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1.
Dev Psychol ; 57(6): 951-961, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424012

RESUMO

This study examined how children's and adolescents' beliefs about the distribution of wealth in society and the fairness of economic systems informed their behavior, judgments, and reasoning about access to opportunities among peers. The sample included 136 8- to 14-year-olds (47% girls, 60% White, majority middle- to higher-socioeconomic status [SES]) in the United States. Relative to older children, early adolescents viewed economic systems as less fair and wealth as less equally distributed, but still underestimated the true magnitude of existing economic disparities. Importantly, the stronger their system justification beliefs the fewer opportunities participants directed to poor peers over rich peers in an allocation scenario, but the more equally participants believed that wealth should be distributed in society the more opportunities they directed to poor peers. Moreover, participants were more supportive of allocating opportunities to poor peers when they had direct evidence that poor peers had been excluded in the past, and 40% reasoned explicitly about the implications of economic inequality when making their decision. Finally, exploratory associations of family SES and beliefs about distributive justice suggested that experiencing greater economic security may have enabled some participants to more readily critique societal inequality. Together, these findings provide correlational, experimental, and cross-sectional developmental evidence that older children's and early adolescents' beliefs about distributive justice in society inform their decisions about how to address disparities within their sphere of influence. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Justiça Social , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
2.
J Youth Adolesc ; 50(6): 1068-1080, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475926

RESUMO

Educational interventions typically center on youth displaying early academic risk, potentially overlooking those falling off track academically later in their educational careers. The current study investigated the extent to which life course transitions experienced during adolescence were linked to falling off-track academically in high school. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 4284; 53% female; Mage = 14.88) documented that 1516 students displayed no educational risk in early high school, yet 14% did not pursue 4-year college by age 24. Analyses revealed the unique life course transitions predictive of falling off-track academically (i.e., sexual intercourse, alcohol use, family transitions, residential mobility). The study's findings highlight important intervention avenues to promote adolescents' continued educational persistence.


Assuntos
Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Youth Adolesc ; 50(4): 724-738, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515373

RESUMO

Perceived economic stress and lower subjective social status (SSS) have adverse effects on parents' and adolescents' emotional well-being, but less is known about associations with academic adjustment among preadolescent youth. This study examined associations between SSS, perceived economic stress about needs and wants, and academic adjustment among preadolescents and early adolescents (n = 136, ages 8 to 14 years, 44% girls, 61% White) and their parents (n = 164, majority middle- to higher SES). Overall, youth who worried more about their family's economic needs had lower academic achievement and youth who reported lower SSS had lower academic motivation. No significant differences were observed in the strength of associations between parent and youth perceptions and academic outcomes for early adolescents versus preadolescents.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Estresse Financeiro , Adolescente , Criança , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Pais , Percepção
4.
Child Dev Perspect ; 14(4): 236-243, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230400

RESUMO

The COVID-19 global pandemic and the resulting economic, health, and educational disruptions have upset all aspects of young people's lives. The pandemic's reach will likely continue in the near term and as psychological and academic trajectories unfold over time. In this article, we draw on the central tenets of life course theory-intertwined developmental trajectories, linked lives, and stratification systems (Elder, 1998)-to inform understanding of potential adverse effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on children's and adolescents' adjustment and well-being, as well as mechanisms and processes that may buffer or exacerbate the pandemic's negative impact. We review empirical evidence on the impact of previous macro-level crises (e.g., the Great Recession) to illustrate how life course theory can aid developmental scientists in examining the effects of COVID-19 on children's development. We conclude with recommendations for research.

5.
J Youth Adolesc ; 49(5): 1092-1093, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103402

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

6.
J Youth Adolesc ; 49(5): 1073-1091, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707579

RESUMO

Wealth plays a pervasive role in sustaining inequality and is more inequitably distributed than household income. Research has identified that wealth contributes to children's educational outcomes. However, the specific mechanisms accounting for these outcomes are unknown. Using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and its supplements, SEM was used to test a hypothesized longitudinal chain of mediating processes. Framed by the parent investment model, this study tracks children and their parents over twenty-seven years, from pre-birth to early adulthood. The analytic sample was comprised of 1247 young people who were between 6-12 years of age (M= 5.66, SD= 2.12) in 1997, the first wave of the PSID's Child Development Supplement. This analytic sample was roughly equivalent by gender (N= 774; 53% identified as female and N= 693; 47% identified as male). The racial/ethnic background of participants was nearly an equal split between individuals who identified as White (N= 666; 45%) or Black (N= 634; 43%), with an additional 7% (N= 97) who identified as "Hispanic," 2% (N= 40) as "Other," 1% (N= 20) as Asian or Pacific Islander, and less than 1% (N= 6) who identified as American Indian or Alaskan Native. The results indicated that wealth (a) engenders parental and child processes-primarily expectations and achievement-that promote educational success, (b) plays a different role across the life course, and (c) that pre-birth wealth has a significant mediated relationship to educational attainment seventeen years later. These findings advance understanding of specific mediating mechanisms by which wealth may foster children's educational success across the life course, as well as how wealth may differentially shape educational outcomes in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Logro , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
8.
Dev Psychol ; 55(3): 449-456, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30802097

RESUMO

The unprecedented state of economic inequality faced by many countries around the world is one of the most pressing social issues of the day, with far-reaching consequences for child and adolescent development. Despite the intensity of the public and scientific discourse on this topic, less scientific attention has been paid to young people's understanding and experiences of economic inequality, including their perceptions and beliefs about their own and others' social status and of the economic and sociopolitical contexts in which they are growing up. The collection of articles in this special section of Developmental Psychology seek to advance the theoretical and empirical knowledge base on children and adolescents' perceptions, experiences, and reasoning about economic inequality, with attention to the processes by which inequality affects developmental outcomes. Three invited commentaries provide a synthesis of the articles, offer thoughtful and insightful theoretical and methodological critiques, situate the findings in a more global context, and advance future directions for scholarship on this topic. In this introduction, the authors provide an overview of the special section and offer directions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Compreensão , Justiça Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos
9.
Dev Psychol ; 55(3): 457-470, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30802098

RESUMO

Urban middle school students (N = 1,057; Mage = 12.06) viewed Facebook-like profiles of peers who varied by race/ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation and indicated the social class (SC) of those peers along two dimensions-family income and social class position. As hypothesized, most profiles were perceived as middle class and above-average family income. Generally, as expected, differences emerged as a function of the peers' sociodemographics. Profiles of Whites and girls were rated as higher in SC, African American and Latino profiles as lower, and East Asian profiles as in-between those groups. Depending on the dimension of SC, the race/ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation of peers intersected differentially to shape perception. Results demonstrate the value of an intersectional approach and offer directions for research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais , Grupos Étnicos , Comportamento Sexual , Classe Social , Percepção Social , População Urbana , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Grupo Associado
10.
Child Dev Perspect ; 13(4): 235-240, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33828612

RESUMO

Worldwide, most children face marginalization and societal inequities to varying degrees. For developmental science to have both scientific and societal value, scientists must account for the impact of societal inequities, regardless of the focus of their research. In this article, we illustrate how equity and justice are relevant for all children. We also argue that equity and justice are essential components for all developmental science and should be the basis for how we evaluate scientific rigor. Ignoring equity and justice issues perpetuates biases within the field and limits our understanding of developmental processes. We offer graduated recommendations for all developmental scientists to consider, starting with minimal standards for inclusion and descriptions of participants, and continuing with guidance for articulating what mechanisms lead to observed differences. We also urge researchers to examine why and how social inequities and contexts shape their focal domain of developmental science.

11.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 19(1): 108-119, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26895151

RESUMO

Subjective social status is associated with a range of health outcomes. Few studies have tested the relevance of subjective social status among Latinos in the U.S.; those that have yielded mixed results. Data come from the Latino subsample of the 2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (N = 2554). Regression models adjusted for socioeconomic and demographic factors. Stratified analyses tested whether nativity status modifies the effect of subjective social status on health. Subjective social status was associated with better health. Income and education mattered more for health than subjective social status among U.S.-born Latinos. However, the picture was mixed among immigrant Latinos, with subjective social status more strongly predictive than income but less so than education. Subjective social status may tap into stressful immigrant experiences that affect one's perceived self-worth and capture psychosocial consequences and social disadvantage left out by conventional socioeconomic measures.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Classe Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Child Dev ; 87(4): 989-94, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27392794

RESUMO

With this Special Section, the Asian Caucus of the Society for Research in Child Development seeks to promote a more inclusive, expanded, and holistic developmental science that can account for the diversity of developmental trajectories among Asian Americans. The articles elucidate, in turn, historical, conceptual, and methodological issues in studying Asian American child development. Although the articles foreground Asian Americans, the ideas should help advance theoretical and empirical work for other racial and ethnic groups, thereby contributing to a more valid understanding of child development.


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Criança , Humanos
13.
Child Dev ; 87(4): 1066-8, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27392801

RESUMO

We briefly respond here to the commentaries to the Special Section focused on Asian American child development by Cheah, Lee, Beaupre, and Zhou, and McLoyd. We consider three questions raised in their comments. What does it mean to focus on Asian Americans? How should we examine development across the life course? How can we generate more policy- and practice-relevant research?.


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos , Pesquisa , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Humanos
14.
Adv Child Dev Behav ; 50: 209-36, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26956075

RESUMO

Mixed methods research approaches are gaining traction across various social science disciplines, including among developmental scientists. In this chapter, we discuss the utility of a mixed methods research approach in examining issues related to equity and justice. We incorporate a brief overview of quantitative and qualitative monomethod research approaches in our larger discussion of the advantages, procedures, and considerations of employing a mixed methods design to advance developmental science from an equity and justice perspective. To better illustrate the theoretical and practical significance of a mixed methods research approach, we include examples of research conducted on children and adolescents' conceptions of economic inequality as one example of developmental science research with an equity and justice frame.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Economia , Justiça Social , Criança , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Pesquisa , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
Child Dev ; 86(5): 1653-71, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26300338

RESUMO

The current study examined children's identification and reasoning about their subjective social status (SSS), their beliefs about social class groups (i.e., the poor, middle class, and rich), and the associations between the two. Study participants were 117 10- to 12-year-old children of diverse racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic backgrounds attending a laboratory elementary school in Southern California. Results indicated that children's SSS ratings correlated with indicators of family socioeconomic status and were informed by material possessions, lifestyle characteristics, and social and societal comparisons. Children rated the poor as having fewer positive attributes and more negative attributes than the middle class, and fewer positive attributes than the rich. Lower SSS children held less positive attitudes toward the poor than children with middle SSS ratings.


Assuntos
Pobreza/psicologia , Preconceito/psicologia , Classe Social , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas
16.
Child Dev ; 84(1): 209-25, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22906161

RESUMO

The effects of geographic variations in cost of living and family income on children's academic achievement and social competence in first grade (mean age = 86.9 months) were examined, mediated through material hardship, parental investments, family stress, and school resources. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (N = 17,565), higher cost of living was associated with lower academic achievement. For poor children only, higher cost of living was also detrimental to parental investments and school resources. Parental investments and school resources were more strongly associated with achievement for lower income than higher income children. Results suggest that cost of living intersects with income in meaningful ways for family and child well-being and should be accounted for in the poverty measure.


Assuntos
Proteção da Criança/economia , Saúde da Família/economia , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Inteligência , Relações Interpessoais , Criança , Economia/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolaridade , Humanos , Investimentos em Saúde/economia , Investimentos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pobreza/economia , Pobreza/psicologia , Características de Residência , Instituições Acadêmicas/economia , Estresse Psicológico/economia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia
17.
J Youth Adolesc ; 41(6): 704-16, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21833665

RESUMO

Poverty and economic hardship remain a reality for many of America's children. Although the causes of poverty are varied, Americans strongly endorse individual responsibility as a primary cause. Because beliefs about poverty originate in childhood and adolescence, intervention efforts targeting young people may be particularly effective in shifting attitudes about the poor and policies designed to help the disadvantaged. To test this proposition, the current study evaluated the efficacy of a 1-week 8th grade social studies curriculum focusing on poverty and inequality. Study participants were upper middle-class youth enrolled in multiple sections of a Social Studies course taught by a single teacher. Participants had little direct contact with marginalized groups such as poor and homeless individuals in their communities. Students (N=66) completed a survey assessing their attitudes and beliefs about poverty and poor people prior to, and 1 week and 6 months post-instruction. Results indicated that the curriculum was partially effective in increasing the complexity of students' beliefs about poverty. Students were more likely to emphasize fatalistic causes and less likely to list individualistic causes for poverty following instruction than before, but rarely emphasized structural causes for poverty and rated individual effort as the most influential factor in determining one's success. Implications of the study findings for curriculum efforts targeting young adolescents' reasoning about economic inequality and inequity and directions for future studies are discussed.


Assuntos
Atitude , Cultura , Currículo , Pobreza/psicologia , Psicologia do Adolescente , Ciências Sociais/educação , Adolescente , Análise de Variância , Programas Governamentais , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Mobilidade Social , Seguridade Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
J Youth Adolesc ; 38(6): 826-38, 2009 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19636784

RESUMO

This short-term longitudinal study investigated the simultaneous influences of adults' (mothers and teachers) educational expectations and youth's achievement (standardized test scores and teachers' ratings of academic performance) across a 3-year time span on youth's performance in school (GPA). Participants were an ethnically diverse sample of 426 low-income urban youth, ages 6 through 16 at T1. Results from cross-lagged and autoregressive path analyses indicated stability in adults' expectations and youth's standardized test scores; cross-lagged influences of teachers', but not mothers', expectations across time; and effects of youth's achievement outcomes on adults' expectations at T2, but not vice versa. Overall, the pattern of findings demonstrate that adults' educational expectations are dynamic and responsive to how youth are faring in school and to changes in academic performance across time.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Relação entre Gerações , Relações Mãe-Filho , Motivação , Pobreza , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Docentes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Wisconsin , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Fam Psychol ; 23(3): 279-90, 2009 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19586191

RESUMO

This study examined the pathways by which family economic stress influenced youth's educational outcomes in a sample of 444 Chinese American adolescents (M ages = 13.0, 17.1 years at waves 1 and 2, respectively). Using latent variable structural equation modeling, results across two waves of data, spanning early to late adolescence, demonstrated that the influence of parent report of economic stress on youth academic achievement (i.e., GPA), school engagement, and positive attitudes about education was mediated through youth's perceptions of family economic strain and self-reports of depressive symptoms. These relationships were observed to remain significant after accounting for selection bias using individual fixed-effects models. Finally, youth's perceptions of family economic strain were found to more strongly predict depressive symptoms during later, as compared to earlier, adolescence; all other modeled relationships were equivalent across the two time periods. Implications for expanding theoretical tenets of the Family Economic Stress Model are discussed.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Percepção , Pobreza/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , California , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/psicologia , Escolaridade , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicologia do Adolescente/métodos , Psicologia do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estresse Psicológico/complicações
20.
Dev Psychol ; 44(3): 840-54, 2008 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18473648

RESUMO

This short-term longitudinal study examined the relations among family and school characteristics, family-level processes (youth perceptions of parent-adolescent interactions), school-level processes (youth perceptions of school belonging, school climate), adolescents' school engagement, and later academic performance. Participants were an ethnically diverse, urban sample of 1,120 9th-grade students (M age = 14.6 years). The structural characteristics of families and schools influenced the proximal processes that occurred therein, and these proximal processes, in turn, influenced students' proximal (i.e., engagement) and distal educational outcomes (i.e., grades in school). Moreover, the structural characteristics of families and schools influenced proximal and distal outcomes indirectly through their influence on the proximal processes. The multimediated ecological model suggested that intervening at the process level may be a successful means of improving both adolescents' engagement in school and their subsequent school performance.


Assuntos
Logro , Psicologia do Adolescente , Meio Social , Identificação Social , Adolescente , Família/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Ajustamento Social , Socialização , Inquéritos e Questionários
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