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1.
J Hum Hypertens ; 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33854177

RESUMO

Based on data from national surveys, the prevalence of hypertension rests at 40-60% in Japan, the USA, and in European countries. This suggests there has been little progress in the prevention of hypertension in even high-income countries despite their well-functioning health systems. In particular, compared with the USA and European countries, the improvement in awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension has been relatively low in Japan. For example, the rates of hypertension awareness, treatment, and control were observed, respectively, in 60-70%, 50-60%, and 20-30% of Japanese compared with 80-90%, 70-80%, and 50-60% of US citizens in the years around 2015. The lower proportions in Japan might be explained by the slower progress in lowering the accepted thresholds for diagnosis of hypertension and initiation of treatment compared with Western countries; however, the underlying reasons for the differences warrant further study. The high prevalence (>40%) of uncontrolled hypertension in even high-income countries has major implications for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Health policy and research on early control of high blood pressure at the individual and public health levels will contribute to decreases in the prevalence of hypertension. Furthermore, proactive treatment and strict adherence to intensified antihypertensive treatment guidelines will more effectively achieve targeted blood pressure levels. In this context, it is important to continue to carefully monitor and compare trends in hypertension across countries.

2.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2021 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have compared factors related to cognitive function among people with similar genetic backgrounds but different lifestyles. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify factors related to lower cognitive scores among older Japanese men in two genetically similar cohorts exposed to different lifestyle factors. METHODS: This cross-sectional study of community-dwelling Japanese men aged 71-81 years included 2,628 men enrolled in the Kuakini Honolulu-Asia Aging Study based in Hawaii and 349 men in the Shiga Epidemiological Study of Subclinical Atherosclerosis based in Japan. We compared participant performance through Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI) assessment in Hawaii (1991-1993) and Japan (2009-2014). Factors related to low cognitive scores (history of cardiovascular disease, cardiometabolic factors, and lifestyle factors) were identified with questionnaires and measurements. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of a low (<  82) CASI score based on different factors. RESULTS: CASI scores were lower in Hawaii than in Japan [21.2%(n = 556) versus 12.3%(n = 43), p <  0.001], though this was not significant when adjusted for age and educational attainment (Hawaii 20.3%versus Japan 17.9%, p = 0.328). History of stroke (OR = 1.65, 95%confidence interval = 1.19-2.29) was positively associated with low cognitive scores in Hawaii. Body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 tended to be associated with low cognitive scores in Japan; there was a significant interaction between the cohorts. CONCLUSION: Cognitive scores differences between cohorts were mostly explained by differences in educational attainment. Conversely, cardiovascular diseases and cardiometabolic factors differentially impacted cognitive scores among genetically similar older men exposed to different lifestyle factors.

3.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 67(1): 28-38, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33642462

RESUMO

Several studies have reported a J-shaped relationship between alcohol consumption and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. However, the mechanisms of this relationship remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the relationships of alcohol consumption with established CHD risk factors and with macro-/micro-nutrient intake among Japanese people. Participants were 1,090 Japanese men and women aged 40-59 y enrolled in the INTERLIPID study, excluding former drinkers. Based on two 7-d alcohol records, participants were classified as non-drinkers (0 g/wk), light-drinkers (<100 g/wk), moderate-drinkers (100-299 g/wk), or heavy-drinkers (≥300 g/wk). Detailed macro-/micro-nutrient intake was evaluated using four in-depth 24-h dietary recalls and adjusted for total energy intake excluding alcohol. We analyzed the associations of CHD risk factors and nutrient intake with alcohol consumption. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and blood pressure were higher and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was lower among those with higher alcohol consumption. J-shaped relationships with alcohol consumption were observed for the proportion of current smokers, number of cigarettes smoked, and prevalence of hypertension; these risk factors were lowest among light-drinkers. Carbohydrate and total fiber intakes were lower and protein and dietary cholesterol intakes were higher among those with higher alcohol consumption. These associations were similar for men and women. Alcohol consumption was related to nutrient intake as well as established CHD risk factors. Non-drinkers were higher on some CHD risk factors than were light-drinkers. These findings may influence the J-shaped relationship between alcohol consumption and CHD risk.

4.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-9, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632354

RESUMO

Differences in individual eating habits may be influenced by genetic factors, in addition to cultural, social or environmental factors. Previous studies suggested that genetic variants within sweet taste receptor genes family were associated with sweet taste perception and the intake of sweet foods. The aim of this study was to conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to find genetic variations that affect confection consumption in a Japanese population. We analysed GWAS data on confection consumption using 14 073 participants from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study. We used a semi-quantitative FFQ to estimate food intake that was validated previously. Association of the imputed variants with confection consumption was performed by linear regression analysis with adjustments for age, sex, total energy intake and principal component analysis components 1-3. Furthermore, the analysis was repeated adjusting for alcohol intake (g/d) in addition to the above-described variables. We found 418 SNP located in 12q24 that were associated with confection consumption. SNP with the ten lowest P-values were located on nine genes including at the BRAP, ACAD10 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 regions on 12q24.12-13. After adjustment for alcohol intake, no variant was associated with confections intake with genome-wide significance. In conclusion, we found a significant number of SNP located on 12q24 genes that were associated with confections intake before adjustment for alcohol intake. However, all of them lost statistical significance after adjustment for alcohol intake.

5.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33551394

RESUMO

AIMS: The utility of carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) as a marker for coronary heart disease is under heavy debate. This is predominantly due to the lack of a standard definition of cIMT, leading to inconsistent results. We investigated and compared the relationships of five different measures of cIMT with coronary calcium. METHODS: Japanese men aged 40-79y (n=869) from Shiga Epidemiological Study of Subclinical Atherosclerosis were examined. Mean cIMT was measured in three segments of the carotid arteries: common carotid artery (CCAmean), internal carotid artery (ICAmean) and bifurcation (Bifmean). Mean cIMT of average values (Mean cIMT) and mean cIMT of maximum values (Mean-Max cIMT) of all segments combined were assessed. Coronary calcium was assessed as coronary artery calcification (CAC). Ordinal logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratio (OR) of higher CAC per 1 standard deviation higher cIMT measure. Analyses were adjusted for cardiovascular covariates and stratified by age quartiles. RESULTS: All cIMT measures had positive associations with CAC (p<0.001): [OR, 95% Confidence Interval]: ICAmean [1.23, 1.07-1.42], CCAmean [1.27, 1.08-1.49], Bifmean [1.33, 1.15-1.53], Mean cIMT [1.42, 1.22-1.66], and Mean-Max [1.50, 1.28-1.75]. In age-stratified analyses, only Mean-Max cIMT maintained a significant relationship with CAC in every age quartile (p<0.05), while CCAmean had some of the weakest associations among age quartiles. CONCLUSIONS: Mean-Max cIMT had consistently stronger associations with coronary calcium, independent of important confounders, such as age. The most oft-used measure, CCAmean, was no longer associated with coronary calcium after age-adjustment and stratification.

6.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33487617

RESUMO

AIM: The relationship of blood pressure (BP) indexes (systolic blood pressure [SBP], diastolic blood pressure [DBP], pulse pressure [PP], mean arterial pressure [MAP]) to subclinical cerebrovascular diseases (SCVDs) remains unclear. This study aimed to elucidate the relationship of four BP indexes measured at two visits on SCVDs assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in general Japanese men. METHODS: In general Japanese men aged 40-79 years (N=616), office BP indexes were measured at two visits (Visits 1 [2006-2008] and 2 [2010-2014]). MRI images obtained on the third visit (2012-2015) were examined for prevalent SCVDs: lacunar infarction, periventricular hyperintensity (PVH), deep subcortical white matter hyperintensity (DSWMH), microbleeds, and intracranial artery stenosis (ICAS). Using a multivariable logistic regression analysis, we computed and estimated the odds ratio of each prevalent SCVD for one standard deviation higher BP indexes. The same analyses were performed using home BP. RESULTS: All four office BP indexes at both visits associated with lacunar infarction. Visit 1 and 2 DBP and Visit 1 MAP associated with PVH and DSWMH, and Visit 1 SBP associated with DSWMH. All Visit 2 BP indexes appear to show stronger association with microbleeds than Visit 1 indexes, and Visit 1 and 2 SBP, PP, and MAP showed similar associations with ICAS. Additional analyses using home BP indexes revealed similar relationships; however, the significance of some relationships decreased. CONCLUSION: In general Japanese men, BP indexes were associated with most of SCVDs, and BP indexes measured at different periods associated with different SCVDs assessed by MRI.

7.
J Epidemiol ; 2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33456020

RESUMO

BackgroundNon-fasting triglycerides (TG) are considered a better predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than fasting TG. However, the effect of non-fasting TG on fatal CVD events remains unclear. In the present study, we aimed to explore the relationship between non-fasting TG and CVD mortality in a Japanese general population.MethodsA total of 6,831 participants without a history of CVD, in which those who had a blood sampling over 8 hours or more after a meal were excluded, were followed for 18.0 years. We divided participants into seven groups according to non-fasting TG levels: ≤59 mg/dL, 60-89 mg/dL, 90-119 mg/dL, 120-149 mg/dL, 150-179 mg/dL, 180-209 mg/dL, and ≥210 mg/dL, and estimated the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of each TG group for CVD mortality after adjusting for potential confounders, including high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Additionally, we performed analysis stratified by age <65 and ≥65 years.ResultsDuring the follow-up period, 433 deaths due to CVD were detected. Compared with a non-fasting TG of 150-179 mg/dL, non-fasting TG ≥210 mg/dL was significantly associated with increased risk for CVD mortality (HR=1.56, 95% CI, 1.01-2.41). Additionally, lower levels of non-fasting TG were also significantly associated with increased risk for fatal CVD. In participants aged ≥65 years, lower levels of non-fasting TG had a stronger impact on increased risk for CVD mortality, while higher levels of non-fasting TG had a stronger impact in those aged <65 years.ConclusionIn a general Japanese population, we observed a U-shaped association between non-fasting TG and fatal CVD events.

8.
J Phys Act Health ; 18(2): 157-164, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the association between step counts and brain volumes (BVs)-global and 6 a priori selected cognition-related regions of interest-in Japanese men aged 40-79 years. METHODS: The authors analyzed data from 680 cognitively intact participants of the Shiga Epidemiological Study of Subclinical Atherosclerosis-a population-based observational study. Using multivariable linear regression, the authors assessed cross-sectional associations between 7-day step counts at baseline (2006-2008) and BVs at follow-up (2012-2015) for age-stratified groups (<60 y and ≥60 y). RESULTS: In the older adults ≥60 years, step counts at baseline (per 1000 steps) were associated with total BV at follow-up (ß = 1.42, P = .022) while adjusted for potential covariates. Regions of interest-based analyses yielded an association of step counts with both prefrontal cortexes (P < .05) in older adults, while the left entorhinal cortex showed marginally significant association (P = .05). No association was observed with hippocampus, parahippocampal, cingulum, and cerebellum. No association was observed in younger adults (<60 y). CONCLUSIONS: The authors found a positive association between 7-day step counts and BVs, including prefrontal cortexes, and left entorhinal cortex in apparently healthy Japanese men.

10.
Circ J ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study assessed sex-specific time-associated changes in the impact of risk factors on coronary artery disease (CAD) mortality in a general population over long-term follow-up.Methods and Results:A prospective longitudinal cohort study was conducted on representative Japanese populations followed up for 29 years. Data from 8,396 participants (3,745 men, 4,651 women) were analyzed. The sex-specific multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of 4 risk factors (smoking, diabetes, serum total cholesterol [TC], and systolic blood pressure [SBP]) for CAD mortality were calculated at baseline and at 10, 15, 20, 25, and 29 years of follow-up. In men, smoking (HR 3.23; 95% CI 1.16-9.02) and a 1-SD increase in TC (HR 1.82; 95% CI 1.29-2.57) were strongly associated with a higher risk of CAD in the first 10 years, but this association decreased over time. Diabetes (HR 2.30; 95% CI 1.37-3.85) and a 1-SD increase in SBP (HR 1.23; 95% CI 1.00-1.50) were strongly correlated with a higher risk of CAD after 29 years). In women, diabetes was correlated with CAD after 20 years (HR 2.53; 95% CI 1.19-5.36) and this correlation persisted until after 29 years (HR 2.47; 95% CI 1.40-4.35). CONCLUSIONS: The duration of follow-up needed for the accurate assessment of risk factors for CAD mortality varies according to risk factor and sex.

11.
Nutrients ; 12(12)2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33266316

RESUMO

The consumption of red meat has been recommended for individuals with reduced kidney function. However, red meat intake was recently suspected to increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We evaluated the association of red meat intake with CVD mortality risk in Japanese with/without reduced kidney function. Overall, 9112 participants of a Japanese national survey in 1980, aged ≥30 years, were followed for 29 years. Red meat intake was assessed using weighed dietary record. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of CVD mortality according to sex-specific tertiles of red meat intake. We also performed stratified analyses with/without reduced kidney function defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Red meat intake was not associated with CVD mortality risk in men and women. In stratified analyses, the HR of the highest compared with the lowest tertile of red meat intake was lower only in women with reduced kidney function (0.67, 95% confidence interval 0.46-0.98). In conclusion, there were no clear associations between red meat intake and CVD mortality risk in Japanese population; however, a higher intake of red meat was associated with lower risk of future CVD mortality in women with reduced kidney function.

12.
Alcohol ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278513

RESUMO

The clinical implications of alcohol consumption have been extensively examined; however, its effects on brain structures in apparently healthy community-dwellers remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between alcohol consumption and brain grey matter volume (GMV) in community-dwelling Japanese men using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). We recruited cognitively intact Japanese men, aged 40-79 years, from a population-based cohort in Shiga, Japan. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was performed, on average, 2 years after demographic and medical information was obtained in 2010-2014. A multivariable linear regression analysis of 639 men was conducted to elucidate the relationship between the amount of alcohol consumed and GMV. VBM statistics were analyzed by threshold-free cluster enhancement with a family-wise error rate of <0.05. The results obtained demonstrated that the amount of alcohol consumed was associated with lower GMV. The VBM analysis showed lower GMV within the parahippocampal, entorhinal, cingulate, insular, temporal, and frontal cortices and cerebellum in very heavy drinkers (≥42 ethanol g/day) than in non-drinkers. Furthermore, alcohol consumption was associated with a higher white matter lesion volume. These results suggest subclinical structural changes similar to alcohol-related neurological diseases.

13.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33281188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Individual eating habits may be influenced by genetic factors, in addition to environmental factors. Previous studies suggested that adherence to Japanese food patterns was associated with a decreased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in a Japanese population to find genetic variations that affect adherence to a Japanese food pattern. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We analyzed GWAS data using 14,079 participants from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study. We made a Japanese food score based on six food groups. Association of the imputed variants with the Japanese food score was performed by linear regression analysis with adjustments for age, sex, total energy intake, alcohol intake (g/day), and principal components 1-10 omitting variants in the major histocompatibility region. RESULTS: We found one SNP in the 14q11.2 locus that was significantly associated with the Japanese food score with P values <5 × 10-8. Functional annotation revealed that the expression levels of two genes (BCL2L2, SLC22A17) were significantly inversely associated with this SNP. These genes are known to be related to olfaction and obesity. CONCLUSION: We found a new SNP that was associated with the Japanese food score in a Japanese population. This SNP is inversely associated with genes link to olfaction and obesity.

14.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1786, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33238945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Ministry of Health has reported that in Japan, the Shiga prefecture has the highest life expectancy. Subjective health perception is a predictive indicator of mortality. For this study, we examined the association between subjective health perception and multiple lifestyle factors. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2015 Health and Nutrition Survey in Shiga prefecture. The analytic sample comprised 6057 adults aged 20 or older. Information on subjective health perception and lifestyle behaviors was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. As for subjective health perception, participants were divided into 2 groups: (1) Excellent or Good and (2) Average, Poor, or Very Poor. A 1-day dietary survey was also administered. The health behaviors score (HBS) was calculated based on 5 factors: consuming a healthy diet, never smoking, low-risk alcohol drinking, regular exercise, and moderate sleep duration. HBS scores ranged from 0 to 5. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate the sex-, age- BMI- and energy intake-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of poor subjective health across HBS, with 0 points as the reference. RESULTS: Among all participants, 2397 (39.6%) individuals were classified into the good subjective health group. Participants with an HBS of 3 (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.37-0.96), 4 (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.24-0.65) or 5 (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.19-0.59) had a lower OR of rating themselves as being average/poor health compared with those having zero. The association with a higher HBS was remarkable (p for trend: < 0.001). Additional analyses revealed that the combinations including regular exercise were particularly associated with a lower risk of subjective average/poor health. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the higher the number of healthy lifestyle factors, the lower risk of subjective average/poor health. Combinations of healthy lifestyle factors, especially those involving exercise, suggest good subjective health for individuals living in the Shiga prefecture.

15.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 252(3): 253-262, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162455

RESUMO

Exercise habits are known as a protective factor for a variety of diseases and thus recommended worldwide; however, few studies have examined long-term effects of exercise habits on mortality. We continuously monitored death status in a nationwide population sample of 7,709 eligible persons from the National Integrated Project for Prospective Observation of Noncommunicable Disease and its Trends in the Aged in 1990 (NIPPON DATA90), for which baseline data were obtained in 1990. To investigate the long-term impact of baseline exercise habits, we calculated the relative risk of non-exercisers (participants without regular voluntary exercise habits) in reference to exercisers (those with these habits) for all-cause or cause-specific mortality using a Cox proportional hazard model, in which the following confounding factors were appropriately adjusted: sex, age, body mass index, total energy intake, smoking, drinking, and history of cardiovascular disease. During a median 20 years of follow-up, 1,747 participants died, 99 of heart failure. The risk for all-cause mortality was 12% higher in non-exercisers than in exercisers (95% confidence interval, 1%-24%), which was also observed for mortality from heart failure, as 68% higher in non-exercisers than in exercises (95% confidence interval, 3%-173%). These associations were similarly observed when the participants were divided to subgroups by sex, age, and the light, moderate, or vigorous intensity of physical activity, without any significant heterogeneities (P > 0.1). The present study has revealed significant impact of exercise habits on long-term mortality risks, supporting worldwide recommendations for improvement of exercise habits.

16.
Stroke ; 51(12): 3584-3591, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is a common subclinical feature of the aging brain. Steps per day may contribute to its prevention. We herein investigated the association between step counts and CSVD in a healthy Japanese male population. METHODS: We analyzed data from 680 men who were free of stroke and participated in this observational study. Seven-day step counts were assessed at baseline (2006-2008) using a pedometer. CSVD was assessed at follow-ups (2012-2015) based on deep and subcortical white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), periventricular hyperintensities, lacunar infarcts, and cerebral microbleeds on magnetic resonance imaging. Using a logistic regression analysis, we computed the adjusted odds ratios, with 95% CIs, of prevalent CSVD according to quartiles of step counts (reference: Q1). We also investigated the association between step counts and WMH volumes using a quantile regression. RESULTS: Steps per day were significantly associated with lower odds ratios, with the lowest at Q3 (8175-10 614 steps/day), of higher (versus low or no burden) deep and subcortical WMHs (odds ratio, 0.52 [95% CI, 0.30-0.89]), periventricular hyperintensities (0.50 [95% CI, 0.29-0.86]), and lacunar infarcts (0.52 [95% CI, 0.30-0.91]) compared with Q1 (≤6060 steps/day) but not cerebral microbleeds. An inverse linear association was observed between step counts and WMH volumes. These associations were independent of age and smoking and drinking status and remained consistent when adjusted for vascular risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: We found a J-shaped relationship between step counts and prevalent CSVD in healthy Japanese men, with the lowest risk being observed among participants with ≈8000 to 10 000 steps/day. Higher steps were also associated with lower WMH volumes.

17.
EClinicalMedicine ; 27: 100552, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150324

RESUMO

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) measures (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] and albuminuria) are frequently assessed in clinical practice and improve the prediction of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), yet most major clinical guidelines do not have a standardized approach for incorporating these measures into CVD risk prediction. "CKD Patch" is a validated method to calibrate and improve the predicted risk from established equations according to CKD measures. Methods: Utilizing data from 4,143,535 adults from 35 datasets, we developed several "CKD Patches" incorporating eGFR and albuminuria, to enhance prediction of risk of atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) by the Pooled Cohort Equation (PCE) and CVD mortality by Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE). The risk enhancement by CKD Patch was determined by the deviation between individual CKD measures and the values expected from their traditional CVD risk factors and the hazard ratios for eGFR and albuminuria. We then validated this approach among 4,932,824 adults from 37 independent datasets, comparing the original PCE and SCORE equations (recalibrated in each dataset) to those with addition of CKD Patch. Findings: We confirmed the prediction improvement with the CKD Patch for CVD mortality beyond SCORE and ASCVD beyond PCE in validation datasets (Δc-statistic 0.027 [95% CI 0.018-0.036] and 0.010 [0.007-0.013] and categorical net reclassification improvement 0.080 [0.032-0.127] and 0.056 [0.044-0.067], respectively). The median (IQI) of the ratio of predicted risk for CVD mortality with CKD Patch vs. the original prediction with SCORE was 2.64 (1.89-3.40) in very high-risk CKD (e.g., eGFR 30-44 ml/min/1.73m2 with albuminuria ≥30 mg/g), 1.86 (1.48-2.44) in high-risk CKD (e.g., eGFR 45-59 ml/min/1.73m2 with albuminuria 30-299 mg/g), and 1.37 (1.14-1.69) in moderate risk CKD (e.g., eGFR 60-89 ml/min/1.73m2 with albuminuria 30-299 mg/g), indicating considerable risk underestimation in CKD with SCORE. The corresponding estimates for ASCVD with PCE were 1.55 (1.37-1.81), 1.24 (1.10-1.54), and 1.21 (0.98-1.46). Interpretation: The "CKD Patch" can be used to quantitatively enhance ASCVD and CVD mortality risk prediction equations recommended in major US and European guidelines according to CKD measures, when available. Funding: US National Kidney Foundation and the NIDDK.

18.
Atherosclerosis ; 313: 20-25, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dysfunctional high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) beyond HDL concentrations. Recently, a novel method has been introduced to measure LOX-1 ligand containing apolipoprotein AI (LAA), which is an indicator of various types of modified HDL with binding capacity to LOX-1 and related to impaired anti-atherogenic functions of HDL. This study aimed to examine the relationship between LAA as a novel marker of dysfunctional HDL and coronary artery calcification (CAC). METHODS: We selected 910 community-dwelling Japanese men aged 40-79 years without a history of CVD. The odds ratios per 1SD of LAA for the presence of CAC (Agatston score >10) were estimated using logistic regression model adjusted for confounders, including HDL-C or HDL particle (HDL-P) concentration. In addition, we performed further analysis stratified by age (<65 and ≥ 65 years). RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 63.6 years, and the median LAA was 187.0 ng/mL. The prevalent CAC was 46.2%. The multivariable adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) per 1SD of LAA for CAC was 1.14 (0.96-1.36) for all participants. After stratification by age, multivariable adjusted odds ratios per 1SD of LAA were 1.34 (1.02-1.76) and 0.97 (0.77-1.23) in men aged <65 and ≥ 65 years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that LAA was associated with CAC independent of HDL-C or HDL-P in middle-aged Japanese men. This finding suggests that LAA might be an early marker for CVD events. Future longitudinal studies are warranted.

19.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041313

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to develop and validate risk prediction models to estimate the absolute 10-year risk of death from coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: We evaluated a total of 44,869 individuals aged 40-79 years from eight Japanese prospective cohorts to derive coefficients of risk equations using cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazard regression models. Discrimination (C-index) of the equation was examined in each cohort and summarised using random-effect meta-analyses. Calibration of the equation was assessed using Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-squared statistic. RESULTS: Within a median follow-up of 12.7 years, we observed 765 deaths due to CVD (276 CHDs and 489 strokes). After backward selection, age, sex, current smoking, systolic blood pressure (SBP), proteinuria, prevalent diabetes mellitus, the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDLC), interaction terms of age by SBP, and age by current smoking were retained as predictors for CHD. Sex was excluded in the stroke equation. We did not consider TC/HDLC as a risk factor for the stroke and CVD equations. The pooled C-indices for CHD, stroke, and CVD were 0.83, 0.80, and 0.81, respectively, and the corresponding p-values of the Hosmer-Lemeshow tests were 0.18, 0.003, and 0.25, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Risk equations in the present study can adequately estimate the absolute 10-year risk of death from CHD, stroke, and CVD. Future work will evaluate the system as an education and risk communication tool for primary prevention of CHD and stroke.

20.
Hypertens Res ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057184

RESUMO

Despite clear evidence of the benefits of lowering blood pressure among patients with hypertension, the treatment rate remains <40% worldwide. In the present trial, we aimed to investigate the effects of the early promotion of clinic visits among patients with untreated hypertension detected during annual health checkups. This was a worksite-based, parallel group, cluster-randomized trial with blinded outcome assessment. Employees of 152 Japanese supermarket stores found to have untreated hypertension (blood pressure levels ≥ 160/100 mmHg) during health checkups were assigned to an early promotion group (encouraged to visit a clinic in face-to-face interviews and provided with a referral letter to a physician as well as a leaflet) or a control group (received usual care), according to random assignment. The primary outcome was the completion of a clinic visit within 6 months. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for the early promotion group versus the control group were estimated using multilevel logistic regression with random effects of clusters. A total of 273 participants (mean age 50.3 years, 55% women) from 107 stores were assigned to the early promotion group (138 from 55 stores) or control group (135 from 52 stores). During the 6-month follow-up, 47 (34.1%) participants in the early promotion group visited a clinic, as did 26 (19.3%) in the control group (odds ratio 2.33, 95% confidence interval 1.12-4.84, P = 0.024). Early promotion using a referral letter during health checkups significantly increased the number of clinic visits within 6 months completed by participants with untreated hypertension (UMIN000025411).

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