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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141630

RESUMO

Background - In population-based research exome sequencing (ES), the path from variant discovery to return of results (rROR) is not well established. Variants discovered by research ES have the potential to improve population health. Methods - Population-based ES and agnostic ExWAS were performed 5,521 Amish individuals. Additional phenotyping and in vitro studies enabled reclassification of a KCNQ1 variant from VUS to pathogenic. Results were returned to participants in a community setting. Results - A missense variant was identified in KCNQ1 (c.671C>T, p.T224M), a gene associated with long QT syndrome (LQTS) type 1 (LQT1), which can cause syncope and sudden cardiac death (SCD). The p.T224M variant, present in 1/45 Amish individuals is rare in the general population (1/248,566 in gnomAD) and was highly associated with QTc on EKG (p = 5.53E-24, ß=20.2 ms/allele). Because of the potential importance of this variant to the health of the population, additional phenotyping was performed in 88 p.T224M carriers and 54 non-carriers. There was stronger clinical evidence of LQTS in carriers (38.6% vs 5.5%, p = 0.0006), greater history of syncope (32% vs 17%, p = 0.020), and higher rate of SCD in 1st degree relatives < age 30 (4.5% vs 0%, p = 0.026). Expression of p.T224M KCNQ1 in CHO cells showed near complete loss of protein function. Our clinical and functional data enabled reclassification of p.T224M from a variant of unknown significance (VUS) to pathogenic. Of the 88 carriers, 93% met criteria for beta-blocker treatment and 5/88 (5.7%) were on medications that may further prolong QTc. Carriers were provided a CLIA confirmed report, genetic counseling and treatment recommendations. Follow up care was coordinated with local physicians. Conclusions - This work provides a framework by which research ES can be rapidly translated in a culturally appropriate manner to directly benefit research participants and enable population precision health.

2.
Nature ; 586(7831): 763-768, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057201

RESUMO

Age is the dominant risk factor for most chronic human diseases, but the mechanisms through which ageing confers this risk are largely unknown1. The age-related acquisition of somatic mutations that lead to clonal expansion in regenerating haematopoietic stem cell populations has recently been associated with both haematological cancer2-4 and coronary heart disease5-this phenomenon is termed clonal haematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP)6. Simultaneous analyses of germline and somatic whole-genome sequences provide the opportunity to identify root causes of CHIP. Here we analyse high-coverage whole-genome sequences from 97,691 participants of diverse ancestries in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Trans-omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) programme, and identify 4,229 individuals with CHIP. We identify associations with blood cell, lipid and inflammatory traits that are specific to different CHIP driver genes. Association of a genome-wide set of germline genetic variants enabled the identification of three genetic loci associated with CHIP status, including one locus at TET2 that was specific to individuals of African ancestry. In silico-informed in vitro evaluation of the TET2 germline locus enabled the identification of a causal variant that disrupts a TET2 distal enhancer, resulting in increased self-renewal of haematopoietic stem cells. Overall, we observe that germline genetic variation shapes haematopoietic stem cell function, leading to CHIP through mechanisms that are specific to clonal haematopoiesis as well as shared mechanisms that lead to somatic mutations across tissues.

3.
Stroke ; 51(11): 3356-3360, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The genetic contribution to ischemic stroke may include rare- or low-frequency variants of high-penetrance and large-effect sizes. Analyses focusing on early-onset disease, an extreme-phenotype, and on the exome, the protein-coding portion of genes, may increase the likelihood of identifying such rare functional variants. To evaluate this hypothesis, we implemented a 2-stage discovery and replication design, and then addressed whether the identified variants also associated with older-onset disease. METHODS: Discovery was performed in UMD-GEOS Study (University of Maryland-Genetics of Early-Onset Stroke), a biracial population-based study of first-ever ischemic stroke cases 15 to 49 years of age (n=723) and nonstroke controls (n=726). All participants had prior GWAS (Genome Wide Association Study) and underwent Illumina exome-chip genotyping. Logistic-regression was performed to test single-variant associations with all-ischemic stroke and TOAST (Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) subtypes in Whites and Blacks. Population level results were combined using meta-analysis. Gene-based aggregation testing and meta-analysis were performed using seqMeta. Covariates included age and gender, and principal-components for population structure. Pathway analyses were performed across all nominally associated genes for each stroke outcome. Replication was attempted through lookups in a previously reported meta-analysis of early-onset stroke and a large-scale stroke genetics study consisting of primarily older-onset cases. RESULTS: Gene burden tests identified a significant association with NAT10 in small-vessel stroke (P=3.79×10-6). Pathway analysis of the top 517 genes (P<0.05) from the gene-based analysis of small-vessel stroke identified several signaling and metabolism-related pathways related to neurotransmitter, neurodevelopmental notch-signaling, and lipid/glucose metabolism. While no individual SNPs reached chip-wide significance (P<2.05×10-7), several were near, including an intronic variant in LEXM (rs7549251; P=4.08×10-7) and an exonic variant in TRAPPC11 (rs67383011; P=5.19×10-6). CONCLUSIONS: Exome-based analysis in the setting of early-onset stroke is a promising strategy for identifying novel genetic risk variants, loci, and pathways.

4.
Nat Genet ; 52(9): 969-983, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839606

RESUMO

Large-scale whole-genome sequencing studies have enabled the analysis of rare variants (RVs) associated with complex phenotypes. Commonly used RV association tests have limited scope to leverage variant functions. We propose STAAR (variant-set test for association using annotation information), a scalable and powerful RV association test method that effectively incorporates both variant categories and multiple complementary annotations using a dynamic weighting scheme. For the latter, we introduce 'annotation principal components', multidimensional summaries of in silico variant annotations. STAAR accounts for population structure and relatedness and is scalable for analyzing very large cohort and biobank whole-genome sequencing studies of continuous and dichotomous traits. We applied STAAR to identify RVs associated with four lipid traits in 12,316 discovery and 17,822 replication samples from the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine Program. We discovered and replicated new RV associations, including disruptive missense RVs of NPC1L1 and an intergenic region near APOC1P1 associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Genoma/genética , LDL-Colesterol/genética , Simulação por Computador , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular/métodos , Fenótipo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The burden of diabetes and cardiovascular risk is not uniform across the USA, with much of this disparity tracking differences in socioeconomic status, cultural practices and lifestyle. To further evaluate disparities in these disorders, we assessed the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia in an Old Order Amish community that is characterized by distinctive sociocultural practices that include a very cohesive social structure and limited use of modern technologies and medications. We compared prevalence of these conditions with that of the overall US population. METHOD: We performed a community-wide survey in 5377 Amish individuals aged 18 years and older from the Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, Amish settlement that included a basic physical examination and fasting blood draw during the period 2010-2018. We then compared the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol, defined using standard criteria, between the Amish and the European Caucasian subsample of the 2013-2014 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). RESULTS: Prevalence rates for diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were 3.3%, 12.7%, and 26.2% in the Amish compared with 13.2%, 37.8% and 35.7% in NHANES (p<0.001 for all). Among individuals with these disorders, Amish were less likely to be aware that they were affected, and among those aware, were less likely to be treated with a medication for their disorder. CONCLUSION: There is substantially lower prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia in the Amish compared with non-Amish Caucasians in the USA. Possible factors contributing to this disparity include higher physical activity levels in the Amish or other protective sociocultural factors, a greater understanding of which could inform risk reduction interventions for these chronic diseases.

6.
Neuroepidemiology ; 54(5): 392-397, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739915

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous research has suggested that the Amish may experience a relatively high prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD) and/or parkinsonian motor signs. METHODS: In a large sample from the Amish community in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, age ≥18 years, we assessed the prevalence of self-reported PD diagnosis. For those without self-reported PD diagnosis, we assessed the frequency of PD-related motor symptoms using a 9-item questionnaire that was designed by the PD Epidemiology Research Group. Lastly, we queried study participants for the presence of 2 nonmotor symptoms that have been commonly linked to PD: bowel movement frequency and daytime sleepiness. RESULTS: Among 2,025 subjects who answered the PD questionnaire, 430 were older than 60 years. Of 430 participants ≥60 years, 5 (1.2%) reported a PD diagnosis. Of those without a PD diagnosis, 10.5% reported ≥1 and 1.2% ≥ 4 motor symptoms for the 9-item PD screening questionnaire. Of the 3,789 subjects who answered the question about bowel movement frequency, 0.7% reported ≤3 bowel movements per week. Among 1,710 subjects who answered the question about daytime sleepiness, 8.1% of the participants reported "always" sleepy during the day. DISCUSSION: These data neither support a markedly higher PD prevalence in the older Lancaster Amish nor do they show dramatically higher motor and/or selected nonmotor symptoms than the general population. Future studies that employ more rigorous procedures for case identification and PD-specific preclinical symptoms/tests are needed to determine the potential differences and similarities among different Amish populations and between Amish and non-Amish populations.

7.
Stroke ; 51(8): 2454-2463, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke is a complex disease with multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. Blacks endure a nearly 2-fold greater risk of stroke and are 2× to 3× more likely to die from stroke than European Americans. METHODS: The COMPASS (Consortium of Minority Population Genome-Wide Association Studies of Stroke) has conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of stroke in >22 000 individuals of African ancestry (3734 cases, 18 317 controls) from 13 cohorts. RESULTS: In meta-analyses, we identified one single nucleotide polymorphism (rs55931441) near the HNF1A gene that reached genome-wide significance (P=4.62×10-8) and an additional 29 variants with suggestive evidence of association (P<1×10-6), representing 24 unique loci. For validation, a look-up analysis for a 100 kb region flanking the COMPASS single nucleotide polymorphism was performed in SiGN (Stroke Genetics Network) Europeans, SiGN Hispanics, and METASTROKE (Europeans). Using a stringent Bonferroni correction P value of 2.08×10-3 (0.05/24 unique loci), we were able to validate associations at the HNF1A locus in both SiGN (P=8.18×10-4) and METASTROKE (P=1.72×10-3) European populations. Overall, 16 of 24 loci showed evidence for validation across multiple populations. Previous studies have reported associations between variants in the HNF1A gene and lipids, C-reactive protein, and risk of coronary artery disease and stroke. Suggestive associations with variants in the SFXN4 and TMEM108 genes represent potential novel ischemic stroke loci. CONCLUSIONS: These findings represent the most thorough investigation of genetic determinants of stroke in individuals of African descent, to date.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Afro-Americanos/etnologia , Estudos de Coortes , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Humanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia
8.
Neurology ; 95(1): e79-e88, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493718

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine etiologic stroke subtypes and vascular risk factor profiles and their association with white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden in patients hospitalized for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). METHODS: For the MRI Genetics Interface Exploration (MRI-GENIE) study, we systematically assembled brain imaging and phenotypic data for 3,301 patients with AIS. All cases underwent standardized web tool-based stroke subtyping with the Causative Classification of Ischemic Stroke (CCS). WMH volume (WMHv) was measured on T2 brain MRI scans of 2,529 patients with a fully automated deep-learning trained algorithm. Univariable and multivariable linear mixed-effects modeling was carried out to investigate the relationship of vascular risk factors with WMHv and CCS subtypes. RESULTS: Patients with AIS with large artery atherosclerosis, major cardioembolic stroke, small artery occlusion (SAO), other, and undetermined causes of AIS differed significantly in their vascular risk factor profile (all p < 0.001). Median WMHv in all patients with AIS was 5.86 cm3 (interquartile range 2.18-14.61 cm3) and differed significantly across CCS subtypes (p < 0.0001). In multivariable analysis, age, hypertension, prior stroke, smoking (all p < 0.001), and diabetes mellitus (p = 0.041) were independent predictors of WMHv. When adjusted for confounders, patients with SAO had significantly higher WMHv compared to those with all other stroke subtypes (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In this international multicenter, hospital-based cohort of patients with AIS, we demonstrate that vascular risk factor profiles and extent of WMH burden differ by CCS subtype, with the highest lesion burden detected in patients with SAO. These findings further support the small vessel hypothesis of WMH lesions detected on brain MRI of patients with ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Substância Branca/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Aprendizado Profundo , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
9.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 108(5): 1067-1077, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32472697

RESUMO

Antiplatelet response to clopidogrel shows wide variation, and poor response is correlated with adverse clinical outcomes. CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles play an important role in this response, but account for only a small proportion of variability in response to clopidogrel. An aim of the International Clopidogrel Pharmacogenomics Consortium (ICPC) is to identify other genetic determinants of clopidogrel pharmacodynamics and clinical response. A genomewide association study (GWAS) was performed using DNA from 2,750 European ancestry individuals, using adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet reactivity and major cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events as outcome parameters. GWAS for platelet reactivity revealed a strong signal for CYP2C19*2 (P value = 1.67e-33). After correction for CYP2C19*2 no other single-nucleotide polymorphism reached genomewide significance. GWAS for a combined clinical end point of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (5.0% event rate), or a combined end point of cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction (4.7% event rate) showed no significant results, although in coronary artery disease, percutaneous coronary intervention, and acute coronary syndrome subgroups, mutations in SCOS5P1, CDC42BPA, and CTRAC1 showed genomewide significance (lowest P values: 1.07e-09, 4.53e-08, and 2.60e-10, respectively). CYP2C19*2 is the strongest genetic determinant of on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity. We identified three novel associations in clinical outcome subgroups, suggestive for each of these outcomes.

10.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 50, 2020 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) has been associated with endothelial dysfunction, an early marker of cardiovascular risk. Our aim was to extend this research to a genetically homogenous, geographically stable rural population using location-specific moving-average air pollution exposure estimates indexed to the date of endothelial function measurement. METHODS: We measured endothelial function using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in 615 community-dwelling healthy Amish participants. Exposures to PM < 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and PM < 10 µm (PM10) were estimated at participants' residential addresses using previously developed geographic information system-based spatio-temporal models and normalized. Associations between PM exposures and FMD were evaluated using linear mixed-effects regression models, and polynomial distributed lag (PDL) models followed by Bayesian model averaging (BMA) were used to assess response to delayed effects occurring across multiple months. RESULTS: Exposure to PM10 was consistently inversely associated with FMD, with the strongest (most negative) association for a 12-month moving average (- 0.09; 95% CI: - 0.15, - 0.03). Associations with PM2.5 were also strongest for a 12-month moving average but were weaker than for PM10 (- 0.07; 95% CI: - 0.13, - 0.09). Associations of PM2.5 and PM10 with FMD were somewhat stronger in men than in women, particularly for PM10. CONCLUSIONS: Using location-specific moving-average air pollution exposure estimates, we have shown that 12-month moving-average estimates of PM2.5 and PM10 exposure are associated with impaired endothelial function in a rural population.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Amish/estatística & dados numéricos , Artéria Braquial/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artéria Braquial/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pennsylvania , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Foot Ankle Res ; 13(1): 11, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hallux valgus, one of the most common structural foot deformities, is highly heritable. However, previous efforts to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of hallux valgus through a genome-wide association study (GWAS) conducted in 4409 Caucasians did not identify genome-wide significant associations with hallux valgus in both gender-specific and sex-combined GWAS meta-analyses. In this analysis, we add newly available data and more densely imputed genotypes to identify novel genetic variants associated with hallux valgus. METHODS: A total of 5925 individuals of European Ancestry were categorized into two groups: 'hallux valgus present' (n = 2314) or 'no deformity' (n = 3611) as determined by trained examiners or using the Manchester grading scale. Genotyping was performed using commercially available arrays followed by imputation to the Haplotype Reference Consortium (HRC) reference panel version 1.1. We conducted both sex-specific and sex-combined association analyses using logistic regression and generalized estimating equations as appropriate in each cohort. Results were then combined in a fixed-effects inverse-variance meta-analyses. Functional Mapping and Annotation web-based platform (FUMA) was used for positional mapping, gene and gene-set analyses. RESULTS: We identified a novel locus in the intronic region of CLCA2 on chromosome 1, rs55807512 (OR = 0.48, p = 2.96E-09), an expression quantitative trait locus for COL24A1, a member of the collagen gene family. CONCLUSION: In this report of the largest GWAS of hallux valgus to date, we identified a novel genome-wide significant locus for hallux valgus. Additional replication and functional follow-up will be needed to determine the functional role of this locus in hallux valgus biology.

14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(7): 963-972, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047268

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke (IS), caused by obstruction of cerebral blood flow, is one of the leading causes of death. While neurologists agree on delineation of IS into three subtypes (cardioembolic stroke (CES), large artery stroke (LAS), and small vessel stroke (SVS)), several subtyping systems exist. The most commonly used systems are TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) and CCS (Causative Classification System for Stroke), but agreement is only moderate. We have compared two approaches to combining the existing subtyping systems for a phenotype suited for a genome-wide association study (GWAS). We used the NINDS Stroke Genetics Network dataset (SiGN, 11,477 cases with CCS and TOAST subtypes and 28,026 controls). We defined two new phenotypes: the intersect, for which an individual must be assigned the same subtype by CCS and TOAST; and the union, for which an individual must be assigned a subtype by either CCS or TOAST. The union yields the largest sample size while the intersect yields a phenotype with less potential misclassification. We performed GWAS for all subtypes, using the original subtyping systems, the intersect, and the union as phenotypes. In each subtype, heritability was higher for the intersect compared with the other phenotypes. We observed stronger effects at known IS variants with the intersect compared with the other phenotypes. With the intersect, we identify rs10029218:G>A as an associated variant with SVS. We conclude that this approach increases the likelihood to detect genetic associations in ischemic stroke.

15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(5): 2560-2569, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964835

RESUMO

De novo mutations (DNMs), or mutations that appear in an individual despite not being seen in their parents, are an important source of genetic variation whose impact is relevant to studies of human evolution, genetics, and disease. Utilizing high-coverage whole-genome sequencing data as part of the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Program, we called 93,325 single-nucleotide DNMs across 1,465 trios from an array of diverse human populations, and used them to directly estimate and analyze DNM counts, rates, and spectra. We find a significant positive correlation between local recombination rate and local DNM rate, and that DNM rate explains a substantial portion (8.98 to 34.92%, depending on the model) of the genome-wide variation in population-level genetic variation from 41K unrelated TOPMed samples. Genome-wide heterozygosity does correlate with DNM rate, but only explains <1% of variation. While we are underpowered to see small differences, we do not find significant differences in DNM rate between individuals of European, African, and Latino ancestry, nor across ancestrally distinct segments within admixed individuals. However, we did find significantly fewer DNMs in Amish individuals, even when compared with other Europeans, and even after accounting for parental age and sequencing center. Specifically, we found significant reductions in the number of C→A and T→C mutations in the Amish, which seem to underpin their overall reduction in DNMs. Finally, we calculated near-zero estimates of narrow sense heritability (h 2), which suggest that variation in DNM rate is significantly shaped by nonadditive genetic effects and the environment.


Assuntos
Amish/genética , Genoma Humano , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Genética Populacional , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Linhagem , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Psychiatr Res ; 122: 97-104, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981963

RESUMO

Overlapping pathways between mood and metabolic regulation have increasingly been reported. Although impaired regulation of adiponectin, a major metabolism-regulating hormone, has been implicated in major depressive disorder, its role in seasonal changes in mood and seasonal affective disorder-winter type (SAD), a disorder characterized by onset of mood impairment and metabolic dysregulation (e.g., carbohydrate craving and weight gain) in fall/winter and spontaneous alleviation in spring/summer, has not been previously studied. We studied a convenience sample of 636 Old Order Amish (mean (± SD), 53.6 (±14.8) years; 50.1% males), a population with self-imposed restriction on network electric light at home, and low prevalence of total SAD (t-SAD = syndromal + subsyndromal). We calculated the global seasonality score (GSS), estimated SAD and subsyndromal-SAD after obtaining Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaires (SPAQs), and measured overnight fasting plasma adiponectin levels. We then tested associations between plasma adiponectin levels and GSS, t-SAD, winter-summer difference in self-reported sleep duration, and self-reported seasonal weight change, by using analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA) and linear regression analysis after adjusting for age, gender, and BMI. Participants with t-SAD (N = 14; 2.2%) had significantly lower plasma adiponectin levels (mean ± SEM, 8.76 ± 1.56 µg/mL) than those without t-SAD (mean ± SEM, 11.93 ± 0.22 µg/mL) (p = 0.035). In addition, there was significant negative association between adiponectin levels and winter-summer difference in self-reported sleep duration (p = 0.025) and between adiponectin levels and self-reported seasonal change in weight (p = 0.006). There was no significant association between GSS and adiponectin levels (p = 0.88). To our knowledge, this is the first study testing the association of SAD with adiponectin levels. Replication and extension of our findings longitudinally and, then, interventionally, may implicate low adiponectin as a novel target for therapeutic intervention in SAD.

17.
Bone ; 132: 115175, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790847

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Osteoporosis is a major public health burden with significant economic costs. However, the correlates of bone health in Hispanic children are understudied. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) at multiple skeletal sites in Hispanic children. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional genome-wide linkage analysis, genome-wide and exome-wide association analysis of BMD and BMC. The Viva La Familia Study is a family-based cohort with a total of 1030 Hispanic children (4-19 years old at baseline) conducted in Houston, TX. BMD and BMC were measured by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: Significant heritability were observed for BMC and BMD at multiple skeletal sites ranging between 44 and 68% (P < 2.8 × 10-9). Significant evidence for linkage was found for BMD of pelvis and left leg on chromosome 7p14, lumbar spine on 20q13 and left rib on 6p21, and BMC of pelvis on chromosome 20q12 and total body on 14q22-23 (logarithm of odds score > 3). We found genome-wide significant association between BMC of right arm and rs762920 at PVALB (P = 4.6 × 10-8), and between pelvis BMD and rs7000615 at PTK2B (P = 7.4 × 10-8). Exome-wide association analysis revealed novel association of variants at MEGF10 and ABRAXAS2 with left arm and lumber spine BMC, respectively (P < 9 × 10-7). CONCLUSIONS: We identified novel loci associated with BMC and BMD in Hispanic children, with strongest evidence for PTK2B. These findings provide better understanding of bone genetics and shed light on biological mechanisms underlying BMD and BMC variation.

18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(1): 112-120, 2020 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883642

RESUMO

Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) can improve assessment of low-frequency and rare variants, particularly in non-European populations that have been underrepresented in existing genomic studies. The genetic determinants of C-reactive protein (CRP), a biomarker of chronic inflammation, have been extensively studied, with existing genome-wide association studies (GWASs) conducted in >200,000 individuals of European ancestry. In order to discover novel loci associated with CRP levels, we examined a multi-ancestry population (n = 23,279) with WGS (∼38× coverage) from the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program. We found evidence for eight distinct associations at the CRP locus, including two variants that have not been identified previously (rs11265259 and rs181704186), both of which are non-coding and more common in individuals of African ancestry (∼10% and ∼1% minor allele frequency, respectively, and rare or monomorphic in 1000 Genomes populations of East Asian, South Asian, and European ancestry). We show that the minor (G) allele of rs181704186 is associated with lower CRP levels and decreased transcriptional activity and protein binding in vitro, providing a plausible molecular mechanism for this African ancestry-specific signal. The individuals homozygous for rs181704186-G have a mean CRP level of 0.23 mg/L, in contrast to individuals heterozygous for rs181704186 with mean CRP of 2.97 mg/L and major allele homozygotes with mean CRP of 4.11 mg/L. This study demonstrates the utility of WGS in multi-ethnic populations to drive discovery of complex trait associations of large effect and to identify functional alleles in noncoding regulatory regions.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(50): 25243-25249, 2019 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754041

RESUMO

Cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia and hypertension increase the risk for white matter pathology and cognitive decline. We hypothesize that white matter levels of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), a chemical involved in the metabolic pathway for myelin lipid synthesis, could serve as a biomarker that tracks the influence of cardiovascular risk factors on white matter prior to emergence of clinical changes. To test this, we measured levels of NAA across white matter and gray matter in the brain using echo planar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) in 163 individuals and examined the relationship of regional NAA levels and cardiovascular risk factors as indexed by the Framingham Cardiovascular Risk Score (FCVRS). NAA was strongly and negatively correlated with FCVRS across the brain, but, after accounting for age and sex, the association was found primarily in white matter regions, with additional effects found in the thalamus, hippocampus, and cingulate gyrus. FCVRS was also negatively correlated with creatine levels, again primarily in white matter. The results suggest that cardiovascular risks are related to neurochemistry with a predominantly white matter pattern and some subcortical and cortical gray matter involvement. NAA mapping of the brain may provide early surveillance for the potential subclinical impact of cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors on the brain.


Assuntos
Ácido Aspártico/análogos & derivados , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Substância Cinzenta/metabolismo , Substância Branca/metabolismo , Adulto , Ácido Aspártico/análise , Ácido Aspártico/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Imagem Ecoplanar , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/química , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Substância Branca/química , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623376

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an intracellular parasite infecting one third of the world's population. Latent T. gondii infection has been associated with mental illness, including schizophrenia and suicidal behavior. T. gondii IgG antibody titers were measured via ELISA. The heritability of T. gondii IgG was estimated using a mixed model that included fixed effects for age and sex and random kinship effect. Of 2017 Old Order Amish participants, 1098 had positive titers (54.4%). The heritability for T. gondii serointensity was estimated to be 0.22 (p = 1.7 × 10-8 and for seropositivity, it was estimated to be 0.28 (p = 1.9 × 10-5). Shared household environmental effects (i.e., household effects) were also determined. Household effects, modeled as a random variable, were assessed as the phenotypic covariance between any two individuals who had the same current address (i.e., contemporaneous household), and nuclear household (i.e., the phenotypic covariance between parents and children only, not other siblings or spouses). Household effects did not account for a significant proportion of variance in either T. gondii serointensity or T. gondii seropositivity. Our results suggest a significant familial aggregation of T. gondii serointensity and seropositivity with significant heritability. The shared household does not contribute significantly to family aggregation with T. gondii, suggesting that there are possible unmeasured non-household shared and non-shared environmental factors that may play a significant role. Furthermore, the small but significant heritability effects justify the exploration of genetic vulnerability to T. gondii exposure, infection, virulence, and neurotropism.


Assuntos
Amish/genética , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose/genética , Adulto , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/genética , Criança , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia
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