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1.
Ann Intern Med ; 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although most patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection can be safely managed at home, the need for hospitalization can arise suddenly. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether enrollment in an automated remote monitoring service for community-dwelling adults with COVID-19 at home ("COVID Watch") was associated with improved mortality. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort analysis. SETTING: Mid-Atlantic academic health system in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Outpatients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 between 23 March and 30 November 2020. INTERVENTION: The COVID Watch service consists of twice-daily, automated text message check-ins with an option to report worsening symptoms at any time. All escalations were managed 24 hours a day, 7 days a week by dedicated telemedicine clinicians. MEASUREMENTS: Thirty- and 60-day outcomes of patients enrolled in COVID Watch were compared with those of patients who were eligible to enroll but received usual care. The primary outcome was death at 30 days. Secondary outcomes included emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations. Treatment effects were estimated with propensity score-weighted risk adjustment models. RESULTS: A total of 3488 patients enrolled in COVID Watch and 4377 usual care control participants were compared with propensity score weighted models. At 30 days, COVID Watch patients had an odds ratio for death of 0.32 (95% CI, 0.12 to 0.72), with 1.8 fewer deaths per 1000 patients (CI, 0.5 to 3.1) (P = 0.005); at 60 days, the difference was 2.5 fewer deaths per 1000 patients (CI, 0.9 to 4.0) (P = 0.002). Patients in COVID Watch had more telemedicine encounters, ED visits, and hospitalizations and presented to the ED sooner (mean, 1.9 days sooner [CI, 0.9 to 2.9 days]; all P < 0.001). LIMITATION: Observational study with the potential for unobserved confounding. CONCLUSION: Enrollment of outpatients with COVID-19 in an automated remote monitoring service was associated with reduced mortality, potentially explained by more frequent telemedicine encounters and more frequent and earlier presentation to the ED. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258143, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610030

RESUMO

Most patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection perceive some degree of disease-related stigma. Misunderstandings about diseases may contribute to disease-related stigma. The objective of this study was to evaluate patient-level knowledge about HCV infection transmission and natural history and its association with HCV-related stigma among HCV-infected patients. We conducted a cross-sectional survey study among 265 patients with HCV in Philadelphia using the HCV Stigma Scale and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Hepatitis C Follow-up Survey (2001-2008). The association between HCV knowledge and HCV-related stigma was evaluated via linear regression. Overall knowledge about HCV transmission and natural history was high, with >80% of participants answering ≥9 of 11 items correctly (median number of correct responses, 9 [82%]), HCV-related knowledge was similar between HIV/HCV-coinfected and HCV-monoinfected participants (p = 0.30). A higher level of HCV-related knowledge was associated with greater perceived HCV-related stigma (ß, 2.34 ([95% CI, 0.51-4.17]; p = 0.013). Results were similar after adjusting for age, race, ethnicity, HIV status, education level, stage of HCV management, time since diagnosis, and history of injection drug use. In this study, increased HCV-related knowledge was associated with greater perceptions of HCV stigma. Clinicians may consider allotting time to address common misconceptions about HCV when educating patients about HCV infection, which may counterbalance the stigmatizing impact of greater HCV-related knowledge.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Estereotipagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Philadelphia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
Diabetes Care ; 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607835

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Food insecurity is associated with diabetes. The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is the largest U.S. government food assistance program. Whether such programs impact diabetes trends is unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between changes in state-level policies affecting SNAP participation and county-level diabetes prevalence. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We evaluated the association between change in county-level diabetes prevalence and changes in the U.S. Department of Agriculture SNAP policy index-a measure of adoption of state-level policies associated with increased SNAP participation (higher value indicating adoption of more policies associated with increased SNAP participation; range 1-10)-from 2004 to 2014 using g-computation, a robust causal inference methodology. The study included all U.S. counties with diabetes prevalence data available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's U.S. Diabetes Surveillance System. RESULTS: The study included 3,135 of 3,143 U.S. counties. Mean diabetes prevalence increased from 7.3% (SD 1.3) in 2004 to 9.1% (SD 1.8) in 2014. The mean SNAP policy index increased from 6.4 (SD 0.9) to 8.2 (SD 0.6) in 2014. After accounting for changes in demographic-, economic-, and health care-related variables and the baseline SNAP policy index, a 1-point absolute increase in the SNAP policy index between 2004 and 2014 was associated with a 0.050 (95% CI 0.042-0.057) percentage point lower diabetes prevalence per year. CONCLUSIONS: State policies aimed at increasing SNAP participation were independently associated with a lower rise in diabetes prevalence between 2004 and 2014.

4.
JAMA Pediatr ; 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661612

RESUMO

Importance: Sweetened beverage taxes are one policy approach to reduce intake of added sugars. Soda is the leading source of added sugars in the US diet, but few studies have examined how such taxes influence sweetened beverage intake in youth. Objective: To estimate the association between the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, beverage tax and adolescent soda intake. Design, Setting, and Participants: This economic evaluation of school district-level Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System data from September 2013 to December 2019 compared weekly soda intake in high school students in Philadelphia, a city with a sweetened beverage tax, with that in 7 comparison cities without beverage taxes. Difference-in-differences regression modeling was used to estimate change in soda intake in Philadelphia compared with control cities. Secondary analyses compared 100% juice and milk intake to explore potential substitution associations. Subgroup analyses evaluated differences by race and ethnicity and weight status (obesity and overweight or obesity). Analyses were performed between August 20 and October 20, 2020. School districts that had weighted data and a survey question on weekly soda intake from 2013 to 2019 were included. The study included high school students, grades 9 to 12, in school districts participating in the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System from 2013 to 2019. Exposures: Implementation of a sweetened beverage tax in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in January 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures: Reported weekly servings of soda, 100% juice, and milk. Results: A total of 86 928 participants (weighted mean [SD] age, 15.8 [1.3] years; 49% female) from 8 US cities (including Philadelphia) were included. Before the tax, adolescents in the 7 comparison cities had a mean intake of 4 servings of soda per week compared with 5.4 servings per week in Philadelphia. Philadelphia's tax was associated with a reduction of 0.81 servings of soda per week (95% CI, -1.48 to -0.14 servings; P = .02) 2 years after tax implementation. There was no significant difference in 100% juice or milk intake, although Philadelphia adolescents consumed more juice than those in nontaxed cities. In subgroup analyses, the tax was associated with a reduction of 1.13 servings per week in Hispanic/Latinx adolescents (95% CI, -2.04 to -0.23 servings; P = .01) and 1.2 servings per week in adolescents with obesity (95% CI, -2.33 to -0.13 servings; P = .03). Conclusions and Relevance: This economic evaluation found that a sweetened beverage tax was associated with a reduction in soda intake among adolescents, providing evidence that such taxes can improve dietary behaviors.

5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2127799, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665240

RESUMO

Importance: Mortality across US counties varies considerably, from 252 to 1847 deaths per 100 000 people in 2018. Although patient satisfaction with health care is associated with patient- and facility-level health outcomes, the association between health care satisfaction and community-level health outcomes is not known. Objective: To examine the association between online ratings of health care facilities and mortality across US counties and to identify language specific to 1-star (lowest rating) and 5-star (highest rating) reviews in counties with high vs low mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective population-based cross-sectional study examined reviews and ratings of 95 120 essential health care facilities across 1301 US counties. Counties that had at least 1 essential health care facility with reviews available on Yelp, an online review platform, were included. Essential health care was defined according to the 10 essential health benefits covered by Affordable Care Act insurance plans. Main Outcomes and Measures: The mean rating of essential health care facilities was calculated by county from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2019. Ratings were on a scale of 1 to 5 stars, with 1 being the worst rating and 5 the best. County-level composite measures of health behaviors, clinical care, social and economic factors, and physical environment were obtained from the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health County Health Rankings database. The 2018 age-adjusted mortality by county was obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiological Research database. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to estimate the association between mean facility rating and mortality, adjusting for county health ranking variables. Words with frequencies of use that were significantly different across 1-star and 5-star reviews in counties with high vs low mortality were identified. Results: The 95 120 facilities meeting inclusion criteria were distributed across 1301 of 3142 US counties (41.4%). At the county level, a 1-point increase in mean rating was associated with a mean (SE) age-adjusted decrease of 18.05 (3.68) deaths per 100 000 people (P < .001). Words specific to 1-star reviews in high-mortality counties included told, rude, and wait, and words specific to 5-star reviews in low-mortality counties included Dr, pain, and professional. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that, at the county level, higher online ratings of essential health care facilities were associated with lower mortality. Equivalent online ratings did not necessarily reflect equivalent experiences of care across counties with different mortality levels, as evidenced by variations in the frequency of use of key words in reviews. These findings suggest that online ratings and reviews may provide insight into unequal experiences of essential health care.

6.
Biostatistics ; 2021 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676400

RESUMO

Instrumental variable (IV) methods allow us the opportunity to address unmeasured confounding in causal inference. However, most IV methods are only applicable to discrete or continuous outcomes with very few IV methods for censored survival outcomes. In this article, we propose nonparametric estimators for the local average treatment effect on survival probabilities under both covariate-dependent and outcome-dependent censoring. We provide an efficient influence function-based estimator and a simple estimation procedure when the IV is either binary or continuous. The proposed estimators possess double-robustness properties and can easily incorporate nonparametric estimation using machine learning tools. In simulation studies, we demonstrate the flexibility and double robustness of our proposed estimators under various plausible scenarios. We apply our method to the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial for estimating the causal effect of screening on survival probabilities and investigate the causal contrasts between the two interventions under different censoring assumptions.

7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(19): e020596, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558301

RESUMO

Background Online platforms are used to manage aspects of our lives including health outside clinical settings. Little is known about the effectiveness of using online platforms to manage hypertension. We assessed effects of tweeting/retweeting cardiovascular health content by individuals with poorly controlled hypertension on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and patient activation. Methods and Results We conducted this 2-arm randomized controlled trial. Eligibility included diagnosis of hypertension; SBP >140 mm Hg; and an existing Twitter account or willingness to create one to follow study Twitter account. Intervention arm was asked to tweet/retweet health content 2×/week using a specific hashtag for study duration (6 months). The main measures include primary outcome change in SBP; secondary outcome point change in Patient Activation Measure (PAM). We remotely recruited and enrolled 611 participants, mean age 52 (SD, 11.7). Mean baseline SBP for the intervention group was 155.8 and for control was 155.6. At 6 months, mean SBP for intervention group was 137.6 and for control was 135.7. Mean change in SBP from baseline to 6 months for the intervention group was -18.5 and for control was -19.8 (P=0.48). Mean PAM at baseline for the intervention group was 70.3 for control was 72.7. At 6 months, mean PAM scores were 71.1 (intervention) and 75.6 (control). Mean change in PAM score for the intervention group was 0.0 and for control was 3.3 (P=0.12). Conclusions Recruiting and engaging patients and collecting outcome measures remotely are feasible using Twitter. Encouraging patients with poorly controlled hypertension to tweet or retweet health content on Twitter did not improve SBP or PAM score at 6 months. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02622256.

8.
JCO Oncol Pract ; : OP2100312, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524837

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients weigh competing priorities when deciding whether to travel to a cellular therapy center for treatment. We conducted a choice-based conjoint analysis to determine the relative value they place on clinical factors, oncologist continuity, and travel time under different post-treatment follow-up arrangements. We also evaluated for differences in preferences by sociodemographic factors. METHODS: We administered a survey in which patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma selected treatment plans between pairs of hypothetical options that varied in travel time, follow-up arrangement, oncologist continuity, 2-year overall survival, and intensive care unit admission rate. We determined importance weights (which represent attributes' value to participants) using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: Three hundred and two patients (62%) responded. When all follow-up care was at the center providing treatment, plans requiring longer travel times were less attractive (v 30 minutes, importance weights [95% CI] of -0.54 [-0.80 to -0.27], -0.57 [-0.84 to -0.29], and -0.17 [-0.49 to 0.14] for 60, 90, and 120 minutes). However, the negative impact of travel on treatment plan choice was mitigated by offering shared follow-up (importance weights [95% CI] of 0.63 [0.33 to 0.93], 0.32 [0.08 to 0.57], and 0.26 [0.04 to 0.47] at 60, 90, and 120 minutes). Black participants were less likely to choose plans requiring longer travel, regardless of follow-up arrangement, as indicated by lower value importance weights for longer travel times. CONCLUSION: Reducing travel burden through shared follow-up may increase patients' willingness to travel to receive cellular therapies, but additional measures are required to facilitate equitable access.

9.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543590

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Lung-RADS classification was developed to standardize reporting and management of lung cancer screening using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT). While variation in Lung-RADS distribution between healthcare systems has been reported, it is unclear if this is explained by patient characteristics, radiologist experience with lung cancer screening, or other factors. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine if patient or radiologist factors are associated with Lung-RADS score. METHODS: In the Population-based Research to Optimize the Screening Process (PROSPR) Lung consortium, we conducted a study of patients who received their first screening LDCT at one of the five healthcare systems in the PROSPR Lung Research Center from 5/1/2014 through 12/31/2017. Data on LDCTs, patient factors, and radiologist characteristics were obtained via electronic health records. LDCT findings were categorized using Lung-RADS [negative (1), benign (2), probably benign (3), or suspicious (4)]. We used generalized estimating equations with a multinomial distribution to compare the odds of Lung-RADS 3, and separately Lung-RADS 4, vs. Lung-RADS 1 or 2 and estimated adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between Lung-RADS assignment and patient and radiologist characteristics. RESULTS: Analyses included 8,556 patients; 24% were assigned Lung-RADS 1, 60% Lung-RADS 2,10% Lung-RADS 3, and 5% Lung-RADS 4. Age was positively associated with Lung-RADS 3 (OR=1.02; CI: 1.01-1.03) and 4 (OR=1.03; CI: 1.01-1.05); chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was positively associated with Lung-RADS 4 (OR=1.78; 95% CI: 1.45-2.20); obesity was inversely associated with Lung-RADS 3 (OR=0.70; CI: 0.58-0.84) and 4 (OR=0.58; 95% CI: 0.45-0.75). There was no association between sex, race, ethnicity, education, or smoking status and Lung-RADS assignment. Radiologist volume of interpreting screening LDCTs, years in practice, and thoracic specialty were also not associated with Lung-RADS assignment. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare systems that are comprised of patients with an older age distribution or higher levels of COPD will have a greater proportion of screening LDCTs with Lung-RADS 3 or 4 findings and should plan for additional resources to support appropriate and timely management of noted positive findings.

10.
JTO Clin Res Rep ; 2(6): 100188, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590032

RESUMO

Introduction: Since the July 2017 National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) guideline revision recommended second-line immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), studies have suggested a greater response to ICI among patients with nonepithelioid MPM. Nevertheless, little is known regarding adoption of ICI in routine practice and if uptake differs by histologic subtype. Our objectives were to evaluate the real-world uptake of second-line ICI among patients with MPM and to reveal its association with histologic subtype. Methods: This was a multicenter, retrospective cohort study of real-world patients with MPM receiving at least two lines of systemic therapy between 2011 and 2019. We found the uptake of second-line ICI over time and evaluated the association between histologic subtype and ICI use, adjusting for relevant patient demographic and clinical factors. Results: Among the 426 patients with MPM in our cohort, 310 had epithelioid and 116 nonepithelioid histologic subtype. The median age was 73 years (interquartile range: 67-78). Overall, 144 patients (33.8%) received second-line ICI and 282 (66.2%) traditional chemotherapy. ICI uptake began in early 2015 before the NCCN guideline revision and increased rapidly to 2019. After the 2017 NCCN guideline revision, patients with nonepithelioid MPM histologic subtypes had more than 3 times the odds of receiving second-line ICI (OR = 3.26; 95% confidence interval: 1.41-7.54). Conclusions: Among real-world patients with MPM, second-line ICI uptake began over two years before the 2017 NCCN guideline recommendations and was associated with nonepithelioid histologic subtype after contemporary studies suggested increased clinical benefit in this population, reflecting prompt integration of scientific discovery into clinical practice.

11.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 30(11): 1471-1485, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375473

RESUMO

In the causal analysis of observational data, the positivity assumption requires that all treatments of interest be observed in every patient subgroup. Violations of this assumption are indicated by nonoverlap in the data in the sense that patients with certain covariate combinations are not observed to receive a treatment of interest, which may arise from contraindications to treatment or small sample size. In this paper, we emphasize the importance and implications of this often-overlooked assumption. Further, we elaborate on the challenges nonoverlap poses to estimation and inference and discuss previously proposed methods. We distinguish between structural and practical violations and provide insight into which methods are appropriate for each. To demonstrate alternative approaches and relevant considerations (including how overlap is defined and the target population to which results may be generalized) when addressing positivity violations, we employ an electronic health record-derived data set to assess the effects of metformin on colon cancer recurrence among diabetic patients.

12.
Exp Dermatol ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407261

RESUMO

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, inflammatory skin condition with a multifactorial pathophysiology. The filaggrin gene (FLG) has particularly been implicated given loss of function (LoF) mutations in this gene lead to skin barrier dysfunction and such mutations can increase a patient's likelihood of developing AD. FLG has intragenic copy number variation (CNV), which impacts the total amount of filaggrin produced. Previous research reported a dose-dependent effect such that as amount of FLG increases, risk of AD decreases. To gain a better understanding, we evaluated FLG CNV in a large case-control study of Whites and Blacks with and without AD. The goal of our study was to determine whether FLG CNV has a dose-dependent effect on the risk of developing AD and to determine whether FLG CNV varies by race. The frequencies and odds ratios comparing a given CNV by race or race within those with AD did not significantly vary. It had been thought that FLG CNV might vary by race and represent an important association with AD in Black AD subjects. However, our work suggests that while there are racial differences with respect to CNV, these differences do not appear to explain AD risk.

13.
J Immunol ; 207(6): 1522-1529, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408014

RESUMO

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic illness that is associated with immune dysregulation. NK cell function has previously been associated with AD. NK cells directly interact with polymorphic HLA class I ligand variants using killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIRs). The purpose of this study was to identify potential associations between NK cell function and AD by evaluating variation in the presence of KIR genes as well as KIR gene interactions with the appropriate HLA class I KIR-specific ligands. Human DNA from the genetics of AD case-control study was used to genotype HLA class I KIR-specific ligands and the presence of KIR genes. In the full cohort, an increased risk of AD was noted for KIR2DL5 (1.51 [1.13, 2.01]), KIR2DS5 (1.72 [1.26, 2.34]), and KIR2DS1 (1.41 [1.04, 1.91]). Individuals with KIR2DS5 or KIR2DS1 and the HLA-C*C2 epitope were at an increased risk of AD (1.74 [1.21, 2.51] and 1.48 [1.04, 2.12], respectively). The HLA-B*-21T (TT) leader sequence increased the risk of AD across ethnicity. African Americans with KIR2DL2, KIR2DS1, KIR2DL5, and KIR2DS5 are more likely to have AD, and the risk increased for KIR2DS1 and KIR2DS5 in the presence of appropriate HLA-C C2 epitope. The risk of AD also increased for individuals with the HLA-B*-21T leader sequence. Future studies should focus on KIR gene allelic variation as well as consider cell-based measurements of KIR and the associated HLA class I epitopes.


Assuntos
Alelos , Dermatite Atópica/genética , Dermatite Atópica/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/genética , Receptores KIR/genética , Receptores KIR/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/genética , Sequência de Bases , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dermatite Atópica/etnologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Genótipo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Ligantes , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 267, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the leading cause of female cancer mortality in Botswana with the majority of cervical cancer patients presenting with late-stage disease. The identification of factors associated with late-stage disease could reduce the cervical cancer burden. This study aims to identify potential patient level clinical and sociodemographic factors associated with a late-stage diagnosis of cervical cancer in Botswana in order to help inform future interventions at the community and individual levels to decrease cervical cancer morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: There were 984 women diagnosed with cervical cancer from January 2015 to March 2020 at two tertiary hospitals in Gaborone, Botswana. Four hundred forty women (44.7%) presented with late-stage cervical cancer, and 674 women (69.7%) were living with HIV. The mean age at diagnosis was 50.5 years. The association between late-stage (III/IV) cervical cancer at diagnosis and patient clinical and sociodemographic factors was evaluated using multivariable logistic regression with multiple imputation. Women who reported undergoing cervical cancer screening had lower odds of late-stage disease at diagnosis (OR: 0.63, 95% CI 0.47-0.84) compared to those who did not report screening. Women who had never been married had increased odds of late-stage disease at diagnosis (OR: 1.35, 95% CI 1.02-1.86) compared to women who had been married. Women with abnormal vaginal bleeding had higher odds of late-stage disease at diagnosis (OR: 2.32, 95% CI 1.70-3.16) compared to those without abnormal vaginal bleeding. HIV was not associated with a diagnosis of late-stage cervical cancer. Rural women who consulted a traditional healer had increased odds of late-stage disease at diagnosis compared to rural women who had never consulted a traditional healer (OR: 1.61, 95% CI 1.02-2.55). CONCLUSION: Increasing education and awareness among women, regardless of their HIV status, and among providers, including traditional healers, about the benefits of cervical cancer screening and about the importance of seeking prompt medical care for abnormal vaginal bleeding, while also developing support systems for unmarried women, may help reduce cervical cancer morbidity and mortality in Botswana.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Botsuana/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Tardio , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4487, 2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301922

RESUMO

Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are the most common tumor in young white men and have a high heritability. In this study, the international Testicular Cancer Consortium assemble 10,156 and 179,683 men with and without TGCT, respectively, for a genome-wide association study. This meta-analysis identifies 22 TGCT susceptibility loci, bringing the total to 78, which account for 44% of disease heritability. Men with a polygenic risk score (PRS) in the 95th percentile have a 6.8-fold increased risk of TGCT compared to men with median scores. Among men with independent TGCT risk factors such as cryptorchidism, the PRS may guide screening decisions with the goal of reducing treatment-related complications causing long-term morbidity in survivors. These findings emphasize the interconnected nature of two known pathways that promote TGCT susceptibility: male germ cell development within its somatic niche and regulation of chromosomal division and structure, and implicate an additional biological pathway, mRNA translation.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias Testiculares/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , Neoplasias Testiculares/metabolismo
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(7): e2115675, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241630

RESUMO

Importance: Increasing demand for cancer care may be outpacing the capacity of hospitals to provide timely treatment, particularly at referral centers such as National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated and academic centers. Whether the rate of patient volume growth has strained hospital capacity to provide timely treatment is unknown. Objective: To evaluate trends in patient volume by hospital type and the association between a hospital's annual patient volume growth and time to treatment initiation (TTI) for patients with cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective, hospital-level, cross-sectional study used longitudinal data from the National Cancer Database from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2016. Adult patients older than 40 years who had received a diagnosis of 1 of the 10 most common incident cancers and initiated their treatment at a Commission on Cancer-accredited hospital were included. Data were analyzed between December 19, 2019, and March 27, 2020. Exposures: The mean annual rate of patient volume growth at a hospital. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was TTI, defined as the number of days between diagnosis and the first cancer treatment. The association between a hospital's mean annual rate of patient volume growth and TTI was assessed using a linear mixed-effects model containing a patient volume × time interaction. The mean annual change in TTI over the study period by hospital type was estimated by including a hospital type × time interaction term. Results: The study sample included 4 218 577 patients (mean [SD] age, 65.0 [11.4] years; 56.6% women) treated at 1351 hospitals. From 2007 to 2016, patient volume increased 40% at NCI centers, 25% at academic centers, and 8% at community hospitals. In 2007, the mean TTI was longer at NCI and academic centers than at community hospitals (NCI: 50 days [95% CI, 48-52 days]; academic: 43 days [95% CI, 42-44 days]; community: 37 days [95% CI, 36-37 days]); however, the mean annual increase in TTI was greater at community hospitals (0.56 days; 95% CI, 0.49-0.62 days) than at NCI centers (-0.73 days; 95% CI, -0.95 to -0.51 days) and academic centers (0.14 days; 95% CI, 0.03-0.26 days). An annual volume growth rate of 100 patients, a level observed at less than 1% of hospitals, was associated with a mean increase in TTI of 0.24 days (95% CI, 0.18-0.29 days). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, from 2007 to 2016, across the studied cancer types, patients increasingly initiated their cancer treatment at NCI and academic centers. Although increases in patient volume at these centers outpaced that at community hospitals, faster growth was not associated with clinically meaningful treatment delays.

17.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e048801, 2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253672

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Nudges are interventions that alter the way options are presented, enabling individuals to more easily select the best option. Health systems and researchers have tested nudges to shape clinician decision-making with the aim of improving healthcare service delivery. We aimed to systematically study the use and effectiveness of nudges designed to improve clinicians' decisions in healthcare settings. DESIGN: A systematic review was conducted to collect and consolidate results from studies testing nudges and to determine whether nudges directed at improving clinical decisions in healthcare settings across clinician types were effective. We systematically searched seven databases (EBSCO MegaFILE, EconLit, Embase, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science) and used a snowball sampling technique to identify peer-reviewed published studies available between 1 January 1984 and 22 April 2020. Eligible studies were critically appraised and narratively synthesised. We categorised nudges according to a taxonomy derived from the Nuffield Council on Bioethics. Included studies were appraised using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool. RESULTS: We screened 3608 studies and 39 studies met our criteria. The majority of the studies (90%) were conducted in the USA and 36% were randomised controlled trials. The most commonly studied nudge intervention (46%) framed information for clinicians, often through peer comparison feedback. Nudges that guided clinical decisions through default options or by enabling choice were also frequently studied (31%). Information framing, default and enabling choice nudges showed promise, whereas the effectiveness of other nudge types was mixed. Given the inclusion of non-experimental designs, only a small portion of studies were at minimal risk of bias (33%) across all Cochrane criteria. CONCLUSIONS: Nudges that frame information, change default options or enable choice are frequently studied and show promise in improving clinical decision-making. Future work should examine how nudges compare to non-nudge interventions (eg, policy interventions) in improving healthcare.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Instalações de Saúde , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Humanos
18.
Arch Dermatol Res ; 2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081192

RESUMO

Atopic Dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, inflammatory skin condition that imposes an enormous personal and economic burden in the United States. Due to the ubiquity of the use of electronic medical records (EMR) in the United States, utilizing such data is critically important to studying common dermatologic diseases, such as AD. Our goal was to create a simple-to-use algorithm applied to EMR data to accurately identify AD patients thereby making it possible to efficiently use EMR data to ascertain and then study individuals with AD. Our results suggest that the algorithm that is most likely to accurately identify AD patients from the EMR based on PPV utilizes ICD-10 code for L20.89, L20.9, or L20.84 in conjunction with a diagnosis code for asthma or allergic rhinitis, treatment code, and dermatology consult code. This approach yields a PPV of 95.00% in our training cohort and 100.00% in our validation cohort. Therefore, future studies can use this algorithm to better assure that a subject has AD for studies of the pathogenesis and/or potential treatment targets of AD.

19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2113527, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129022

RESUMO

Importance: The relationship between a sweetened beverage tax and changes in the prices and purchases of beverages and high-sugar food is understudied in the long term and in small independent food retail stores where sugar-sweetened beverages are among the most commonly purchased items. Objective: To examine whether a 1.5 cent-per-fluid-ounce excise tax on sugar- and artificially sweetened beverages Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was associated with sustained changes in beverage prices and purchases, as well as calories purchased from beverages and high-sugar foods, over 2 years at small independent stores. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used a difference-in-differences approach to compare changes in beverage prices and purchases of beverages and high-sugar foods (candy, sweet snacks) at independent stores in Philadelphia and Baltimore, Maryland (a nontaxed control) before and 2 years after tax implementation, which occurred on January 1, 2017. Price comparisons were also made to independent stores in Philadelphia's neighboring counties. Main Outcomes and Measures: Changes in mean price (measured in cents per fluid ounce) of taxed and nontaxed beverages, mean fluid ounces purchased of taxed and nontaxed beverages, and mean total calories purchased from beverages and high-sugar foods. Results: Compared with Baltimore independent stores, taxed beverage prices in Philadelphia increased 2.06 cents per fluid ounce (95% CI, 1.75 to 2.38 cents per fluid ounce; P < .001), with 137% of the tax passed through to prices 2 years after tax implementation, while nontaxed beverage prices had no statistically significant change. A total of 116 independent stores and 4738 customer purchases (1950 [41.2%] women; 4351 [91.8%] age 18 years or older; 1006 [21.2%] White customers, 3185 [67.2%] Black customers) at independent stores were assessed for price and purchase comparisons. Purchases of taxed beverages declined by 6.1 fl oz (95% CI, -9.9 to -2.4 fl oz; P < .001), corresponding to a 42% decline in Philadelphia compared with Baltimore; there were no significant changes in purchases of nontaxed beverages. Although there was no significant moderation by neighborhood income or customer education level, exploratory stratified analyses revealed that declines in taxed beverage purchases were larger among customers shopping in low-income neighborhoods (-7.1 fl oz; 95% CI, -13.0 to -1.1 fl oz; P = .001) and individuals with lower education levels (-6.9 fl oz; 95% CI, -12.5 to -1.3 fl oz; P = .001). Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found that a tax on sweetened beverages was associated with increases in price and decreases in purchasing. Beverage excise taxes may be an effective policy to sustainably decrease purchases of sweetened drinks and calories from sugar in independent stores, with large reductions in lower-income areas and among customers with lower levels of education.

20.
Health Serv Outcomes Res Methodol ; 21: 169-187, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34149306

RESUMO

As the use of electronic health records (EHR) to estimate treatment effects has become widespread, concern about bias introduced by error in EHR-derived covariates has also grown. While methods exist to address measurement error in individual covariates, little prior research has investigated the implications of using propensity scores for confounder control when the propensity scores are constructed from a combination of accurate and error-prone covariates. We reviewed approaches to account for error in propensity scores and used simulation studies to compare their performance. These comparisons were conducted across a range of scenarios featuring variation in outcome type, validation sample size, main sample size, strength of confounding, and structure of the error in the mismeasured covariate. We then applied these approaches to a real-world EHR-based comparative effectiveness study of alternative treatments for metastatic bladder cancer. This head-to-head comparison of measurement error correction methods in the context of a propensity score-adjusted analysis demonstrated that multiple imputation for propensity scores performs best when the outcome is continuous and regression calibration-based methods perform best when the outcome is binary.

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