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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11349, 2022 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35790766

RESUMO

Following significant advances in image acquisition, synapse detection, and neuronal segmentation in connectomics, researchers have extracted an increasingly diverse set of wiring diagrams from brain tissue. Neuroscientists frequently represent these wiring diagrams as graphs with nodes corresponding to a single neuron and edges indicating synaptic connectivity. The edges can contain "colors" or "labels", indicating excitatory versus inhibitory connections, among other things. By representing the wiring diagram as a graph, we can begin to identify motifs, the frequently occurring subgraphs that correspond to specific biological functions. Most analyses on these wiring diagrams have focused on hypothesized motifs-those we expect to find. However, one of the goals of connectomics is to identify biologically-significant motifs that we did not previously hypothesize. To identify these structures, we need large-scale subgraph enumeration to find the frequencies of all unique motifs. Exact subgraph enumeration is a computationally expensive task, particularly in the edge-dense wiring diagrams. Furthermore, most existing methods do not differentiate between types of edges which can significantly affect the function of a motif. We propose a parallel, general-purpose subgraph enumeration strategy to count motifs in the connectome. Next, we introduce a divide-and-conquer community-based subgraph enumeration strategy that allows for enumeration per brain region. Lastly, we allow for differentiation of edges by types to better reflect the underlying biological properties of the graph. We demonstrate our results on eleven connectomes and publish for future analyses extensive overviews for the 26 trillion subgraphs enumerated that required approximately 9.25 years of computation time.


Assuntos
Conectoma , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurônios , Editoração , Sinapses
2.
Nat Biotechnol ; 40(7): 1123-1131, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35241837

RESUMO

Design of nucleic acid-based viral diagnostics typically follows heuristic rules and, to contend with viral variation, focuses on a genome's conserved regions. A design process could, instead, directly optimize diagnostic effectiveness using a learned model of sensitivity for targets and their variants. Toward that goal, we screen 19,209 diagnostic-target pairs, concentrated on CRISPR-based diagnostics, and train a deep neural network to accurately predict diagnostic readout. We join this model with combinatorial optimization to maximize sensitivity over the full spectrum of a virus's genomic variation. We introduce Activity-informed Design with All-inclusive Patrolling of Targets (ADAPT), a system for automated design, and use it to design diagnostics for 1,933 vertebrate-infecting viral species within 2 hours for most species and within 24 hours for all but three. We experimentally show that ADAPT's designs are sensitive and specific to the lineage level and permit lower limits of detection, across a virus's variation, than the outputs of standard design techniques. Our strategy could facilitate a proactive resource of assays for detecting pathogens.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Ácidos Nucleicos , Redes Neurais de Computação
4.
Science ; 334(6062): 1518-24, 2011 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22174245

RESUMO

Identifying interesting relationships between pairs of variables in large data sets is increasingly important. Here, we present a measure of dependence for two-variable relationships: the maximal information coefficient (MIC). MIC captures a wide range of associations both functional and not, and for functional relationships provides a score that roughly equals the coefficient of determination (R(2)) of the data relative to the regression function. MIC belongs to a larger class of maximal information-based nonparametric exploration (MINE) statistics for identifying and classifying relationships. We apply MIC and MINE to data sets in global health, gene expression, major-league baseball, and the human gut microbiota and identify known and novel relationships.


Assuntos
Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Algoritmos , Animais , Beisebol/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Genes Fúngicos , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Metagenoma , Camundongos , Obesidade , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 104(19): 195702, 2010 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20866978

RESUMO

We introduce perhaps the simplest models of graph evolution with choice that demonstrate discontinuous percolation transitions and can be analyzed via mathematical evolution equations. These models are local, in the sense that at each step of the process one edge is selected from a small set of potential edges sharing common vertices and added to the graph. We show that the evolution can be accurately described by a system of differential equations and that such models exhibit the discontinuous emergence of the giant component. Yet they also obey scaling behaviors characteristic of continuous transitions, with scaling exponents that differ from the classic Erdos-Rényi model.

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