologia ; 64(3): 552-560, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399910

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis and risk of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We used data from the Nurses' Health Study II, a prospective cohort of female nurses followed for >25 years (N = 112,037). We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the HRs and 95% CIs of incident, confirmed type 2 diabetes (n = 8496 participants) adjusted a priori for confounding factors. We additionally investigated differences in the relationship between endometriosis and type 2 diabetes by age (<50 or ≥50 years), BMI (<30 or ≥30 kg/m2), infertility history, menopausal status and history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM; restricted to parous women). RESULTS: We saw no association between laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis and risk of type 2 diabetes in multivariable confounder-adjusted models (HR 1.06 [95% CI 0.98, 1.13]) or models accounting for potential mediating factors (HR 0.94 [95% CI 0.87, 1.00]). However, we observed modest differences in the association between endometriosis and type 2 diabetes by BMI group, history of infertility and history of GDM. Among non-obese women (HR 1.17 [95% CI 1.02, 1.35]), women who never experienced infertility (HR 1.14 [95% CI 1.04, 1.25]) and women who never experienced GDM (HR 1.11 [95% CI 1.01, 1.22]), endometriosis was associated with greater risk of type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Overall, women with endometriosis were not at increased risk of type 2 diabetes. However, among subgroups at low risk for type 2 diabetes (i.e. non-obese women and women with no prior history of infertility or GDM), endometriosis was associated with a modest increased risk of type 2 diabetes.

8.
Hum Reprod ; 36(1): 199-210, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432329

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Is recreational and residential sun exposure associated with risk of endometriosis? SUMMARY ANSWER: Tanning bed use in early adulthood, sunscreen use and history of sunburns were associated with a greater risk of endometriosis; however, higher residential UV exposure was associated with a lower endometriosis risk. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Previous research has reported an association between endometriosis and skin cancer, with evidence of shared risk factors between the two diseases. We investigated the potential associations between ultraviolet radiation and endometriosis risk. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: The Nurses' Health Study II is a prospective cohort of 116 429 female US nurses aged 25-42 years at enrolment in 1989. Participants completed self-administered biennial questionnaires through June 2015. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTINGS, METHODS: We investigated self-reported measures of recreational sun-exposure and geocoded residential UV exposure in childhood and adulthood in relation to risk of laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis among premenopausal white women. We used Cox proportional hazards models to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: During follow-up, 4791 incident cases of laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis were reported among 1 252  248 person-years. Tanning bed use during high school/college (≥6 times per year vs. never use: HR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.01-1.40; Ptrend = 0.04) and at ages 25-35 (HR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.12-1.39; Ptrend ≤ 0.0001), number of sunburns during adolescence (Ptrend = 0.03) and percentage of time using sunscreen in adulthood (Ptrend = 0.002) were positively associated with risk of endometriosis. In contrast, residential UV level at birth (highest vs. lowest quintile: HR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.72-0.92; Ptrend = 0.0001), at age 15 (HR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.70-0.88; Ptrend ≤ 0.0001) and at age 30 (HR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.82-0.99; Ptrend = 0.21) were associated with a decreased risk of endometriosis. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Self-reported endometriosis diagnosis may be prone to misclassification; however, we restricted our definition to laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis, which has been shown to have high validity compared to medical records. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Our results suggest that tanning bed use in early adulthood increases endometriosis risk, potentially through a harmful effect of ultraviolet A wavelengths, and that residential UV exposure reduces risk, possibly via optimal vitamin D synthesis. These findings should be investigated further to enhance our understanding of endometriosis aetiology. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This project was supported by NICHD grants HD48544 and HD52473, HD57210, NIH grant CA50385, CA176726. M.K. was supported by a Marie Curie International Outgoing Fellowship within the 7th European Community Framework Programme (#PIOF-GA-2011-302078) and is grateful to the Philippe Foundation and the Bettencourt-Schueller Foundation for their financial support. H.R.H. is supported by the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health (K22 CA193860). The authors have nothing to disclose. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.

9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2027928, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346844

RESUMO

Importance: Menstrual cycle dysfunction is associated with insulin resistance, a key feature early in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. However, the evidence linking irregular and long menstrual cycles with type 2 diabetes is scarce and inconsistent. Objectives: To evaluate the associations between menstrual cycle characteristics at different points throughout a woman's reproductive life span and risk of type 2 diabetes and the extent to which this association is modified by lifestyle factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study included 75 546 premenopausal US female nurses participating in the Nurses' Health Study II from 1993 to June 30, 2017. Data analysis was performed from February 1 to December 30, 2019. Exposures: Self-reported usual length and regularity of menstrual cycles at the age ranges of 14 to 17 years, 18 to 22 years, and 29 to 46 years. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident type 2 diabetes identified through self-report and confirmed by validated supplemental questionnaires. Results: Among the 75 546 women in the study at baseline, the mean (SD) age was 37.9 (4.6) years (range, 29.0-46.0 years). A total of 5608 participants (7.4%) had documented new cases of type 2 diabetes during 1 639 485 person-years of follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, women reporting always having irregular menstrual cycles between the age ranges of 14 to 17 years, 18 to 22 years, and 29 to 46 years were, respectively, 32% (95% CI, 22%-44%), 41% (95% CI, 23%-62%), and 66% (95% CI, 49%-84%) more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than women reporting very regular cycles (within 3-4 days of expected period) in the same age range. Similarly, women reporting a usual cycle length of 40 days or more between the age ranges of 18 to 22 years and 29 to 46 years were, respectively, 37% (95% CI, 19%-57%) and 50% (95% CI, 36%-65%) more likely to develop type 2 diabetes during follow-up compared with women reporting a usual cycle length of 26 to 31 days in the same age ranges. These associations appeared to be stronger among women with overweight or obesity, a low-quality diet, and low levels of physical activity. The relative excess risk of type 2 diabetes due to the interaction between irregular and long menstrual cycles and the overall unhealthy lifestyle score was 0.73 (95% CI, 0.57-0.89) and 0.68 (95% CI, 0.54-0.83), respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of US female nurses participating in the Nurses' Health Study II, irregular and long menstrual cycles throughout life were associated with a greater risk of type 2 diabetes, particularly among women with overweight or obesity, a low-quality diet, and low levels of physical activity.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Ciclo Menstrual , Distúrbios Menstruais/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estilo de Vida , Distúrbios Menstruais/epidemiologia , Distúrbios Menstruais/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Saúde Reprodutiva , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Int J Gynecol Pathol ; 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323857

RESUMO

Endometriosis is generally histopathologically defined as the presence of at least 2 of the following: endometrial stroma, Müllerian epithelium, and/or hemosiderin-laden macrophages (HLM). Despite clinically evident endometriotic lesions, biopsies are frequently nondiagnostic. In this study, we conducted a large-scale review of biopsies of lesions clinically thought to represent endometriosis and correlate the histologic findings with clinical appearance to expand sensitivity of the pathologic definition of endometriosis, particularly in patients on hormonal therapy. In all, 112 biopsies from 78 patients (mean age=25, range 18-39 yr) were reviewed for histopathologic features suggestive of or diagnostic for endometriosis including the presence of endometrial stroma, Müllerian epithelium, dystrophic calcifications, HLM, chronic inflammation, adhesions, and vascular proliferation. Endometriosis was confirmed by pathologic criteria in 37 of 78 patients (47%). Biopsies from patients on hormonal therapy (n=62, 80%) were significantly less likely to meet pathologic criteria for endometriosis (P=0.01). Nondiagnostic biopsies (70/112; 63%) frequently displayed HLM (20%), chronic inflammation (29%), dystrophic calcifications (26%), vascular proliferation (20%), or adhesions (20%) and were significantly more likely to have a vascular clinical appearance (P=0.01). Diagnostic biopsies (42/112; 38%) were more likely to have a blue/black clinical appearance (P=0.03), demonstrate HLM (P=0.004), and display pseudodecidualization (P=0.05). Patients with a high clinical suspicion of endometriosis have a range of histologic findings, with less than half meeting the current histopathologic criteria for diagnosing endometriosis. Given the heterogeneous histopathologic appearance, revision of the histologic criteria may be warranted with further exploration, particularly for lesions with predominantly vascular features.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247354

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Investigate the relationship between history of cancer and adverse pregnancy outcomes according to subfertility/fertility treatment. METHODS: Deliveries (2004-2013) from Massachusetts (MA) Registry of Vital Records and Statistics were linked to MA assisted reproductive technology data, hospital discharge records, and Cancer Registry. The relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals of adverse outcomes (gestational diabetes (GDM), gestational hypertension (GHTN), cesarean section (CS), low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA), preterm birth (PTB), neonatal mortality, and prolonged neonatal hospital stay) were modeled with log-link and Poisson distribution generalized estimating equations. Differences by history of subfertility/fertility treatment were investigated with likelihood ratio tests. RESULTS: Among 662,630 deliveries, 2,983 had a history of cancer. Women with cancer history were not at greater risk of GDM, GHTN, or CS. However, infants born to women with prior cancer had higher risk of LBW (RR: 1.19 [1.07-1.32]), prolonged neonatal hospital stay (RR: 1.16 [1.01-1.34]), and PTB (RR: 1.19 [1.07-1.32]). We found clinically and statistically significant differences in the relationship between cancer history and SGA by subfertility/fertility treatment (p value, test for heterogeneity = 0.02); among deliveries with subfertility or fertility treatment, those with a history of cancer experienced a greater risk of SGA (RRsubfertile: 1.36 [1.02-1.83]). CONCLUSIONS: Women with a history of cancer had greater risk of some adverse pregnancy outcomes; this relationship varied by subfertility and fertility treatment.

12.
Hum Reprod Update ; 2020 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is an often chronic, inflammatory gynaecologic condition affecting 190 million women worldwide. Studies have reported an elevated cancer risk among patients with endometriosis. However, prior research has included methodologic issues that impede valid and robust interpretation. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: We conducted a meta-analysis of studies investigating the association between endometriosis and cancer risk and analysed the results by methodologic characteristics. We discuss the implications of cancer screening in patients and management challenges faced by clinicians. SEARCH METHODS: We searched PubMed and Embase databases for eligible studies from inception through 24 October 2019. We included cohort and case-control studies examining the association between endometriosis and cancer risk; cross-sectional studies and case reports were excluded. Publications had to present risk/rate/odds estimates with 95% CI. Random effects meta-analysis was used to estimate summary relative risks (SRR) and CIs. Heterogeneity across studies was assessed by the Q test and I2 statistics, and publication bias using Egger's and Begg's tests. Risk of bias and quality of the included studies were assessed using the risk of bias in non-randomized studies of interventions (ROBINS-I) tool. OUTCOMES: Forty-nine population-based case-control and cohort studies were included. Twenty-six studies were scored as having a 'serious'/'critical' risk of bias, and the remaining 23 'low'/'moderate'. Cancer-specific analyses showed a positive association between endometriosis and ovarian cancer risk (SRR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.68-2.22; n = 24 studies) that was strongest for clear cell (SRR = 3.44, 95% CI = 2.82-4.42; n = 5 studies) and endometrioid (SRR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.82-2.98; n = 5 studies) histotypes (Pheterogeneity < 0.0001), although with significant evidence of both heterogeneity across studies and publication bias (Egger's and Begg's P-values < 0.01). A robust association was observed between endometriosis and thyroid cancer (SRR = 1.39, 95% CI =1.24-1.57; n = 5 studies), a very small association with breast cancer (SRR = 1.04, 95% CI =1.00-1.09; n = 20 studies) and no association with colorectal cancer (SRR = 1.00, 95% CI =0.87-1.16; n = 5 studies). The association with endometrial cancer was not statistically significant (SRR = 1.23, 95% CI =0.97-1.57; n = 17 studies) overall and wholly null when restricted to prospective cohort studies (SRR = 0.99, 95% CI =0.72-1.37; n = 5 studies). The association with cutaneous melanoma was also non-significant (SRR = 1.17, 95% CI =0.97-1.41; n = 7 studies) but increased in magnitude and was statistically significant when restricted to studies with low/moderate risk of bias (SRR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.24-2.36, n = 2 studies). The most robust finding both in terms of statistical significance and magnitude of effect was an inverse association with cervical cancer (SRR = 0.68, 95% CI =0.56-0.82; n = 4 studies); however, this result has a high potential to reflect heightened access to detection of dysplasia for women who reached an endometriosis diagnosis and is thus likely not causal. Several additional cancer types were explored based on <4 studies. WIDER IMPLICATIONS: Endometriosis was associated with a higher risk of ovarian and thyroid, and minimally (only 4% greater risk) with breast cancer, and with a lower risk of cervical cancer. However, this meta-analysis confirms that: a majority of studies had severe/critical risk of bias; there is impactful heterogeneity across studies-and for ovarian cancer, publication bias; and causal inference requires temporality, which in many studies was not considered. We discuss the implications of these potential associations from the perspectives of patients with endometriosis, clinicians involved in their care, and scientists investigating their long-term health risks.

13.
Cell Rep ; 33(6): 108366, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176148

RESUMO

Endometriosis affects 1 in 10 women and is characterized by the presence of abnormal endometrium at ectopic sites. ARID1A mutations are observed in deeply invasive forms of the disease, often correlating with malignancy. To identify epigenetic dependencies driving invasion, we use an unbiased approach to map chromatin state transitions accompanying ARID1A loss in the endometrium. We show that super-enhancers marked by high H3K27 acetylation are strongly associated with ARID1A binding. ARID1A loss leads to H3K27 hyperacetylation and increased chromatin accessibility and enhancer RNA transcription at super-enhancers, but not typical enhancers, indicating that ARID1A normally prevents super-enhancer hyperactivation. ARID1A co-localizes with P300 at super-enhancers, and genetic or pharmacological inhibition of P300 in ARID1A mutant endometrial epithelia suppresses invasion and induces anoikis through the rescue of super-enhancer hyperacetylation. Among hyperactivated super-enhancers, SERPINE1 (PAI-1) is identified as an essential target gene driving ARID1A mutant endometrial invasion. Broadly, our findings provide rationale for therapeutic strategies targeting super-enhancers in ARID1A mutant endometrium.

14.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184648

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of mental health outcomes in women with and without documented endometriosis identified from the US. In a retrospective matched cohort study using administrative health claims data from Optum's ClinformaticsTM DataMart from May 1, 2000 through March 31, 2019, women aged 18-50 years with endometriosis (N=72,677) identified by International Classification of Disease diagnosis codes were matched 1:2 on age and calendar time to women without endometriosis (n=147,251), with a median follow-up of 529 days [IQR 195, 1,164]. The rate per 1,000 person-years of anxiety, depression, and self-directed violence among women with endometriosis was 57.1, 47.7, and 0.9, respectively. Compared to women with endometriosis to those without, the adjusted hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval was 1.38 (1.34, 1.42) for anxiety, 1.48 (1.44, 1.53) for depression, and 2.03 (1.60, 2.58) for self-directed violence. The association with depression was stronger among women age <35 years (P, test for heterogeneity<0.01). Risk factors for incident depression, anxiety, and self-directed violence among women with endometriosis included endometriosis-related pain symptoms and prevalence of other chronic conditions associated with pain. The identification of risk factors for mental health conditions among women with endometriosis may improve patient-centered disease management.

15.
BMJ ; 371: m3464, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998909

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether irregular or long menstrual cycles throughout the life course are associated with all cause and cause specific premature mortality (age <70 years). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Nurses' Health Study II (1993-2017). PARTICIPANTS: 79 505 premenopausal women without a history of cardiovascular disease, cancer, or diabetes and who reported the usual length and regularity of their menstrual cycles at ages 14-17 years, 18-22 years, and 29-46 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for all cause and cause specific premature mortality (death before age 70 years) were estimated from multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: During 24 years of follow-up, 1975 premature deaths were documented, including 894 from cancer and 172 from cardiovascular disease. Women who reported always having irregular menstrual cycles experienced higher mortality rates during follow-up than women who reported very regular cycles in the same age ranges. The crude mortality rate per 1000 person years of follow-up for women reporting very regular cycles and women reporting always irregular cycles were 1.05 and 1.23 for cycle characteristics at ages 14-17 years, 1.00 and 1.37 for cycle characteristics at ages 18-22 years, and 1.00 and 1.68 for cycle characteristics at ages 29-46 years. The corresponding multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for premature death during follow-up were 1.18 (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.37), 1.37 (1.09 to 1.73), and 1.39 (1.14 to 1.70), respectively. Similarly, women who reported that their usual cycle length was 40 days or more at ages 18-22 years and 29-46 years were more likely to die prematurely than women who reported a usual cycle length of 26-31 days in the same age ranges (1.34, 1.06 to 1.69; and 1.40, 1.17 to 1.68, respectively). These relations were strongest for deaths related to cardiovascular disease. The higher mortality associated with long and irregular menstrual cycles was slightly stronger among current smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Irregular and long menstrual cycles in adolescence and adulthood are associated with a greater risk of premature mortality (age <70 years). This relation is slightly stronger among women who smoke.


Assuntos
Ciclo Menstrual , Distúrbios Menstruais/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Prematura , Saúde Reprodutiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022746

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Preterm delivery (<37 weeks) predicts later cardiovascular disease risk in mothers, even among normotensive deliveries. However, development of subclinical cardiovascular risk before and after preterm delivery is not well understood. We sought to investigate differences in life course cardiovascular risk factor trajectories based on preterm delivery history. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The HUNT Study (1984-2008) linked with the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (1967-2012) yielded clinical measurements and pregnancy outcomes for 19 806 parous women with normotensive first deliveries. Women had up to three measurements of body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, blood pressure, lipids, non-fasting glucose, and C-reactive protein during follow up between 21 years before to 41 years after first delivery. Using mixed effects models, we compared risk factor trajectories for women with preterm vs term/postterm first deliveries. RESULTS: Trajectories overlapped for women with preterm compared with term/postterm first deliveries for all cardiovascular risk factors examined. For instance, the mean difference in systolic blood pressure in women with preterm first deliveries compared with those with term deliveries was 0.2 mm Hg (95% CI -1.8 to 2.3) at age 20 and 1.5 mm Hg (95% CI -0.5 to 3.6) at age 60. CONCLUSIONS: A history of preterm delivery was not associated with different life course trajectories of common cardiovascular risk factors in our study population. This suggests that the robust association between preterm delivery and cardiovascular end points in Norway or similar contexts is not explained by one or more commonly measured cardiovascular risk factors. Overall, we did not find evidence for a single cardiovascular disease prevention strategy that would reduce risk among the majority of women who had preterm delivery.

17.
Semin Reprod Med ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105509

RESUMO

Adenomyosis, characterized by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma within the myometrium, can have a substantial impact on the quality of women's lives. Despite this, the epidemiologic research on this condition lags considerably behind that of other noncancerous reproductive health conditions. The lack of progress and knowledge is due in part to the challenges in designing valid epidemiologic studies, since the diagnosis of adenomyosis historically has been limited to the examination of uterine specimens from hysterectomy. This review describes the available data on the frequency of this condition and the epidemiologic investigation thus far into the risk factors for disease-highlighting the methodologic and inference challenges primarily around study sample selection. We conclude with providing recommendations for approaches to future epidemiologic study that capitalize on the advancements in imaging technology to detect adenomyosis and provide a fuller picture of the occurrence and risk factors for disease.

18.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; : e13347, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946598

RESUMO

PROBLEM: To compare inflammatory- and immune-associated peritoneal cytokines of adolescents and adults with and without endometriosis. METHODS OF STUDY: In a nested case-control study in multiple university-affiliated scientific centers, ten adolescents and thirteen adults with visually and histologically confirmed endometriosis (cases), thirteen adolescents with visually suspected endometriosis but indeterminate (seven patients) or negative (six patients) histology, and fifteen adults undergoing surgery for non-malignant gynecologic disease without endometriosis (controls) underwent laparoscopic aspiration of peritoneal fluid (PF), from which PF and conditioned medium (CM) cytokine levels were assayed. RESULTS: Compared to adults with endometriosis, MCP-3, IL-12p40, MIP-1ß, and IL-15 were significantly higher among adolescents with endometriosis, while TNF-ß and CTACK were lower among adolescents. These differences were similar comparing adolescents with endometriosis to adult controls except for MIP-1ß, which was not statistically different. MIP-1ß was, however, the only cytokine observed to differ between adult cases and controls. There were no significant differences in CM cytokines among the three groups. Results were similar when analyses were restricted to samples collected (a) during menstrual cycle days 1-10, (b) from patients unexposed to exogenous hormones, or (c) from all adolescents despite presence or absence of histologic endometriosis. CONCLUSION: Biologically relevant and statistically significant differences in six PF cytokines were observed and suggest a more pro-invasion cytokine profile among adolescents with endometriosis. Adolescents with endometriosis have unique peritoneal cytokine profiles and molecular behavior when compared to adults with and without endometriosis.

19.
J Assist Reprod Genet ; 37(10): 2427-2433, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789586

RESUMO

PURPOSE: It is known that delivery rates from spontaneous conception vary according to season which may be due to cultural or environmental factors; however, conflicting data exist regarding whether outcomes from IVF are also seasonally dependent. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that the season at oocyte retrieval is associated with livebirth after fresh transfer. METHODS: Dates of oocyte retrieval for all autologous cycles in our IVF program between January 2012 and December 2017 were categorized by season. Dates were linked to local temperature (min, max, average) and day length obtained from meteorological records. Average maximum temperature and day length were categorized into tertiles. Multivariable logistic regression, adjusted for age and quadratic age, were used to model odds (aOR) of implantation, clinical pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, and livebirth. RESULTS: Patient characteristics were similar across seasons. As expected, temperature and day length varied by season. When compared with cycles started during winter, there was no difference in the age-adjusted odds of livebirth for the other three seasons (spring: aOR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.82-1.13; summer: aOR: 1.05, 0.90-1.23; fall: aOR: 0.98, 0.84-1.15). There was a positive linear trend between temperature and odds of implantation, and clinical pregnancy (p value, test for linear trend (implantation, p = 0.02; clinical pregnancy, p = 0.01)) but no association with livebirth for temperature or day length. CONCLUSIONS: We found that season at oocyte retrieval was not associated with livebirth, contrary to patterns seen in naturally conceived populations. However, our data did suggest modestly higher odds of clinical pregnancy for retrievals in June and July, and that higher temperature at time of retrieval was associated with higher odds of clinical pregnancy but not livebirth.

20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238043, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833998

RESUMO

Endometriosis is a painful gynecologic disease affecting one in ten reproductive aged women worldwide. Few studies have correlated this symptomatology with biomarker levels among women with and without endometriosis, and no studies correlating pain with biomarker levels have been performed in young patient populations. The purpose of this study was to examine whether CA125 correlates with different types and severity of pain among adolescents and young women with and without endometriosis and assess its performance as an endometriosis biomarker among those presenting with dysmenorrhea in this young population. Reproductive-aged women with laparoscopically-confirmed endometriosis (n = 282) and controls (n = 293) who participated in The Women's Health Study: From Adolescence to Adulthood (A2A), a cohort of adolescents and young women enrolled from 2012-2018, were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Plasma CA125 values were measured using WERF EPHect compliant blood samples collected at enrollment. Average CA125 were calculated by self-reported pain type (i.e. dysmenorrhea, non-cyclic/general pelvic pain, dyspareunia), severity, and frequency in endometriosis cases and controls. Median age at blood draw was 24 years in controls and 17 years in cases, with 68% and 89% non-Hispanic white, respectively. Most endometriosis cases (95%) were rASRM stage I/II. Average CA125 values were 12.5 U/mL in controls and 12.1 U/mL in cases adjusted for age. CA125 did not differ by pain type, its severity, or frequency in endometriosis cases or controls. Among participants who reported dysmenorrhea, CA125 did not discriminate endometriosis cases from controls using cutoff of 35 U/mL (AUC = 0.51, 95%CI = 0.50-0.53). Among adolescents and young adult women, CA125 did not correlate with pain type. CA125 did not efficiently discriminate endometriosis cases from controls even when accounting for pain symptomatology. Average CA125 values were low in adolescents and young women in both endometriosis cases and controls, suggesting cautious interpretation may be needed when measuring CA125 in this population.


Assuntos
Antígeno Ca-125/sangue , Endometriose/complicações , Dor/sangue , Dor/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Endometriose/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
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