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1.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576868

RESUMO

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is one of the most common procedures performed each year and can be associated with various post-operative complications. Imaging is integral to diagnosis and management of patients with suspected cholecystectomy complications, and a thorough understanding of normal and abnormal biliary anatomy, risk factors for biliary injury, and the spectrum of adverse events is crucial for interpretation of imaging studies. Magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) enhanced with hepatobiliary contrast agent is useful in delineating biliary anatomy and pathology following cholecystectomy. In this article, we provide a protocol for contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the biliary tree. We also review the classification and imaging manifestations of post-cholecystectomy bile duct injuries in addition to other complications such as bilomas, retained/dropped gallstones, and vascular injuries.

2.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 45(5): 627-637, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481384

RESUMO

Choledochal cyst (CC) is believed to be a mostly Asian disorder. As a clinically defined entity, its pathologic correlates are poorly characterized. Eighty-four resected CCs from the West were reanalyzed. After applying established Japanese criteria, 9/66 with available imaging were disqualified and 10/39 with preoperative cyst typing had to be recategorized. None had been diagnosed with, or evaluated for, pancreatobiliary maljunction, but on retrospective analysis of radiologic images, 12/66 were found to have pancreatobiliary maljunction. The clinical findings were: F/M=5.7; mean age, 48; most (77%) presented with abdominal pain; mean size, 2.9 cm; choledocholithiasis 11%. Gross/histologic examination revealed 3 distinct pathology-based categories: (I) Cystic dilatation of native ducts (81%). (II) Double bile duct (13%), almost all of which were found in women (10/11); all were diagnosed by pathologic examination, and not preoperative diagnosis. (III) Gastrointestinal (GI) duplication type (6%). Microscopic findings of the entire cohort included mucosal-predominant lymphoplasmacytic inflammation (50%), follicular cholangitis (7%), mucosal hyperplasia (43%; 13% with papillae), intestinal metaplasia (10%), BilIN-like hyperplasia (17%), erosion/ulceration (13%), and severe dysplasia-mimicking atypia including "detachment atypia" and micropapillary degeneration (11%). Carcinomatous changes were seen in 14 cases (17%) (high-grade dysplasia/carcinoma in situ in 7, intraductal papillary neoplasm 1, and invasive carcinoma 6); and 13/14 of these occurred in pathologic category I, all with cyst size >1 cm. In conclusion, diagnostic imaging guidelines used in Asia are not routinely used (but should be adopted) in the West. Pathologically, cases designated as CC are classifiable in 3 groups: category 1 (dilated native duct type), more prone to carcinomatous change; category 2, double-duct phenomenon (all but 1 being female in this study); and category 3, GI-type duplication. Overall, 17% of CCs show carcinomatous change (50% of them invasive). CC specimens should be carefully examined with this classification and submitted entirely for assessment of at-risk mucosa and cancerous transformation.

3.
Radiographics ; : 200087, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33306452

RESUMO

Gallbladder carcinoma is the most common cancer of the biliary system. It is challenging to diagnose because patients are often asymptomatic or present with nonspecific symptoms that mimic common benign diseases. Surgical excision is the only curative therapy and is best accomplished at early non-locally advanced stages. Unfortunately, gallbladder cancer often manifests at late locally advanced stages, precluding cure. Early tumors are often incidentally detected at imaging or at cholecystectomy performed for another indication. Typical imaging features of localized disease include asymmetric gallbladder wall thickening, polyps larger than 1.0 cm, and a solid mass replacing the gallbladder lumen. Advanced tumors are often infiltrative and can be confusing at CT and MRI owing to their large size. Determination of the origin of the lesion is paramount to narrow the differential diagnosis but is often challenging. It is important to identify gallbladder cancer and distinguish it from other benign and malignant hepatobiliary processes. Since surgical resection is the only curative treatment option, radiologist understanding and interpretation of pathways of nodal and infiltrative tumor spread can direct surgery or preclude patients who may not benefit from surgery. While both CT and MRI are effective, MRI provides superior soft-tissue characterization of the gallbladder and biliary tree and is a useful imaging tool for diagnosis, staging, and evaluation of treatment response. ©RSNA, 2020.

4.
Ann Surg ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201123

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the associations of pancreatobiliary maljunction (PBM) in the West. BACKGROUND: PBM (anomalous union of common bile duct and pancreatic duct) is mostly regarded as an Asian-only disorder, with 200X risk of gallbladder cancer (GBC), attributed to reflux of pancreatic enzymes. METHODS: Radiologic images of 840 patients in the U.S. who underwent pancreatobiliary resections were reviewed for PBM and contrasted with 171 GBC cases from Japan. RESULTS: Eight % of the US GBCs (24/300) had PBM (similar to Japan; 15/171, 8.8%), in addition to 1/42 bile duct carcinomas and 5/33 choledochal cysts. None of the 30 PBM cases from the US had been diagnosed as PBM in the original work-up. PBM was not found in other pancreatobiliary disorders. Clinicopathologic features of the 39 PBM-associated GBCs (US:24, Japan:15) were similar; however, comparison with non-PBM GBCs revealed that they occurred predominantly in females (F/M = 3); at younger (<50-year-old) age (21% vs. 6.5% in non-PBM GBCs; p = 0.01); were uncommonly associated with gallstones (14% vs. 58%; p < 0.001); had higher rate of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (69% vs. 44%; p = 0.04); arose more often through adenoma-carcinoma sequence (31% vs. 12%; p = 0.02); and had a higher proportion of non-conventional carcinomas (21% vs. 7%; p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: PBM accounts for 8% of GBCs also in the West but is typically undiagnosed. PBM-GBCs tend to manifest in younger age and often through adenoma-carcinoma sequence, leading to unusual carcinoma types. If PBM is encountered, cholecystectomy and surveillance of bile ducts is warranted. PBM-associated GBCs offer an invaluable model for variant anatomy-induced chemical (reflux-related) carcinogenesis.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564896

RESUMO

Sickle cell disease is a debilitating hematologic process that affects the entire body. Disease manifestations in the abdomen most commonly result from vaso-occlusion, hemolysis, or infection due to functional asplenia. Organ specific manifestations include those involving the liver (eg, hepatopathy, iron deposition), gallbladder (eg, stone formation), spleen (eg, infarction, abscess formation, sequestration), kidneys (eg, papillary necrosis, infarction), pancreas (eg, pancreatitis), gastrointestinal tract (eg, infarction), reproductive organs (eg, priapism, testicular atrophy), bone (eg, marrow changes, avascular necrosis), vasculature (eg, vasculopathy), and lung bases (eg, acute chest syndrome, infarction). Imaging provides an important clinical tool for evaluation of acute and chronic disease manifestations and complications. In summary, there are multifold abdominal manifestations of sickle cell disease. Recognition of these sequela helps guide management and improves outcomes. The purpose of this article is to review abdominal manifestations of sickle cell disease and discuss common and rare complications of the disease within the abdomen.

6.
Urology ; 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504685

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if adenocarcinoma of the Skene's glands in women, which has a histological and immunohistochemical appearance similar to prostate cancer, can be evaluated and managed with the same tools we use for prostate cancer. METHODS: Serum prostate-specific antigen kinetics, 3D multiparametric (MP) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fluciclovine F-18 positron emission tomography (PET), and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) were employed in a case of Skene's gland adenocarcinoma. RESULTS: The 3D MP MRI clarified the anatomy of the primary lesion and fluciclovine F-18 PET significantly improved our ability to stage the tumor prompting pelvic lymph node dissection that may have otherwise not been performed. ADT resulted in a significant impact on prostate-specific antigen kinetics despite the patient having a testosterone level in the normal range for a postmenopausal woman. CONCLUSION: Despite the rarity of Skene's gland adenocarcinoma, we can employ many of the tools at our disposal for the evaluation and management of prostate cancer to benefit the women found to have this malignancy.

7.
Cureus ; 12(4): e7669, 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419996

RESUMO

Crossed fused renal ectopia and the presence of a supernumerary kidney are both rare congenital variants that are often asymptomatic but may be associated with other developmental anomalies. Here we present a case of a 20-year-old male with a known diagnosis of crossed fused renal ectopia as well as a history of imperforate anus and tethered spinal cord treated in infancy. He presented to the emergency room with symptoms of flank pain, and a noncontrast computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a 4-mm stone in the distal left ureter. CT scan also revealed that the patient's right kidney was not crossed and fused to the left kidney as previously believed, but rather it was crossed and fused to a supernumerary kidney abutting the inferomedial aspect of an orthotopic left kidney. This is a unique example of two rare coexisting renal anomalies not previously detected on a nuclear medicine renal scan and serial renal ultrasounds obtained earlier in the the patient's life.

8.
HPB (Oxford) ; 22(12): 1675-1685, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cause of most pancreatic and periampullary cancers (PAC) is unknown. Recently, anatomic variations such as pancreatobiliary maljunction have been recognized as risk factors, similar to Barrett-related gastro-esophageal cancers. METHODS: Pre-operative MRI from 860 pancreatic/biliary resections, including 322 PACs, were evaluated for low-union (cystic duct joining the common hepatic duct inside of the pancreas or within 5 mm of the pancreatic border) RESULTS: Low-union, seen <10% of the population, was present in 44% of PACs (73% distal bile duct/cholangiocarcinoma, 42% pancreatic head, and 34% ampullary). It was significantly lower(11%) in conditions without connection to the ductal system (thus not exposed to the ductal/biliary tract contents), namely mucinous cystic neoplasms and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas(p < 0.0001). Intra-pancreatic type low-union was seen in 16% of PACs versus 2% of controls(p < 0.0001). DISCUSSION: This study establishes an association between low-union and PACs, and points to an anatomy-induced chemical/bilious carcinogenesis. This may explain why most pancreas cancers are in the head. It is possible that the same chemical milieu, caused by conditions other than low-union/insertion, may also play a role in the remaining half of PACs. This opens various treatment opportunities including milieu modifications (chemoprevention), focused screening of at-risk patients, and early detection with possible corrective actions.

9.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 45(5): 1277-1289, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189022

RESUMO

Acute pancreatitis has a wide array of imaging presentations. Various classifications have been used in the past to standardize the terminology and reduce confusing and redundant terms. We aim to review the historical and current classifications of acute pancreatitis and propose a new reporting template which can improve communication between various medical teams by use of appropriate terminology and structured radiology template. The standardized reporting template not only conveys the most important imaging findings in a simplified yet comprehensive way but also allows structured data collection for future research and teaching purposes.

10.
Sci Adv ; 6(6): eaav7504, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083172

RESUMO

Liver metastases often progress from primary cancers including uveal melanoma (UM), breast, and colon cancer. Molecular biomarker imaging is a new non-invasive approach for detecting early stage tumors. Here, we report the elevated expression of chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) in liver metastases in UM patients and metastatic UM mouse models, and development of a CXCR4-targeted MRI contrast agent, ProCA32.CXCR4, for sensitive MRI detection of UM liver metastases. ProCA32.CXCR4 exhibits high relaxivities (r 1 = 30.9 mM-1 s-1, r 2 = 43.2 mM-1 s-1, 1.5 T; r 1 = 23.5 mM-1 s-1, r 2 = 98.6 mM-1 s-1, 7.0 T), strong CXCR4 binding (K d = 1.10 ± 0.18 µM), CXCR4 molecular imaging capability in metastatic and intrahepatic xenotransplantation UM mouse models. ProCA32.CXCR4 enables detecting UM liver metastases as small as 0.1 mm3. Further development of the CXCR4-targeted imaging agent should have strong translation potential for early detection, surveillance, and treatment stratification of liver metastases patients.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Meios de Contraste , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem Molecular , Receptores CXCR4/metabolismo , Animais , Meios de Contraste/química , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Metástase Neoplásica , Ligação Proteica , Curva ROC , Receptores CXCR4/química , Receptores CXCR4/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
11.
Radiol Clin North Am ; 58(2): 363-380, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044012

RESUMO

Abdominal pain is a common occurrence in pregnant women and may have a variety of causes, including those that are specific to pregnancy (eg, round ligament pain in the first trimester) and the wide range of causes of abdominal pain that affect men and women who are not pregnant (eg, appendicitis, acute cholecystitis). Noncontrast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is increasingly performed to evaluate pregnant women with abdominal pain, either as the first-line test or as a second test following ultrasonography. The imaging appearance of causes of abdominal pain in pregnant women are reviewed with an emphasis on noncontrast MR imaging.


Assuntos
Abdome Agudo/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pelve/diagnóstico por imagem , Gravidez
12.
Gynecol Oncol ; 157(2): 340-347, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067813

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop a transcriptomic signature capable of predicting overall survival (OS) for uterine serous carcinoma (USC). METHODS: RNAseq data for 58 USC patients were obtained from TCGA. Expression of 73 candidate genes was measured for 67 Augusta University (AU) samples using NanoString technology. RESULTS: Analysis of the TCGA RNAseq data identified 73 genes that individually predict prognosis for USC patients and an elastic net model with all 73 genes (USC73) distinguishes a good OS group with low USC73 score from a poor OS group with high USC73 score (5-year OS = 83.3% and 13.3% respectively, HR = 40.1; p = 3 × 10-8). This finding was validated in the independent AU cohort (HR = 4.3; p = 0.0004). The poor prognosis group with high USC73 score consists of 37.9% and 32.8% of patients in the TCGA and AU cohort respectively. USC73 score and pathologic stage independently contribute to OS and together provide the best prognostic value. Early stage, low USC73 patients have the best prognosis (5-year OS = 85.1% in the combined dataset), while advanced stage, high USC73 patients have the worst prognosis (5-year OS = 6.4%, HR = 30.5, p = 1.2 × 10-12). Consistent with the observed poor survival, primary cell cultures from high USC73 patients had higher proliferation rate and cell cycle progression; and high USC73 patients had lower rates of complete response to standard therapy. CONCLUSIONS: The USC73 transcriptomic signature and stage independently predict OS of USC patients and the best prediction is achieved using USC73 and stage. USC73 may also serve as a therapeutic biomarker to guide patient care.


Assuntos
Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Neoplasias Uterinas/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/mortalidade , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/patologia , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/terapia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Análise Serial de Tecidos , Transcriptoma , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Neoplasias Uterinas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Uterinas/patologia , Neoplasias Uterinas/terapia
13.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 45(5): 1387-1396, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559473

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma can be a difficult imaging diagnosis early in its course given its subtle imaging findings such as focal pancreatic duct dilatation, abrupt duct cut-off, and encasement of vasculature. A variety of pancreatitidies have imaging findings that mimic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and lead to mass formation making diagnosis even more difficult on imaging alone. These conditions include acute focal pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis, autoimmune pancreatitis, and paraduodenal ("groove") pancreatitis. This review will focus on imaging findings that can help differentiate these inflammatory processes from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

14.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 45(5): 1371-1386, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493022

RESUMO

Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is an inflammatory process of the pancreas that occurs most commonly in elderly males and clinically can mimic pancreatic adenocarcinoma and present with jaundice, weight loss, and abdominal pain. Mass-forming lesions in the pancreas are seen in the focal form of AIP and both clinical and imaging findings can overlap those of pancreatic cancer. The accurate distinction of AIP from pancreatic cancer is of utmost importance as it means avoiding unnecessary surgery in AIP cases or inaccurate steroid treatment in patients with pancreatic cancer. Imaging concomitantly with serological examinations (IgG4 and Ca 19-9) plays an important role in the distinction between these entities. Characteristic extra-pancreatic manifestations as well as favorable good response to treatment with steroids are characteristic of AIP. This paper will review current diagnostic parameters useful in differentiating between focal AIP and pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

15.
Curr Probl Diagn Radiol ; 49(1): 29-33, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30472139

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the incidence and impact of overlying radiopaque personal items (e.g., cellular phones, zippers) on CT dose and image quality with use of automated tube current modulation. METHODS: Topogram images from 100 consecutive adult outpatient CT abdomen pelvis studies were retrospectively reviewed, and the number and type of overlying radiopaque personal items were recorded. Additionally, an anthropomorphic phantom was imaged with overlying personal items 1) present in topogram and axial images; 2) present in topogram but removed prior to axial acquisition; and 3) present in topogram positioned outside the field of view of the axial acquisition. dose length product (DLP) and CT dose index volume (CTDIvol) were compared to acquisitions performed without overlying personal items. Image noise was evaluated by assessing the standard deviation of Hounsfield units at the level of the overlying personal item. RESULTS: Overlying personal items were visible in topogram images for 55% of CT exams and included underwires (38% of exams), zippers (7%), and cellular phones (1%). DLP increased when a cellular phone was present in the topogram whether or not it was removed before axial image acquisition (3.7% p = 0.002, combined AutomA and SmartmA), and image noise increased (144%, p = 0.002; AutomA). No increase in dose or image noise was observed with overlying zippers or underwires or when any object was visible in the topogram outside the field of view of the axial images. CONCLUSIONS: Overlying personal items were observed in the majority of abdominopelvic CT scans. Large overlying radiopaque personal items resulted in increased dose and increased image noise. Removal of all overlying personal items will result in optimized dose and image quality.


Assuntos
Artefatos , Doses de Radiação , Radiografia Abdominal/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Humanos , Imagens de Fantasmas , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 45(7): 2001-2017, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701192

RESUMO

This article reviews the anatomy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of the penis. The recommended technique for MRI of the penis is outlined, with discussion of the benefits and drawbacks to imaging the penis after artificial erection. Common penile pathologies are reviewed, with a summary of their clinical features, MRI appearance, and treatment. The ability to demonstrate the erectile bodies and vasculature helps to evaluate vascular pathologies such as priapism, Mondor disease, and cavernosal thrombosis. MRI is also a useful tool to assess for traumatic abnormalities of the penis, with the depiction of soft tissue anatomy and fascial layers allowing for evaluation of penile fracture and penile contusion. Malignant disease of the penis is also reviewed, including squamous cell carcinoma, urethral carcinoma, metastases, and rare neoplasms. Staging of these neoplasms is addressed, with discussion of how MRI can be used to assess the extent of tumor involvement. MRI also clearly demonstrates the tunica albuginea, which allows for evaluation of Peyronie's disease.

17.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 45(5): 1316-1323, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468154

RESUMO

Developmental anomalies of the pancreas include more common entities such as pancreas divisum and annular pancreas, and unusual entities such as heterotopic pancreas. While these anomalies can present a diagnostic challenge to the radiologist, when the pancreatic tissue involved in these processes develops pancreatitis, the radiographic appearance can present a diagnostic dilemma. Awareness of these pancreatic anomalies and familiarity with their appearance when inflamed is necessary to distinguish pancreatitis in the developmentally anomalous pancreas from other inflammatory or neoplastic processes.

18.
Pancreas ; 48(10): 1343-1347, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688599

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of standard nonsecretin-enhanced preprocedural magnetic resonance imaging/cholangiopancreatography (MRI/MRCP) in patients with and without pancreas divisum. METHODS: Patients undergoing MRI/MRCP followed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with between 2009 and 2016 were reviewed. The diagnostic accuracy of the MRI/MRCP was evaluated against the pancreatography. A subsequent independent blinded re-review performed by an expert abdominal radiologist was also evaluated. Multivariate binary logistic regression was performed to assess the impact of clinicopathologic factors on the diagnostic accuracy. RESULTS: A total of 189 patients were included in analysis. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of MRI/MRCP for pancreas divisum were 63%, 97%, 94%, and 82% initially and 81%, 91%, 91%, and 82% on the expert review. Motion artifact, the presence of pancreatic tumor, and pancreatic necrosis were not found to significantly impact the accuracy. A normal diameter pancreatic duct (P = 0.04) and complete divisum anatomy were correlated with improved accuracy (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Although expert review, normal duct diameter, and complete divisum are associated with increased sensitivity, pancreas divisum may be uncharacterized by preprocedural MRI in 19% to 37% of patients before the index endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.


Assuntos
Colangiopancreatografia por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Pâncreas/anormalidades , Pâncreas/diagnóstico por imagem , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino
20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4777, 2019 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664017

RESUMO

Early diagnosis and noninvasive detection of liver fibrosis and its heterogeneity remain as major unmet medical needs for stopping further disease progression toward severe clinical consequences. Here we report a collagen type I targeting protein-based contrast agent (ProCA32.collagen1) with strong collagen I affinity. ProCA32.collagen1 possesses high relaxivities per particle (r1 and r2) at both 1.4 and 7.0 T, which enables the robust detection of early-stage (Ishak stage 3 of 6) liver fibrosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (Ishak stage 1 of 6 or 1 A Mild) in animal models via dual contrast modes. ProCA32.collagen1 also demonstrates vasculature changes associated with intrahepatic angiogenesis and portal hypertension during late-stage fibrosis, and heterogeneity via serial molecular imaging. ProCA32.collagen1 mitigates metal toxicity due to lower dosage and strong resistance to transmetallation and unprecedented metal selectivity for Gd3+ over physiological metal ions with strong translational potential in facilitating effective treatment to halt further chronic liver disease progression.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste/química , Gadolínio/química , Hipertensão Portal/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Doença Crônica , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos
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