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1.
Hum Genomics ; 13(1): 37, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of multiple myeloma (MM) have identified variants at 23 regions influencing risk, the genes underlying these associations are largely unknown. To identify candidate causal genes at these regions and search for novel risk regions, we performed a multi-tissue transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS). RESULTS: GWAS data on 7319 MM cases and 234,385 controls was integrated with Genotype-Tissue Expression Project (GTEx) data assayed in 48 tissues (sample sizes, N = 80-491), including lymphocyte cell lines and whole blood, to predict gene expression. We identified 108 genes at 13 independent regions associated with MM risk, all of which were in 1 Mb of known MM GWAS risk variants. Of these, 94 genes, located in eight regions, had not previously been considered as a candidate gene for that locus. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the value of leveraging expression data from multiple tissues to identify candidate genes responsible for GWAS associations which provide insight into MM tumorigenesis. Among the genes identified, a number have plausible roles in MM biology, notably APOBEC3C, APOBEC3H, APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G, or have been previously implicated in other malignancies. The genes identified in this TWAS can be explored for follow-up and validation to further understand their role in MM biology.

2.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218595, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247051

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Independently, physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB), and sleep are related to the development and progression of chronic diseases. Less is known about how rest-activity behaviors cluster within individuals and how rest-activity behavior profiles relate to health. In this study we aimed to investigate if adult women cluster into profiles based on how they accumulate rest-activity behavior (including accelerometer-measured PA, SB, and sleep), and if participant characteristics and health outcomes differ by profile membership. METHODS: A convenience sample of 372 women (mean age 55.38 + 10.16) were recruited from four US cities. Participants wore ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers on the hip and wrist for a week. Total daily minutes in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and percentage of wear-time spent in SB was estimated from the hip device. Total sleep time (hours/minutes) and sleep efficiency (% of in bed time asleep) were estimated from the wrist device. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was performed to identify clusters of participants based on accumulation of the four rest-activity variables. Adjusted ANOVAs were conducted to explore differences in demographic characteristics and health outcomes across profiles. RESULTS: Rest-activity variables clustered to form five behavior profiles: Moderately Active Poor Sleepers (7%), Highly Actives (9%), Inactives (41%), Moderately Actives (28%), and Actives (15%). The Moderately Active Poor Sleepers (profile 1) had the lowest proportion of whites (35% vs 78-91%, p < .001) and college graduates (28% vs 68-90%, p = .004). Health outcomes did not vary significantly across all rest-activity profiles. CONCLUSIONS: In this sample, women clustered within daily rest-activity behavior profiles. Identifying 24-hour behavior profiles can inform intervention population targets and innovative behavioral goals of multiple health behavior interventions.

3.
J Chem Phys ; 150(15): 154708, 2019 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005119

RESUMO

Porous media characterized by a hierarchy of length scales are ubiquitous in industry and nature, and include carbonate rocks, cements, heterogeneous catalysts, and biological cells. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a popular tool for studying liquid-saturated porous materials, where the spin relaxation rate is generally considered proportional to pore size. However, in porous granular media, the relaxation rate is modified by diffusion between the intraparticle and interparticle pores. The observed relaxation rates do not reflect the pore size under such conditions. Deconvolving the various contributions of surface relaxation, geometry, and diffusion is nontrivial, and forward models are a powerful technique for elucidating the underlying pore structure. Various forward models have been proposed previously, including analytic solutions and random walk simulations. Here, a finite element method is adopted to simulate the diffusion of nuclear magnetization in a coupled pore geometry. We validate our model against existing solutions and use the simulations to determine the surface relaxivity of powdered silica by matching experimental results. The finite element approach is more versatile than other modeling methods, allowing direct visualization of the diffusing magnetization and being trivially extensible to multidimensional NMR exchange experiments.

4.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 49(10): 1314-1322, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycophenolate mofetil is a commonly used salvage therapy for patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). AIM: To evaluate the predictors of response to mycophenolate rescue therapy to facilitate clinical decision making. METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational cohort study of AIH patients managed in 17 major Australian liver centres who received mycophenolate after an inadequate response or intolerance to corticosteroids with/without thiopurine(s). Baseline demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were compared between responders and nonresponders. A multivariable logistic regression model was developed using forward selection to identify independent predictors of treatment response. RESULTS: A total of 105 patients received mycophenolate rescue therapy of whom 63 (60%) achieved biochemical remission. On univariable analysis, older age (P = 0.003), INR < 1.1 (P = 0.02), and lower immunoglobulin gamma (IgG; P < 0.002) levels were associated with treatment response, while no association was found with cirrhosis status (P = 0.07) or treatment indication (P = 0.63). On multivariable analysis, lower pre-treatment serum IgG level (P = 0.01), higher age at commencing mycophenolate (P = 0.01) and higher INR (P = 0.03) were the only significant independent predictors. An IgG level <17 g/L had a positive and negative predictive value for response of 71% and 60% respectively, while age ≥54 years when commencing mycophenolate had a positive and negative predictive value for response of 80% and 59% respectively. CONCLUSION: Mycophenolate remains an excellent treatment option for patients with AIH refractory to or intolerant of standard therapy with those most likely to benefit being older and/or having lower pre-treatment IgG levels.

5.
J Magn Reson ; 301: 94-101, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861458

RESUMO

We present a nonlinear inversion method for generating sparse solutions to the Fredholm Integral equation describing two-dimensional distributions of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation times or diffusion coefficients. Our greedy variational method approximates the distribution of exponential rate constants using a sum of Dirac delta functions, which constitute our dictionary elements. The greedy nature of the method promotes sparsity in the representation by iteratively increasing the number of terms. The variational component estimates the parameters of the Dirac delta functions from a continuum at each iteration by reducing the least squares misfit to the data. Unlike sparsity promoting linearized inversion methods, where the dictionary is fixed and can exponentially grow in the case of multiple variables or when searching for higher resolution, the greedy component of our method aims to keep the dictionary small while the variational component keeps the dictionary dynamic. We demonstrate our method with synthetic data and experimental measurements of T1-T2 correlations of liquid-saturated porous rocks. The sparsity of the approximate solutions is ideal for real-time processing and transmission in remote or mobile NMR applications such as well logging.

6.
Ann Hum Genet ; 83(4): 231-238, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768683

RESUMO

Genomic regions of homozygosity (ROH), detectable in outbred populations, have been implicated as determinants of inherited risk. To examine whether ROH is associated with risk of multiple myeloma (MM), we performed whole-genome homozygosity analysis using single-nucleotide polymorphism genotype data from 2,282 MM cases and 5,197 controls, with replication in an additional 878 MM cases and 7,083 controls. Globally, the distribution of ROH between cases and controls was not significantly different. However, one ROH at chromosome 9q21, harboring the B-cell transcription factor gene KLF9, showed evidence of a consistent association and may therefore warrant further investigation as a candidate risk factor for MM. Overall, our analysis provides little support for a homozygosity signature being a significant factor in MM risk.

7.
J Phys Act Health ; 16(3): 214-221, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30798690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study tested if the timing of meals, physical activity, light exposure, and sleep cluster within individuals and are associated with body mass index (BMI) in a sample of free-living adults (N = 125). METHODS: Data were collected between November 2015 and March 2016 at the University of California, San Diego, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, and Washington University in St Louis. Height and weight were measured, and BMI (kg/m2) was calculated. Sleep timing was estimated using actigraphy, and timing of meals, physical activity, and light exposure were self-reported using a smartphone application. General linear models estimated the mean BMI across time categories of behaviors, adjusting for covariates. A latent class analysis was used to identify patterns of timing variables that clustered within individuals and test for associations between identified patterns and BMI. RESULTS: Later exposure to outdoor light was associated with a lower BMI (P trend < .01). The timing of other behaviors was not independently associated with BMI. The latent class analysis identified 2 distinct groups related to behavioral timing, reflecting an "early bird" and "night owl" phenotype. These phenotypes were not associated with BMI (P > .05). CONCLUSION: Timing of exposures to light, meals, sleep, and physical activity were not strongly associated with BMI in this sample.

8.
Bone ; 121: 221-226, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30711642

RESUMO

Over the past two decades, a low frequency variant (rs1800012) within the first intron of the type I collagen alpha 1 (COLIA1) gene has been implicated in lower areal BMD (aBMD) and increased risk of osteoporotic fracture. This association is particularly strong in postmenopausal women, in whom net bone loss arises in the context of high bone turnover. High bone turnover also accompanies childhood linear growth; however, the role of rs1800012 in this stage of net bone accretion is less well understood. Thus, we assessed the association between rs1800012 and aBMD and bone mineral content (BMC) Z-scores for the 1/3 distal radius, lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck total body less head in the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study, a mixed-longitudinal cohort of children and adolescents (total n = 804 girls and 771 boys; n = 19 girls and 22 boys with the TT genotype). Mixed effects modeling, stratified by sex, was used to test for associations between rs1800012 and aBMD or BMC Z-scores and for pubertal stage interactions. Separately, SITAR growth modeling of aBMD and BMC in subjects with longitudinal data reduced the complex longitudinal bone accrual curves into three parameters representing a-size, b-timing, and c-velocity. We tested for differences in these three parameters by rs1800012 genotype using t-tests. Girls with the TT genotype had significantly lower aBMD and BMC Z-scores prior to puberty completion (e.g. spine aBMD-Z P-interaction = 1.0 × 10-6), but this association was attenuated post-puberty. SITAR models revealed that TT girls began pubertal bone accrual later (b-timing; e.g. total hip BMC, P = 0.03). BMC and aBMD Z-scores also increased across puberty in TT homozygous boys. Our data, along with previous findings in post-menopausal women, suggest that rs1800012 principally affects female bone density during periods of high turnover. Insights into the genetics of bone gain and loss may be masked during the relatively quiescent state in mid-adulthood, and discovery efforts should focus on early and late life.

9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 213, 2019 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30631080

RESUMO

The original version of this Article contained an error in the spelling of a member of the PRACTICAL Consortium, Manuela Gago-Dominguez, which was incorrectly given as Manuela Gago Dominguez. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article. Furthermore, in the original HTML version of this Article, the order of authors within the author list was incorrect. The PRACTICAL consortium was incorrectly listed after Richard S. Houlston and should have been listed after Nora Pashayan. This error has been corrected in the HTML version of the Article; the PDF version was correct at the time of publication.

11.
Chronobiol Int ; : 1-11, 2018 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30365354

RESUMO

Zeitgebers such as light, eating and physical activity provide input to the circadian clock. Chronic circadian misalignment is associated with significant adverse health effects. An improved understanding of the impact of the timing of zeitgebers on the stability of 24-hour rest-activity rhythm in free-living settings may identify behavioural and environmental intervention targets. A total of 133 healthy adults, aged 21-60 years, wore a wrist actigraph for 7 consecutive days. We applied a non-parametric analysis to activity counts to derive rest-activity patterns. We administered a questionnaire through a smartphone app to collect self-reported timing of light exposure, eating episodes and physical activity. To assess the relationship between timing exposures (first and last exposure to outdoor light, first exposure to indoor light, last eating episode, first eating episode, morning physical activity proportion, evening physical activity proportion) and rest-activity or sleep outcomes (bedtimes, total sleep time, inter-daily stability, intra-daily variability, L5 and M10 midpoint), we first calculated Spearman correlations, using the false discovery rate method to control for multiple comparisons. From those significant associations, we then fit regression models adjusting for age, sex, race, household income, education level, study site, body mass index, as well as physical activity. Finally, we tested for interaction between chronotype and each timing-related exposure and stratified the analysis by morning type. All zeitgebers, except for evening physical activity proportion, were correlated with at least four of the seven sleep and rest-activity outcomes. In adjusted analysis, later timing of first (after 6:30 to 7:45 AM versus earlier) and last exposure to indoor light (after 11:00 PM versus earlier) and first (after 7:45-9:45 AM versus earlier) and last eating episode (after 8:00-09:00 PM versus earlier) were associated with a shift of 0.60-1.39 hours to later bedtimes, M10 and L5 midpoints (i.e. timing of peak activities or inactivities). Later timing of first exposure to outdoor light (after 09:30 AM versus earlier) was also associated with 0.51 (95% CI: 0.19 to 0.83) hours longer total sleep time. Higher morning physical activity proportion (> 33%) was associated with 0.95 (95% CI: -1.38 to -0.53) hours earlier in-bed time and 0.69 (95% CI: -1.14 to -0.24) hours earlier out-of-bed time, 0.92 (95% CI: -1.41 to -0.42) hours earlier M10 and 0.96 (95% CI: -1.42 to -0.49) min earlier L5 midpoint. The results did not change substantially with further adjustment for total activity. There was a significant interaction between morning chronotype and first eating episode with rest-activity patterns (p < 0.05), with first eating episode associating with timing of activities only in non-morning type adults. Timing of zeitgebers was associated with sleep and rest-activity patterns, including bedtimes, L5 and M10 midpoint. Future research should evaluate the impact of manipulating zeitgebers on both circadian rhythms and health outcomes.

12.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2018 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312457

RESUMO

Background: BRCA1/2 mutations confer high lifetime risk of breast cancer, although other factors may modify this risk. Whether height or body mass index (BMI) modifies breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers remains unclear. Methods: We used Mendelian randomization approaches to evaluate the association of height and BMI on breast cancer risk, using data from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 with 14 676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, including 11 451 cases of breast cancer. We created a height genetic score using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score using 93 BMI-associated variants. We examined both observed and genetically determined height and BMI with breast cancer risk using weighted Cox models. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Observed height was positively associated with breast cancer risk (HR = 1.09 per 10 cm increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0 to 1.17; P = 1.17). Height genetic score was positively associated with breast cancer, although this was not statistically significant (per 10 cm increase in genetically predicted height, HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.93 to 1.17; P = .47). Observed BMI was inversely associated with breast cancer risk (per 5 kg/m2 increase, HR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.90 to 0.98; P = .007). BMI genetic score was also inversely associated with breast cancer risk (per 5 kg/m2 increase in genetically predicted BMI, HR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.76 to 0.98; P = .02). BMI was primarily associated with premenopausal breast cancer. Conclusion: Height is associated with overall breast cancer and BMI is associated with premenopausal breast cancer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Incorporating height and BMI, particularly genetic score, into risk assessment may improve cancer management.

13.
J Pediatr ; 2018 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30268397

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether body mass index (BMI) provides a better assessment of measured adiposity at age 1 month compared with weight-for-length (WFL). STUDY DESIGN: Participants were healthy term-born infants in the Infant Growth and Microbiome (n = 146) and the Baby Peas (n = 147) studies. Length, weight, and body composition by air displacement plethysmography were measured at 1 month. World Health Organization-based WFL and BMI z-scores were calculated. Within-cohort z-scores of percent fat-Z, fat mass-Z, fat mass/length2-Z, fat mass/length3-Z, fat-free mass-Z, and fat-free mass/length2-Z were calculated. Correlation and multiple linear regression (adjusted for birth weight) analyses tested the associations between body composition outcomes and BMI-Z vs WFL-Z. Quantile regression was used to test the stability of these associations across the distribution of body compositions. RESULTS: The sample was 52% female and 56% African American. Accounting for birth weight, both BMI-Z and WFL-Z were strongly associated with fat mass-Z (coefficients 0.56 and 0.35, respectively), FM/L2-Z (0.73 and 0.51), and FM/L3-Z (0.79 and 0.58), with stronger associations for BMI-Z compared with WFL-Z (P < .05). Even after accounting statistically for birth weight, BMI-Z was persistently more strongly associated than WFL-Z with body composition outcomes across the distribution of body composition outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate in 2 distinct cohorts that BMI is a better indicator of adiposity in early infancy compared with WFL. Our findings support the preferred use of BMI for growth and nutritional status assessment in infancy.

14.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3707, 2018 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30213928

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have transformed our understanding of susceptibility to multiple myeloma (MM), but much of the heritability remains unexplained. We report a new GWAS, a meta-analysis with previous GWAS and a replication series, totalling 9974 MM cases and 247,556 controls of European ancestry. Collectively, these data provide evidence for six new MM risk loci, bringing the total number to 23. Integration of information from gene expression, epigenetic profiling and in situ Hi-C data for the 23 risk loci implicate disruption of developmental transcriptional regulators as a basis of MM susceptibility, compatible with altered B-cell differentiation as a key mechanism. Dysregulation of autophagy/apoptosis and cell cycle signalling feature as recurrently perturbed pathways. Our findings provide further insight into the biological basis of MM.

16.
Syst Biol ; 2018 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29788398

RESUMO

Time-calibrated phylogenies of living species have been widely used to study the tempo and mode of species diversification. However, it is increasingly clear that inferences about species diversification - extinction rates in particular - can be unreliable in the absence of paleontological data. We introduce a general framework based on the fossilized birth-death process for studying speciation-extinction dynamics on phylogenies of extant and extinct species. The model assumes that phylogenies can be modeled as a mixture of distinct evolutionary rate regimes and that a hierarchical Poisson process governs the number of such rate regimes across a tree. We implemented the model in BAMM, a computational framework that uses reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo to simulate a posterior distribution of macroevolutionary rate regimes conditional on the branching times and topology of a phylogeny. The implementation we describe can be applied to paleontological phylogenies, neontological phylogenies, and to phylogenies that include both extant and extinct taxa. We evaluate performance of the model on datasets simulated under a range of diversification scenarios. We find that speciation rates are reliably inferred in the absence of paleontological data. However, the inclusion of fossil observations substantially increases the accuracy of extinction rate estimates. We demonstrate that inferences are relatively robust to at least some violations of model assumptions, including heterogeneity in preservation rates and misspecification of the number of occurrences in paleontological datasets.

17.
Syst Biol ; 67(5): 905-915, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29788496

RESUMO

We give a non-technical introduction to convergence-divergence models, a new modeling approach for phylogenetic data that allows for the usual divergence of lineages after lineage-splitting but also allows for taxa to converge, i.e. become more similar over time. By examining the $3$-taxon case in some detail, we illustrate that phylogeneticists have been "spoiled" in the sense of not having to think about the structural parameters in their models by virtue of the strong assumption that evolution is tree-like. We show that there are not always good statistical reasons to prefer the usual class of tree-like models over more general convergence-divergence models. Specifically, we show many $3$-taxon data sets can be equally well explained by supposing violation of the molecular clock due to change in the rate of evolution along different edges, or by keeping the assumption of a constant rate of evolution but instead assuming that evolution is not a purely divergent process. Given the abundance of evidence that evolution is not strictly tree-like, our discussion is an illustration that as phylogeneticists we need to think clearly about the structural form of the models we use. For cases with four taxa, we show that there will be far greater ability to distinguish models with convergence from non-clock-like tree models. [Akaike information criterion; convergence-divergence models; distinguishability; identifiability; likelihood; molecular clock; phylogeny.].


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Modelos Genéticos , Filogenia , Evolução Biológica
18.
Bone ; 112: 128-135, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29679731

RESUMO

We previously reported significant gains in pQCT measures of tibia trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) and cortical structure following completion of therapy in children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The objective of this study was to examine changes in DXA measures used in clinical practice and expressed as Z-scores using robust national reference data. Children and adolescents, ages 5 to 18 years were enrolled within 2 (median 0.8) years of completing ALL therapy. DXA total-body less-head bone mineral content (TBLH-BMC), and spine, total hip, femoral neck, and 1/3rd radius areal BMD (aBMD) were assessed in 45 participants at enrollment and 12-months later. Linear regression models examined correlates of changes in DXA Z-scores. Changes in DXA outcomes were compared to changes in tibia pQCT trabecular and cortical volumetric BMD (vBMD) and cortical area. At enrollment, DXA TBLH-BMC, spine and radius aBMD Z-scores were not significantly reduced in ALL survivors; however, total hip [median -0.74 (IQ range -1.51 to -0.04)] and femoral neck [-0.51 (-1.24 to 0.14)] aBMD Z-scores were lower (both p < 0.01) compared to reference data. DXA Z-scores at all skeletal sites increased over 12 months. Despite improvement, total hip Z-score remained lower at -0.55 (-1.05 to 0.18). The increases in TBLH-BMC, total hip and femoral neck aBMD Z-scores were more pronounced in those enrolled within 6 months of completing ALL therapy, compared to those enrolled at >6 months. Gains in TBLH-BMC, total hip, femoral neck and radius aBMD Z-scores were significantly associated with gains in tibia cortical area Z-scores (R = 0.56 to 0.67, p ≤ 0.001). Changes in TBLH and proximal femur sites were associated with gains in trabecular vBMD Z-scores (R = 0.37 to 0.40; p ≤ 0.01); these associations were not significant when adjusted for gains in cortical area. In summary, gains in DXA measures were most pronounced in total hip and femoral neck following ALL therapy. The gains in all DXA measures, with the exception of lumbar spine, reflected gains in cortical area. Overall, ALL survivors demonstrate skeletal recovery following completion of therapy; a small sub-group continue to demonstrate deficits and benefit from continued observation to ensure improvement over time.

19.
Leadersh Health Serv (Bradf Engl) ; 31(1): 77-97, 2018 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29412095

RESUMO

Purpose Strong leadership has been shown to foster change, including loyalty, improved performance and decreased error rates, but there is a dearth of evidence on effectiveness of leadership development programs. To ensure a return on the huge investments made, evidence-based approaches are needed to assess the impact of leadership on health-care establishments. As a part of a pan-Canadian initiative to design an effective evaluative instrument, the purpose of this paper was to identify and summarize evidence on health-care outcomes/return on investment (ROI) indicators and metrics associated with leadership quality, leadership development programs and existing evaluative instruments. Design/methodology/approach The authors performed a scoping review using the Arksey and O'Malley framework, searching eight databases from 2006 through June 2016. Findings Of 11,868 citations screened, the authors included 223 studies reporting on health-care outcomes/ROI indicators and metrics associated with leadership quality (73 studies), leadership development programs (138 studies) and existing evaluative instruments (12 studies). The extracted ROI indicators and metrics have been summarized in detail. Originality/value This review provides a snapshot in time of the current evidence on ROI indicators and metrics associated with leadership. Summarized ROI indicators and metrics can be used to design an effective evaluative instrument to assess the impact of leadership on health-care organizations.

20.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 50(5): 977-986, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29465475

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine if replacing time spent in high- and low-impact physical activity (PA) predicts changes in pediatric bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC). METHODS: We analyzed data from the longitudinal Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study (N = 2337 with up to seven visits). The participants were age 5-19 yr at baseline, 51.2% were female, and 80.6% were nonblack. Spine, total hip, and femoral neck areal BMD and total body less head (TBLH) BMC Z-scores were calculated. Hours per day spent in high- and low-impact PA were self-reported. Standard covariate-adjusted (partition model) and time allocation-sensitive isotemporal substitution modeling frameworks were applied to linear mixed models. Statistical interactions with sex, self-reported ancestry, age, and bone fragility genetic scores (percentage of areal BMD-lowering alleles carried) were tested. RESULTS: In standard models, high-impact PA was positively associated with bone Z-score at all four skeletal sites (e.g., TBLH-BMC Z-score: beta = 0.05, P = 2.0 × 10), whereas low-impact PA was not associated with any of the bone Z-scores. In isotemporal substitution models, replacing 1 h·d of low- for high-impact PA was associated with higher bone Z-scores (e.g., TBLH-BMC Z-score: beta = 0.06, P = 2.9 × 10). Conversely, replacing 1 h·d of high- for low-impact PA was associated with lower bone Z-scores (e.g., TBLH-BMC Z-score: beta = -0.06, P = 2.9 × 10). The substitution associations were similar for each sex and ancestry group, and for those with higher and lower genetic scores for bone fragility (P-interactions > 0.05), but increased in strength among the older adolescents (P-age interactions < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Time-sensitive models suggest that replacing low-impact PA for high-impact PA would be beneficial for the growing skeleton in the majority of children.

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