Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 236
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
J Pediatr Nurs ; 50: 75-80, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Huddles are short, regular debriefings that are designed to engage clinical staff in discussions about existing or emerging safety issues. They allow a brief conversation to take place creating a 'situational awareness' about the complexities of the healthcare environment for that day. METHODS: The huddle was implemented in a pediatric oncology service as an intervention aimed at improving patient safety and staff communication to enhance situational awareness. To ensure an efficient format for each huddle a huddle observational tool (HOT) was developed. An initial electronic anonymous survey focusing on safety and situational awareness was distributed to all of the multi-disciplinary (MDT) team. A second survey was disseminated 18 months post huddle introduction to scrutinize its effectiveness. Sustainability was assessed using staff attendance and huddle numbers. RESULTS: Four key areas demonstrated high situational awareness; safety awareness, incident management, communication and teamwork. Positive/negative pooled responses from both survey time points demonstrated a high percentage of positive responses, particularly relating to teamwork enhancement. The overwhelming finding was sustainability of the intervention of the huddle. The pediatric oncology services have now conducted over 700 huddles events over a three-year period. CONCLUSION: The initiation of the huddle has led to increased situational awareness and promotion of safety. It has been shown to be sustainable in the pediatric oncology setting, with durability and attendance of the huddle being the most significant outcome.

2.
J Clin Immunol ; 2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865525

RESUMO

Variants in MAGT1 have been identified as the cause of an immune deficiency termed X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and neoplasia (XMEN) disease. Here, we describe 2 cases of XMEN disease due to novel mutations in MAGT1, one of whom presented with classical features of XMEN disease and another who presented with a novel phenotype including probable CNS vasculitis, HHV-8 negative multicentric Castelman disease and severe molluscum contagiosum, thus highlighting the clinical diversity that may be seen in this condition. Peripheral blood immunophenotyping of these 2 patients, together with an additional 4 XMEN patients, revealed reduced NKG2D expression, impaired CD28 expression on CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cell lymphopenia, an inverted CD4:CD8 ratio and decreased memory B cells. In addition, we showed for the first time alterations to the CD8+ T cell memory compartment, reduced CD56hi NK cells, MAIT and iNKT cells, as well as compromised differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells into IL-21-producing Tfh-type cells in vitro. Both patients were treated with supplemental magnesium with limited benefit. However, one patient has undergone allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant, with full donor chimerism and immune reconstitution. These results expand our understanding of the clinical and immunological phenotype in XMEN disease, adding to the current literature, which we further discuss here.

3.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e033623, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748315

RESUMO

​OBJECTIVES: The study aim was to determine whether the range and distribution of all, and proportions of specific, land covers/uses within European cities are associated with city-specific mortality rates. ​SETTING: 233 European cities within 24 countries. ​PARTICIPANTS: Aggregated city-level all-cause and age-group standardised mortality ratio for males and females separately and Western or Eastern European Region. ​RESULTS: The proportion of specific land covers/uses within a city was related to mortality, displaying differences by macroregion and sex. The land covers/uses associated with lower standardised mortality ratio (SMR) for both Western and Eastern European cities were those characterised by 'natural' green space, such as forests and semi-natural areas (Western Female coefficient: -18.3, 95% CI -29.8 to -6.9). Dense housing was related to a higher SMR, most prominently in Western European cities (Western Female coefficient: 17.4, 95% CI 9.6 to 25.2). ​CONCLUSIONS: There is pressure to build on urban natural spaces, both for economic gain and because compact cities are regarded as more sustainable, yet here we offer evidence that doing so may detract from residents' health. Our study suggests that urban planners and developers need to regard retaining more wild and unstructured green space as important for healthy city systems.

4.
Zootaxa ; 4624(3): zootaxa.4624.3.3, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716210

RESUMO

We report current distributions of 16 species of Keratella Bory de St. Vincent, 1822 within lakes and reservoirs of the U.S. Specimens were identified from 988 lakes and reservoirs during spring and summer 2012 as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Lakes Assessment (NLA). We performed a co-occurrence analysis to determine correlations between species-pair occurrences and a niche-centroid analysis to predict optimal water quality conditions for each species. While a high degree of overlap in geographic range was observed among the species, distribution maps showed that K. quadrata was largely confined to more northern latitudes and K. americana was confined primarily to the eastern U.S. Other common species were either ubiquitously or sparsely distributed across ecoregions, suggesting that their distribution may be more related to inter-species competition or local water quality parameters. This study expands the limited pool of knowledge on rotifer biogeography within the U.S.


Assuntos
Rotíferos , Animais , Lagos , Plâncton , Estações do Ano , Estados Unidos , Qualidade da Água
5.
Support Care Cancer ; 27(12): 4451-4460, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541306

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The use of high-dose chemotherapy and radiotherapy combined with haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) may negatively affect a woman's reproductive potential. Reproductive outcomes such as infertility are a major concern for women who undergo treatment for a haematological cancer diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review and meta-analysis explores reproductive outcomes following a haematological cancer requiring HSCT. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched to identify studies that reported on reproductive outcomes after treatment for a haematological cancer diagnosis. Studies were included that reported on pregnancy and reproductive outcomes following HSCT for a haematological malignancy. RESULTS: The meta-analysis included 14 studies, collectively involving 744 female patients. The subgroup analysis showed an overall pooled estimated pregnancy rate, for autologous or allogeneic HSCT recipients, of 22.7% (n = 438). There were 25% (n = 240) of women who became pregnant after autologous HSCT compared with 22% (n = 198) who subsequently became pregnant following allogeneic HSCT. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis reflects low pregnancy rates for cancer survivors desiring a family. However, live births are improving over time with new technology and novel therapies. Hence, female cancer patients should be offered timely discussions, counselling and education around fertility preservation options prior to starting treatment with gonadotoxic therapy.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Taxa de Gravidez , Feminino , Preservação da Fertilidade , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
6.
Science ; 365(6450)2019 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320509

RESUMO

Sex differences abound in human health and disease, as they do in other mammals used as models. The extent to which sex differences are conserved at the molecular level across species and tissues is unknown. We surveyed sex differences in gene expression in human, macaque, mouse, rat, and dog, across 12 tissues. In each tissue, we identified hundreds of genes with conserved sex-biased expression-findings that, combined with genomic analyses of human height, explain ~12% of the difference in height between females and males. We surmise that conserved sex biases in expression of genes otherwise operating equivalently in females and males contribute to sex differences in traits. However, most sex-biased expression arose during the mammalian radiation, which suggests that careful attention to interspecies divergence is needed when modeling human sex differences.

7.
Tob Control ; 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying factors shaping knowledge of and attitudes towards tobacco products in preadolescence is a key component supporting tobacco control policies aimed at preventing smoking initiation. This study quantified exposure to tobacco retailing environments within the individual-level activity spaces of children across a socioeconomic gradient. METHODS: One week of global positioning system (GPS) tracking data were collected at 10 s intervals from a nationally representative sample of 10-11-year olds (n=692). Proximity of GPS locations (n=~16 M) to the nearest tobacco retailer (n=9030) was measured and exposure defined when a child came within 10 m of a retailer. Duration, frequency, timing and source of exposure were compared across income deprivation quintiles, along with retail density within children's home neighbourhoods. RESULTS: On average, children were exposed to tobacco retailing for 22.7 min (95% CI 16.8 to 28.6) per week in 42.7 (35.2-50.1) independent encounters. However, children from the most deprived areas accumulated six times the duration and seven times the frequency of exposure as children from the least deprived areas. Home neighbourhood retail densities were 2.6 times higher in deprived areas, yet the average number of businesses encountered did not differ. Most exposure came from convenience stores (35%) and newsagents (15%), with temporal peaks before and after school hours. CONCLUSIONS: By accounting for individual mobility, we showed that children in socially disadvantaged areas accumulate higher levels of exposure to tobacco retailing than expected from disparities in home neighbourhood densities. Reducing tobacco outlet availability, particularly in areas frequently used by children, might be crucial to policies aimed at creating 'tobacco-free' generations.

8.
Cardiovasc Pathol ; 42: 44-53, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255975

RESUMO

This article introduces the Second Special Issue of Cardiovascular Pathology (CVP), the official journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology (SCVP). This CVP Special Issue showcases a series of commemorative review articles in celebration of the 25th anniversary of CVP originally published in 2016 and now compiled into a virtual collection with online access for the cardiovascular pathology community. This overview also provides updates on the major categories of cardiovascular diseases from the perspective of cardiovascular pathologists, highlighting publications from CVP, as well as additional important review articles and clinicopathologic references.


Assuntos
Vasos Sanguíneos/patologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Causas de Morte , Humanos , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
9.
Pediatr Transplant ; 23(6): e13517, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271477

RESUMO

TCR α+ ß+ /CD19+ cell depletion is an emerging technique for ex vivo graft manipulation in HSCT. We report 20 pediatric patients who underwent TCR α+ ß+ /CD19+ cell-depleted HSCT in four Australian centers. Conditioning regimen was dependent on HSCT indication, which included immunodeficiency (n = 14), Fanconi anemia (n = 3), and acute leukemia (n = 3). Donor sources were haploidentical parent (n = 17), haploidentical sibling (n = 2), or matched unrelated donor (n = 1). Mean cell dose was 8.2 × 108 /kg TNC, 12.1 × 106 /kg CD34+ cells, and 0.4 × 105 /kg TCR α+ ß+ cells. All patients achieved primary neutrophil and platelet engraftment, with average time to neutrophil engraftment 11 days (range 8-22) and platelet engraftment 24 days (range 12-69). TRM at 1 year was 15%. Rate of grade II-IV aGVHD at 1 year was 20% with no grade III-IV aGVHD seen. CMV reactivation occurred in 81% of CMV-positive recipients, with one patient developing CMV disease. Average time to CD4 recovery (>400 × 106 /L) was 258 days. Overall survival for the cohort at 5 years was 80%. This report highlights the initial experience of TCR α+ ß+ /CD19+ cell-depleted HSCT in Australian centers, with high rates of engraftment, low rates of aGVHD, and acceptable TRM.

10.
Sci Adv ; 5(7): eaax0903, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355340

RESUMO

A growing body of empirical evidence is revealing the value of nature experience for mental health. With rapid urbanization and declines in human contact with nature globally, crucial decisions must be made about how to preserve and enhance opportunities for nature experience. Here, we first provide points of consensus across the natural, social, and health sciences on the impacts of nature experience on cognitive functioning, emotional well-being, and other dimensions of mental health. We then show how ecosystem service assessments can be expanded to include mental health, and provide a heuristic, conceptual model for doing so.

12.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(5): 505-511, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172381

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is curative for many patients with primary immune deficiency (PID). Haploidentical donors have historically been associated with higher rates of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and graft failure. Use of T cell receptor (TCR) α+ß+/CD19+-depleted grafts has resulted in improved haploidentical HSCT outcomes. We sought to evaluate outcomes of TCR α+ß+/CD19+-depleted haploidentical HSCT in pediatric patients with PID at a single center in Australia. Specifically, we evaluated immune reconstitution, looking at time to T cell and B cell reconstitution, and B cell function post-HSCT. Eleven patients with a mean age of 7.92 years (range 0.33-17.17 years) were included. The median time to B cell recovery was 93 days (range 41-205 days), and the median time to cessation of immunoglobulin replacement was 281.5 days (range 41-205 days). All patients who had ceased immunoglobulin replacement had an adequate response to pneumococcal conjugate (Prevenar 13) vaccine. The median time to CD4+ recovery was 132 days (range 30-296 days), and naive T cells were present in all surviving patients by 4 months post-HSCT. Eight of 11 patients are surviving, with six patients having whole blood chimerism greater than 95%, one patient with whole blood chimerism of 82.8%, and another with 76.0%. All of these patients clinically had no evidence of underlying immunodeficiency. Likelihood of overall survival at 2 years post-HSCT was 81.8%. Cumulative incidence of acute GvHD was 27.3%. Cumulative incidence of CMV viremia was 63.6%. All patients previously exposed to CMV had reactivation post-HSCT, but were controlled with pre-emptive CMV treatment. Assuming most children with PID have a haploidentical donor available, use of this technique is likely to result in good outcomes for patients who do not have a suitable matched sibling or matched unrelated donor.

13.
Sports (Basel) ; 7(6)2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185675

RESUMO

Engagement with nature is an important part of many people's lives, and the health and wellbeing benefits of nature-based activities are becoming increasingly recognised across disciplines from city planning to medicine. Despite this, urbanisation, challenges of modern life and environmental degradation are leading to a reduction in both the quantity and the quality of nature experiences. Nature-based health interventions (NBIs) can facilitate behavioural change through a somewhat structured promotion of nature-based experiences and, in doing so, promote improved physical, mental and social health and wellbeing. We conducted a Delphi expert elicitation process with 19 experts from seven countries (all named authors on this paper) to identify the different forms that such interventions take, the potential health outcomes and the target beneficiaries. In total, 27 NBIs were identified, aiming to prevent illness, promote wellbeing and treat specific physical, mental or social health and wellbeing conditions. These interventions were broadly categorized into those that change the environment in which people live, work, learn, recreate or heal (for example, the provision of gardens in hospitals or parks in cities) and those that change behaviour (for example, engaging people through organized programmes or other activities). We also noted the range of factors (such as socioeconomic variation) that will inevitably influence the extent to which these interventions succeed. We conclude with a call for research to identify the drivers influencing the effectiveness of NBIs in enhancing health and wellbeing.

14.
Bioanalysis ; 11(10): 987-1001, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218898

RESUMO

Aim: Osimertinib (Tagrisso, AZD9291) has been approved for the treatment of patients with metastatic EGFRm T790M non-small-cell lung cancer. Results: Rapid and sensitive LC-MC/MS methods were developed for osimertinib and its metabolites, AZ13597550 and AZ13575104, in human plasma (low- and high-range), urine and cerebrospinal fluid. We discuss the challenges of these multi-analyte and multiple matrix assays. The methods have been successfully validated and used for the analysis of over 20,000 clinical samples, with successful incurred sample reproducibility. Conclusion: The assays have been shown to be selective, accurate and robust, providing high-throughput analysis during the clinical development of osimertinib.


Assuntos
Acrilamidas/análise , Compostos de Anilina/análise , Análise Química do Sangue/métodos , Urinálise/métodos , Acrilamidas/sangue , Acrilamidas/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Acrilamidas/urina , Compostos de Anilina/sangue , Compostos de Anilina/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Compostos de Anilina/urina , Hemólise , Humanos , Limite de Detecção
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(6): 348, 2019 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055662

RESUMO

Two commonly used approaches for water quality monitoring are probabilistic and targeted. In a probabilistic approach like the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Rivers and Streams Assessment, monitoring sites are selected using a statistically representative approach. In a targeted approach like that used by many monitoring organizations, monitoring sites are chosen individually to answer specific questions. One important goal of both approaches is documenting long-term changes in water quality. Here, we compare chloride change results in US rivers and streams between the early 2000s and early 2010s from both approaches. The probabilistic approach provided an unbiased representation of change in all US rivers and streams, but was designed to measure low-streamflow conditions within a spring/summer index period during periodic survey years. The targeted approach was focused on larger, more developed watersheds but samples were collected frequently throughout the assessment period in different seasons and streamflows. The probabilistic results showed a small decrease in chloride concentrations in rivers and streams with the lowest concentrations, but no consistent increase or decrease in the remainder. The increased granularity of the targeted results showed that there was, in fact, a mix of changes occurring, with increases at 132 sites, decreases at 112 sites, and relatively stable conditions at 55 sites. The combined results suggest that chloride is not responding to a widespread, common driver across the USA and that management of chloride would be most effective when targeted regionally or locally.


Assuntos
Cloretos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Subterrânea/química , Rios/química , Qualidade da Água , Modelos Estatísticos , Estações do Ano , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency
16.
Pediatr Transplant ; 23(5): e13458, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081265

RESUMO

CMV infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among HSCT recipients. Optimal strategies for prevention and management of CMV disease following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation remain uncertain. We conducted an online survey of Australasian paediatric allogeneic HSCT centres on management and prevention of CMV disease in this patient group. We asked for one response from a representative of the HSCT team and one from a representative of the ID team at each centre. All Australasian paediatric HSCT centres responded to our survey. Management of CMV in pre-transplant setting was consistent between centres. All centres used a pre-emptive strategy to prevent CMV disease, guided by quantitative CMV PCR. In the post-transplant post engraftment setting, all centres recommended using ganciclovir (5mg/kg/dose twice daily) as a first-line therapy for CMV reactivation or disease, with treatment duration of 14 days, provided declining CMV quantitative PCR. There was substantial variability of practice between centres in post-transplant management of CMV reactivation, especially during the pre-engraftment phase. Similarly, there was lack of uniformity in indication, dosing and duration of maintenance therapy. Divergence was noted between responses from HSCT and ID physicians within centres. This study identifies areas of uniformity and others of great variability in prevention and management strategies for CMV in paediatric HSCT. Data on CMV infection and management in HSCT patients should be routinely collected as part of prospective trials to inform guidelines and improve prevention and treatment of this important complication.

17.
Psychooncology ; 28(7): 1520-1529, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099124

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Families of a child with cancer can find the decision to enrol in a clinical trial challenging and often misunderstand key concepts that underpin trials. We pilot tested "Delta," an online and booklet decision aid for parents with a child with cancer, and adolescents with cancer, deciding whether or not to enrol in a clinical trial. METHODS: We developed Delta in accordance with the International Patient Decision Aid Standards. We conducted a pre-post pilot with parents with a child, and adolescents, who had enrolled in a paediatric phase III clinical trial for newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Parents (n = 37) and adolescents (n = 3) completed a questionnaire before and after using Delta (either the website or booklet, based on their preference). RESULTS: Twenty-three parents (62.2%) and three adolescents (100%) reviewed the Delta website. Parents rated Delta as highly acceptable in regard to being clearly presented, informative, easy to read, useful, visually appealing, and easy to use. All participants reported that they would recommend Delta to others and that it would have been useful when making their decision. Parents' subjective (Mdiff= 10.8, SDdiff  = 15.69, P < .001) and objective (OR = 2.25, 95% CI, 1.66-3.04; P < .001) clinical trial knowledge increased significantly after reviewing Delta. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, Delta is the first reported decision aid, available online and as a booklet, for parents and adolescents deciding whether or not to enrol in a paediatric oncology clinical trial. Our study suggests that Delta is acceptable, feasible, and potentially useful.

18.
JCI Insight ; 52019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021819

RESUMO

Bi-allelic inactivating mutations in DOCK8 cause a combined immunodeficiency characterised by severe pathogen infections, eczema, allergies, malignancy and impaired humoral responses. These clinical features result from functional defects in most lymphocyte lineages. Thus, DOCK8 plays a key role in immune cell function. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is curative for DOCK8 deficiency. While previous reports have described clinical outcomes for DOCK8 deficiency following HSCT, the effect on lymphocyte reconstitution and function has not been investigated. Our study determined whether defects in lymphocyte differentiation and function in DOCK8-deficient patients were restored following HSCT. DOCK8-deficient T and B lymphocytes exhibited aberrant activation and effector function in vivo and in vitro. Frequencies of αß T and MAIT cells were reduced while γδT cells were increased in DOCK8-deficient patients. HSCT improved, abnormal lymphocyte function in DOCK8-deficient patients. Elevated total and allergen-specific IgE in DOCK8-deficient patients decreased over time following HSCT. Our results document the extensive catalogue of cellular defects in DOCK8-deficient patients, and the efficacy of HSCT to correct these defects, concurrent with improvements in clinical phenotypes. Overall, our findings provide mechanisms at a functional cellular level for improvements in clinical features of DOCK8 deficiency post-HSCT, identify biomarkers that correlate with improved clinical outcomes, and inform the general dynamics of immune reconstitution in patients with monogenic immune disorders following HSCT.

19.
Blood Adv ; 3(7): 1118-1128, 2019 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952678

RESUMO

When hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is necessary for children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), there remains debate about the best stem cell source. Post-HSCT relapse is a common cause of mortality, and complications such as chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD) are debilitating and life-threatening. To compare post-HSCT outcomes of different donor sources, we retrospectively analyzed consecutive transplants performed in several international centers from 2005 to 2015. A total of 317 patients were studied: 19% matched sibling donor (MSD), 23% matched unrelated donor (MUD), 39% umbilical cord blood (UCB), and 19% double UCB (dUCB) recipients. The median age at transplant was 10 years (range, 0.42-21 years), and median follow-up was 4.74 years (range, 4.02-5.39 years). Comparisons were made while controlling for patient, transplant, and disease characteristics. There were no differences in relapse, leukemia-free survival, or nonrelapse mortality. dUCB recipients had inferior survival compared with matched sibling recipients, but all other comparisons showed similar overall survival. Despite the majority of UCB transplants being HLA mismatched, the rates of cGVHD were low, especially compared with the well-matched MUD recipients (hazard ratio, 0.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.67; P = .02). The composite measure of cGVHD and leukemia-free survival (cGVHD-LFS), which represents both the quality of life and risk for mortality, was significantly better in the UCB compared with the MUD recipients (HR, 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.34-1; P = .03). In summary, the use of UCB is an excellent donor choice for pediatric patients with AML when a matched sibling cannot be identified.

20.
Soc Sci Med ; 226: 263-274, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898372

RESUMO

With more than half the world's population residing in urban areas and this proportion rising, it is important to understand how well-planned urban environments might improve, and reduce inequalities in, quality of life (QoL). Although studies suggest city-level characteristics hold independent influence on QoL, they generally lack a theoretically informed approach to understanding how the whole city landscape might be implicated, have paid scant attention to inequalities in QoL and often focus on small numbers of cities or countries. We applied theory and methods from landscape ecology to explore associations between cities' land cover/use, residents' reported life satisfaction and within-city socio-economic inequalities in life satisfaction. We joined individual-level responses to the European Urban Audit (EUA) Perception Surveys (2012, 2015) with city-level data from the European Urban Atlas classifying land cover/use into 26 different classes. Our sample included 63,554 people from 66 cities in 28 countries. Multilevel binary logistic models found that specific land use measures were associated with life satisfaction, including the amount of a city which was: residential (OR:0.991, 95%CI 0.984-0.997); isolated structures (OR:1.046, 95 CI 1.002-1.091); roads (OR:0.989, 95%CI 0.982-0.996); pastures (OR: 1.002, 95% CI 1.002-1.003) and herbaceous vegetation (OR:0.998, 95%CI 0.997-0.100). A more even distribution of land cover/use (ß: 1.561, 95%CI -3.021 to -0.102) was associated with lower inequality in life satisfaction. This is the first study to theorise and examine how the entire urban landscape may affect levels of and inequalities in wellbeing in a large international sample. Our finding that more equal distribution of land cover/use is associated with lower levels of socio-economic inequality in life satisfaction supports the idea that city environments could be equigenic - that is, could create equality. Our findings can aid urban planners to develop and build cities that can contribute to improving, and narrowing inequalities in, residents' life satisfaction.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA