Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 228
Filtrar
1.
Biomedicines ; 9(10)2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34680513

RESUMO

Patient-derived xenograft models reportedly represent original tumor morphology and gene mutation profiles. In addition, patient-derived xenografts are expected to recapitulate the parental tumor drug responses. In this study, we analyzed the pathways involved in gemcitabine resistance using patient-derived xenograft models of pancreatic cancer. The patient-derived xenograft models were established using samples from patients with pancreatic cancer. The models were treated with gemcitabine to better understand the mechanism of resistance to this anti-cancer drug. We performed comparative gene analysis through the next-generation sequencing of tumor tissues from gemcitabine-treated or non-treated patient-derived xenograft mice and gene set enrichment analysis to analyze mRNA profiling data. Pathway analysis of gemcitabine-treated patient-derived xenografts disclosed the upregulation of multiple gene sets and identified several specific gene pathways that could potentially be related to gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer. Further, we conducted an in vitro analysis to validate these results. The mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 1B1 and cytochrome P450 2A6 was upregulated in a concentration-dependent manner following gemcitabine treatment. Moreover, the sensitivity to gemcitabine increased, and viable cells were decreased by the cytochrome P450 1B1 inhibitor, indicating that the cytochrome P450 1B1 pathway may be related to gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer.

2.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4489-4495, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The chemokine receptors C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) and C-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7) play an important role in the invasion and metastasis of cancer. This study investigated the relationship between relative expression of CXCR4 and CCR7 mRNA, clinicopathological factors, and outcomes in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 202 patients who underwent surgery for CRC. The expression levels of CXCR4 and CCR7 mRNA in cancerous tissue were measured using quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: High CCR7 mRNA expression levels in CRC tissues were positively associated with tumour size and were more frequently associated with cancer of the rectum than of the colon. Moreover, outcomes were significantly poorer in patients with high CCR7 mRNA expression than in those with low expression. On multivariate Cox regression analysis, a higher CCR7 mRNA expression level was a significant independent predictor of poorer overall survival in patients with CRC. CONCLUSION: Overexpression of CCR7 mRNA may be a useful independent prognostic factor in patients with CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Receptores CCR7/genética , Receptores CXCR4/genética , Regulação para Cima , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Tumoral
3.
In Vivo ; 35(5): 2771-2777, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are reported to associated with cancer metastasis, relapse, and chemoresistance. This study examined the clinical significance of the expression of two CSC markers, the transporter associated with antigen processing 1 (TAP1) and the Delta-like 4 (DLL4) protein, in patients with locally advanced GC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study was performed using samples obtained from 413 pathological stage II/III GC patients after curative gastrectomy. We examined TAP1 and DLL4 expression using immunohistochemical analysis with tissue microarray and examined the association between TAP1 or DLL4 expression, clinicopathological factors and survival. RESULTS: High TAP1 expression was associated with better overall survival compared to low TAP1 expression (p=0.004). Furthermore, in multivariate analysis, high TAP1 expression was defined as a predictive factor for good survival. There was no significant difference between DLL4 expression and clinicopathological features and overall survival. CONCLUSION: TAP1 expression may be a useful prognostic marker in patients with locally advanced GC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gástricas , Membro 2 da Subfamília B de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal , Apresentação do Antígeno , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio , Gastrectomia , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia
4.
Cancer Sci ; 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382298

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer frequently involves cancer-associated thromboembolism, which is strongly associated with poor prognosis. Tissue factor, a blood coagulation factor largely produced in cancer patients as a component of extracellular vesicles, plays a key role in the incidence of cancer-associated thromboembolism in patients with pancreatic cancer. However, no prospective studies have been published on the relationship between tissue factor and cancer-associated thromboembolism or patient clinical characteristics, including recent chemotherapy regimens. Thus, we aimed to address this in a Japanese cohort of 197 patients and 41 healthy volunteers. Plasma tissue factor levels were measured by ELISAs preevaluated by tissue factor specificity. Multivariable analysis was used to identify independent predictors of cancer-associated thromboembolism. We found that the cancer-associated thromboembolism rate in the patient cohort was 6.6% (4.6%, venous thromboembolism; 2.0%, arterial thromboembolism). Tissue factor levels of 100 pg/mL or higher at patient registration were predictive of cancer-associated thromboembolism, with positive and negative predictive values of 23.1% and 94.6%, respectively. Multivariable analysis showed that plasma tissue factor levels were an independent predictive factor for cancer-associated thromboembolism, with a risk ratio of 5.54 (95% confidence interval, 1.02-30.09). Unlike in healthy volunteers and patients without cancer-associated thromboembolism, tissue factor levels were highly correlated with extracellular vesicles' procoagulant activity in patients developing cancer-associated thromboembolism. Taken together, our data show that the tissue factor levels at patient registration were a predictive factor for cancer-associated thromboembolism in this cohort of patients with pancreatic cancer.

5.
Front Oncol ; 11: 695251, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34395260

RESUMO

Background: Prostate cancer has become increasingly common worldwide. Although Grade group (GG) is widely accepted as an indicator of prostate cancer grade, there are malignancies that cannot be defined by GG alone. Moreover, the relationship between GG and other parameters remains unclear. Herein, we aimed to explore the biological characteristics of prostate cancer. Methods: This study included 299 radical prostatectomy cases. The Chi-square test and analysis of variance were used to analyze the association of GG with binary and continuous variables. We then conducted morphological analyses. Multivariate analyses were performed to extract the data on risk factors for biochemical recurrence (BCR) and lymph node metastasis. Results: The lymphatic, venous, perineural, and seminal vesicle invasion rates were 37/299 (12.4%), 25/299 (8.4%), 280/299 (93.6%), and 23/299 (7.7%), respectively. The extraprostatic extension (EPE), positive surgical margin, tertiary Gleason pattern 5, intraductal carcinoma of the prostate gland, and lymph node metastasis rates were 89/299 (29.8%), 106/299 (35.5%), 33/260 (12.7%), 56/299 (18.7%), and 23/299 (7.7%), respectively. As GG increased, various parameters became easier to visualize; however, there were differences between the parameters. Postoperative BCR was observed in 31/242 (12.8%) cases without preoperative hormone therapy; GG2, GG3, GG4, and GG5 accounted for 4, 7, 7, and 13 cases, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that GG and tumor diameter were significant risk factors for early BCR, whereas lymphatic invasion, EPE, and seminal vesicle invasion were significant risk factors for lymph node metastasis. For BCR, the odds ratios (ORs) for GG and tumor diameter were 2.253 (95% confidence interval (CI]): 1.297-3.912; P=0.004) and 1.074 (95% CI: 1.011-1.142; P=0.022), respectively. For lymph node metastasis, ORs for the presence of lymphatic invasion, EPE, and seminal vesicle invasion were 7.425 (95% CI: 1.688-22.583; P=0.004), 4.391 (95% CI: 1.037-18.589; P=0.044), and 5.755 (95% CI: 1.308-25.316; P=0.021), respectively. Conclusions: We summarized various parameters correlating with each GG. Through multivariate analyses, we established the independent risk factors for early BCR and lymph node metastasis. In addition to GG, other important indices of malignancy were determined and weighted to provide a basis for future investigations.

6.
Pathol Int ; 71(9): 604-613, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34240508

RESUMO

Sialylated HEG1 has been reported as a highly specific and sensitive mesothelioma marker but a comprehensive evaluation of its expression in carcinomas in different organs, various sarcomas and reactive mesothelial proliferations has not been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical applicability of HEG1 as a marker in the diagnosis of mesothelioma. HEG1 immunoreactivity was evaluated in whole sections of 122 mesotheliomas, 75 pulmonary carcinomas, 55 other carcinomas, 16 mesenchymal tumors, and 24 reactive mesothelial proliferations and in tissue microarrays containing 70 epithelioid (EM), 36 biphasic (BM), and 2 sarcomatoid mesotheliomas (SM). In whole sections and tissue microarrays, respectively, membranous HEG1 was expressed in 93.0% and 85.5% of EM, 81.3% and 69.4% of BM, 0% and 0% of SM. HEG1 was not expressed in pulmonary adenocarcinomas. HEG1 was expressed as cytoplasmic immunoreactivity in pulmonary squamous cell carcinomas (21.7%). Membranous HEG1 staining was seen in ovarian carcinomas (66.7%), thyroid carcinomas (100%), reactive conditions (16.7%), and mesenchymal tumors (18.8%). The sensitivity of membranous HEG1 expression to distinguish EM/BM from all carcinomas was 88.8%. The specificity for the differential diagnosis between EM/BM and all carcinomas and pulmonary carcinomas was 92.3% and 98.7%, respectively.

7.
Anticancer Res ; 41(7): 3583-3588, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of PLA2G2A expression in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer (GC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: PLA2G2A expression levels in cancerous tissue specimens and adjacent normal mucosa obtained from 134 patients with stage II/III GC who received adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 after curative resection were measured using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Subsequently, the associations of PLA2G2A expression with clinicopathological features and survival were evaluated. RESULTS: No association was observed between clinicopathological features and PLA2G2A expression levels. Overall survival was significantly longer in patients with high PLA2G2A expression levels (p=0.022). Multivariate analysis revealed that PLA2G2A expression was a significant, independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio=0.136; 95% confidence interval=0.0185-0.992; p=0.049). CONCLUSION: PLA2G2A mRNA expression may serve as a useful prognostic marker in patients with locally advanced GC who receive curative surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1.


Assuntos
Fosfolipases A2 do Grupo II/metabolismo , Ácido Oxônico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Tegafur/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Gastrectomia/métodos , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Prognóstico , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Estômago/efeitos dos fármacos , Estômago/patologia , Estômago/cirurgia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia
8.
Breast Cancer ; 28(6): 1318-1327, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34185256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mixed ductal-lobular carcinoma (MDL) of the breast is poorly understood. Dysfunction of E-cadherin, a cell adhesion protein encoded by the CDH1 gene located on 16q22.1, causes loss of cell adhesion and cellular polarity in lobular carcinoma (LC). This study focuses the aberrations of CDH1 in LC, ductal carcinoma (DC), and MDL to investigate the pathogenesis of MDL. METHODS: The CDH1 DNA value (ratio of CDH1 copy number to the reference gene, RNase P) was calculated by digital polymerase chain reaction analysis of a total of 113 breast carcinoma cases (51 LCs, 54 DCs, and 8 MDLs). CDH1 gene mutation assay was performed for 20/51 LCs, 8/54 DCs, and 8 MDLs cases. RESULTS: The CDH1 DNA values were lower in LCs (average: 0.664) than in DCs (average: 1.296) (p < 0.000). In MDL, The CDH1 DNA values were significantly lower in LC areas (average: 0.58), compared to that of DC areas (average: 1.08) (p = 0.004), and there is no significant difference between the intermingled areas (average: 1.05) and DC areas (p = 0.775). Moreover, CDH1 mutations occurred more frequently in MDLs than in pure LCs and DCs. In one MDL case, the identical CDH1 mutation was found in LC and DC areas. CONCLUSION: Our study presented that MDL had more frequent CDH1 mutations. There were two possible processes for cancer cells in LC areas: one process was via DC areas with a common ancestor, and another was an independent process from DC areas.

9.
Oncol Lett ; 22(1): 547, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34093768

RESUMO

Cancer cells upregulate the expression levels of glycolytic enzymes in order to reach the increased glycolysis required. One such upregulated glycolytic enzyme is glyoxalase 1 (GLO 1), which catalyzes the conversion of toxic methylglyoxal to nontoxic S-D-lactoylglutathione. Protein kinase Cλ (PKCλ) is also upregulated in various types of cancer and is involved in cancer progression. In the present study, the association between enhanced glycolysis and PKCλ in breast cancer was investigated. In human breast cancer, high GLO 1 expression was associated with high PKCλ expression at the protein (P<0.01) and mRNA levels (P<0.01). Furthermore, Wilcoxon and Cox regression model analysis revealed that patients with stage III-IV tumors with high GLO 1 and PKCλ expression had poor overall survival compared with patients expressing lower levels of these genes [P=0.040 (Gehan-Breslow generalized Wilcoxon test) and P=0.031 (hazard ratio, 2.36; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-5.16), respectively]. Treatment of MDA-MB-157 and MDA-MB-468 human basal-like breast cancer cells with TLSC702 (a GLO 1 inhibitor) and/or aurothiomalate (a PKCλ inhibitor) reduced both cell viability and tumor-sphere formation. These results suggested that GLO 1 and PKCλ were cooperatively involved in cancer progression and contributed to a poor prognosis in breast cancer. In conclusion, GLO 1 and PKCλ serve as potentially effective therapeutic targets for treatment of late-stage human breast cancer.

10.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 188(3): 649-659, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934277

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Diagnosis of breast preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions is difficult due to their similar morphology in breast biopsy specimens. To diagnose these lesions, pathologists perform immunohistochemical analysis and consult with expert breast pathologists. These additional examinations are time-consuming and expensive. Artificial intelligence (AI)-based image analysis has recently improved, and may help in ordinal pathological diagnosis. Here, we showed the significance of machine learning-based image analysis of breast preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions for facilitating high-throughput diagnosis. METHODS: Images were obtained from normal mammary glands, hyperplastic lesions, preneoplastic lesions and neoplastic lesions, such as usual ductal hyperplasia (UDH), columnar cell lesion (CCL), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and DCIS with comedo necrosis (comedo DCIS) in breast biopsy specimens. The original enhanced convoluted neural network (CNN) system was used for analyzing the pathological images. RESULTS: The AI-based image analysis provided the following area under the curve values (AUC): normal lesion versus DCIS, 0.9902; DCIS versus comedo DCIS, 0.9942; normal lesion versus CCL, 0.9786; and UDH versus DCIS, 1.000. Multiple comparison analysis showed precision and recall scores similar to those of single comparison analysis. Based on the gradient-weighted class activation mapping (Grad-CAM) used to visualize the important regions reflecting the result of CNN analysis, the ratio of stromal tissue in the whole weighted area was significantly higher in UDH and CCL than that in DCIS. CONCLUSIONS: These analyses may provide a more accurate and rapid pathological diagnosis of patients. Moreover, Grad-CAM identifies uncharted important histological characteristics for newer pathological findings and targets of research for understanding diseases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante , Inteligência Artificial , Biópsia , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperplasia/patologia , Aprendizado de Máquina
11.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 26(7): 1336-1344, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2 (TFPI2) is a novel serum biomarker that discriminates ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC) from borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs) and non-clear cell epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs). Here, we examined the performance of TFPI2 for preoperative diagnosis of CCC. METHODS: Serum samples were obtained preoperatively from patients with ovarian masses, who needed surgical treatment at five hospitals in Japan. The diagnostic powers of TFPI2 and cancer antigen 125 (CA125) serum levels to discriminate CCC from BOTs, other EOCs, and benign lesions were compared. RESULTS: A total of 351 patients including 69 CCCs were analyzed. Serum TFPI2 levels were significantly higher in CCC patients (mean ± SD, 508.2 ± 812.0 pg/mL) than in patients with benign lesions (154.7 ± 46.5), BOTs (181 ± 95.5) and other EOCs (265.4 ± 289.1). TFPI2 had a high diagnostic specificity for CCC (79.5%). In patients with benign ovarian endometriosis, no patient was positive for TFPI2, but 71.4% (15/21) were CA125 positive. TFPI2 showed good performance in discriminating stage II-IV CCC from BOTs and other EOCs (AUC 0.815 for TFPI2 versus 0.505 for CA125) or endometriosis (AUC 0.957 for TFPI2 versus 0.748 for CA125). The diagnostic sensitivity of TFPI2 to discriminate CCC from BOTs and other EOCs was improved from 43.5 to 71.0% when combined with CA125. CONCLUSIONS: High specificity of TFPI2 for preoperative detection of CCC was verified with the defined cutoff level of TFPI2 in clinical practice. TFPI2 and CA125 may contribute substantially to precise prediction of intractable CCC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Antígeno Ca-125 , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Feminino , Glicoproteínas , Humanos , Japão , Lipoproteínas , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia
12.
Pathol Int ; 71(8): 491-499, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015161

RESUMO

Endometrial neuroendocrine carcinoma is a rare disease with unknown clinicopathological and molecular characteristics. Therefore, we conducted the present study to elucidate the clinicopathological and molecular characteristics of endometrial neuroendocrine carcinoma, as compared to conventional endometrial carcinoma, and to determine the origin of the former. We analyzed 22 endometrial neuroendocrine carcinomas and 22 conventional endometrial neoplasia cases with respect to clinical, histological and genetic features. Of these, 21/22 neuroendocrine carcinoma cases were admixed carcinomas, with 15 admixed with endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Genetic analysis of hotspot mutations in 50 cancer-related genes revealed that the neuroendocrine carcinoma group carried mutations in PIK3CA (12/22 cases; 54%) and PTEN (8/22 cases; 36%), commonly encountered in endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Comparative statistical analysis of neuroendocrine carcinoma and conventional endometrial neoplasia cases showed a significant trend only in PIK3CA mutation. Moreover, in six mixed-type neuroendocrine carcinoma cases, macrodissection was used to separate the neuroendocrine carcinoma and endometrioid adenocarcinoma components for next-generation sequencing, which revealed several mutations common among the two. These findings suggest that endometrial neuroendocrine carcinoma could originate from conventional endometrial neoplasia, especially endometrioid adenocarcinoma.

13.
Gut ; 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980610

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To date, there are no predictive biomarkers to guide selection of patients with gastric cancer (GC) who benefit from paclitaxel. Stomach cancer Adjuvant Multi-Institutional group Trial (SAMIT) was a 2×2 factorial randomised phase III study in which patients with GC were randomised to Pac-S-1 (paclitaxel +S-1), Pac-UFT (paclitaxel +UFT), S-1 alone or UFT alone after curative surgery. DESIGN: The primary objective of this study was to identify a gene signature that predicts survival benefit from paclitaxel chemotherapy in GC patients. SAMIT GC samples were profiled using a customised 476 gene NanoString panel. A random forest machine-learning model was applied on the NanoString profiles to develop a gene signature. An independent cohort of metastatic patients with GC treated with paclitaxel and ramucirumab (Pac-Ram) served as an external validation cohort. RESULTS: From the SAMIT trial 499 samples were analysed in this study. From the Pac-S-1 training cohort, the random forest model generated a 19-gene signature assigning patients to two groups: Pac-Sensitive and Pac-Resistant. In the Pac-UFT validation cohort, Pac-Sensitive patients exhibited a significant improvement in disease free survival (DFS): 3-year DFS 66% vs 40% (HR 0.44, p=0.0029). There was no survival difference between Pac-Sensitive and Pac-Resistant in the UFT or S-1 alone arms, test of interaction p<0.001. In the external Pac-Ram validation cohort, the signature predicted benefit for Pac-Sensitive (median PFS 147 days vs 112 days, HR 0.48, p=0.022). CONCLUSION: Using machine-learning techniques on one of the largest GC trials (SAMIT), we identify a gene signature representing the first predictive biomarker for paclitaxel benefit. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: UMIN Clinical Trials Registry: C000000082 (SAMIT); ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, 02628951 (South Korean trial).

14.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 10(3): 1292-1304, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33889510

RESUMO

Background: Fetal adenocarcinoma of the lung is a rare variant of lung adenocarcinoma and is subcategorized into low-grade and high-grade (H-FLAC) fetal adenocarcinoma. We previously reported poor prognosis in pulmonary adenocarcinomas with an H-FLAC component; however, the genetic abnormalities involved in H-FLAC remain unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to elucidate molecular abnormalities as potential therapeutic targets for H-FLACs. Methods: We performed immunohistochemical analysis and comprehensive genetic analyses using whole-exome sequencing in 16 lung cancer samples with an H-FLAC component. DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues after macrodissection of the H-FLAC component. Results: Cancer-related mutations were identified in TP53 (7/16 cases), KMT2C (6/16 cases), KRAS (4/16 cases), NF1 (3/16 cases), STK11 (3/16 cases), CTNNB1 (2/16 cases), and EGFR (1/16 cases). A high tumor mutation burden of ≥10 mutations per megabase was observed in 3/16 cases. A high microsatellite instability was not detected in any case. Based on the cosine similarity with the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer mutational signatures, H-FLACs were hierarchically clustered into three types: common adenocarcinoma-like (five cases), surfactant-deficient (ten cases), and signatures 2 and 13-related (one case). All common adenocarcinoma-like cases presented thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) expression, whereas surfactant-deficient cases often presented loss of TTF-1 and surfactant protein expression and included cases with mutations in the surfactant system genes NKX2-1 and SFTPC. H-FLACs displayed low programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression (1-49% of tumor cells) in 5/16 cases, and no case displayed high PD-L1 expression (≥50% of tumor cells). Conclusions: This study indicates that lung cancers with an H-FLAC component rarely harbor currently targetable driver gene mutations for lung cancer but display a high frequency of KMT2C mutations. The microsatellite instability, tumor mutation burden, and PD-L1 expression status suggest a poor response to immune checkpoint therapy.

15.
Anticancer Res ; 41(4): 2117-2122, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Stanniocalcin2 (STC2) is associated with proliferation, invasion, and metastasis in various cancers. We examined the clinical significance of STC2 mRNA expression in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Relative expression levels of STC2 mRNA in CRC tissues and corresponding normal mucosa obtained from 202 patients were measured using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Expression of STC2 mRNA was higher in the cancer tissue than in the adjacent normal mucosa. STC2 mRNA expression in cancer tissues was associated with tumour size, liver metastasis, venous invasion, and lymph node metastasis. High expression of STC2 mRNA was significantly associated with poorer postoperative survival (p=0.0003). Multivariate analysis showed that high expression of STC2 mRNA was an independent predictor of postoperative survival. CONCLUSION: High expression of STC2 mRNA in CRC tissue may be a useful prognostic marker in patients with CRC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Glicoproteínas/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Prognóstico , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Biopreserv Biobank ; 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926234

RESUMO

Background: Analytical information obtained from clinical tissue samples has recently become more important due to recent advancements in the clinical practice of medicine, for example, gene panel testing. However, acquiring and managing the sample quality, which greatly influences the analyses, are not sufficient and hence requires immediate attention. We introduced time stamp (TS) recording and documentation using the Standard PREanalytical Code (SPREC) for breast cancer surgery samples to monitor and control their quality. Materials and Methods: The TS recording used SPREC for quality control of each sample by recording seven factors: type of sample, type of collection, warm ischemia time (WIT), cold ischemia time (CIT), fixation type, fixation time (FT), and long-term storage. The responsibilities to record each factor were assigned among group members (breast surgeons, anesthesiologists, pathologists, operating room nurses, and medical technologists in pathology). Results: Records based on SPREC were recorded for 393 surgical cases of first-time breast cancer patients performed at the Kanagawa Cancer Center from May 2018 to April 2019. The vascular clamp time was defined as when skin flap formation was completed, regardless of the surgical procedure. An anesthesiologist recorded the vascular clamp time and sample collection time, and the pathologist recorded the fixation start time and fixation end time. WIT was 23 (3-116) minutes (breast-conserving surgery, 11 [3-38] minutes; mastectomy, 26 [5-116] minutes; and nipple-sparing mastectomy, 39 [31-43] minutes), CIT was 37 (3-1052) minutes, and FT was 43 (17-115) hours. The median CIT and FT were significantly shortened after introducing the TS system, and the variabilities were reduced. Conclusion: A TS system for quality control of breast cancer surgical sample functions well due to the establishment of highly versatile WIT and a working group consisting of multiple members of different occupations who shared roles.

17.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 100, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is still unclear whether epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation of primary lung adenocarcinoma can be detected on sputum samples. This study aimed to examine EGFR mutations of primary lung adenocarcinoma in sputum samples using droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) and compare it with an EGFR mutation in surgically resected lung cancer. METHODS: Sputum was prospectively collected from the patients before complete resection of the primary lung cancer at Kanagawa Cancer Center from September 2014 to May 2016. ddPCR was performed to detect EGFR exon 21 L858R point mutation (Ex21) and EGFR exon 19 deletion mutation (Ex19) in sputum samples from patients with lung adenocarcinoma. The concordance of EGFR mutation status in sputum samples and tumors in surgically resected specimen was evaluated for each positive and negative cytology group. RESULTS: One hundred and eighteen patients with primary lung adenocarcinoma provided sputum samples. Sputum cytology was positive in 13 patients (11.0%). ddPCR detected two cases of Ex21 and two cases of Ex19 in sputum cytology positive cases. Compared to surgically resected specimens, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of EGFR mutation (Ex19 and Ex21) detection were 80.0%, 100%, and 100%, respectively, in sputum cytology positive cases. In contrast, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of EGFR mutation (Ex19 and Ex21) detection were 3.1%, 100%, and 100%, respectively, in sputum cytology negative cases. CONCLUSIONS: EGFR mutations in primary lung adenocarcinoma can be detected with high sensitivity in sputum samples if sputum cytology is positive.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação/genética , Escarro/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , DNA/genética , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
Oncol Rep ; 45(3): 1023-1032, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650653

RESUMO

Tissue factor pathway inhibitor­2 (TFPI­2) is a promising candidate as a serum biomarker of ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC), a lethal histological subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). TFPI­2 is a secreted serine protease inhibitor that suppresses cancer progression through the inhibition of matrix protease activities. Previous studies have also identified TFPI­2 in the nucleus, and a possible function of nuclear TFPI­2 as a transcriptional repressor of matrix metalloproteinase­2 (MMP­2) was recently demonstrated. We are currently establishing TFPI­2 as a serum biomarker for OCCC patients; however, TFPI­2 expression in OCCC tissues has not been previously investigated. In the present study, we examined TFPI­2 expression and its localization in 11 OCCC cell lines by western blotting and enzyme­linked immune assay. Four cell lines expressed TFPI­2 in the nucleus, cytoplasm and culture plate-attached extracellular fraction, while four other cell lines expressed TFPI­2 only in the extracellular fraction. In the remaining three cell lines, TFPI­2 was not identified in any fraction. The amount of secreted soluble TFPI­2 showed similar trends to that of the plate­attached fraction. We next investigated the expression levels and distribution of TFPI­2 in surgically resected EOC tissues by immunohistochemistry. In 52 of the 77 (67.5%) OCCC tumors, TFPI­2 expression was detected in at least one of the nuclear, cytoplasmic and extracellular matrix fractions. In contrast, we did not identify TFPI­2 in the other EOC subtypes (n=65). TFPI­2­positive expression distinguished CCC from the other EOC tissues with a sensitivity of 67.5% and specificity of 100%. Although the inherent tumor suppressor function, statistical analyses failed to demonstrate correlations between TFPI­2 expression and clinical parameters, including 5­year overall survival, except for the patient age. In conclusion, we identified TFPI­2 expression in the nucleus, cytoplasm and extracellular matrix in OCCC tissues. The high specificity of TFPI­2 may support its use for diagnosis of OCCC in combination with existing markers.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/metabolismo , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
19.
Int J Cancer ; 149(3): 646-656, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783816

RESUMO

PRDM14 is highly expressed in several cancers but is not detected in normal tissues. It confers cancer stem cell-like properties, including chemoresistance and distant metastasis, to cancer cells. Herein, we aimed to develop a highly effective therapy against advanced stage cancer based on intravenously delivered PRDM14-targeted siRNA. First, we examined PRDM14 expression and gene amplification in breast and pancreatic tumors and cell lines. PRDM14 was expressed in breast cancer, including the triple-negative subtype, and pancreatic cancer. PRDM14 was amplified in 23.8% of patients with PRDM14+ breast cancer. Next, we investigated the inoculated tumor growth and distant metastasis following PRDM14 depletion by administering mice with PRDM14-specific chimeric siRNA combined with a novel branched PEGylated poly-L-ornithine (PLO)-based intravenous drug delivery system, designated PRDM14 unit polyion complex (uPIC) (n = 6/group). Inhibition of PRDM14 expression with PRDM14 uPIC by systemic intravenous injection effectively reduced tumor size and metastasis in vivo, thereby improving survival. Finally, pharmacokinetic/toxicokinetic analyses were performed on PRDM14 uPIC, which was intravenously administered to rats (n = 10-15/group) and cynomolgus monkeys (n = 3-5/group), twice weekly for 4 weeks. This revealed that PRDM14 uPIC was relatively nontoxic and the siRNA exposure in serum was greater than that predicted by the administered dose ratio when delivered as a uPIC. Taken together, our study indicated that PRDM14 uPIC is highly effective in suppressing malignant features of solid cancers and does not cause severe toxicity, making it a promising therapeutic agent for cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Apoptose , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Haplorrinos , Humanos , Injeções Intravenosas , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/química , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Prognóstico , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Ratos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
20.
Diagn Cytopathol ; 49(5): 622-632, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The specificity and sensitivity of HEG1 for malignant mesothelioma (MM) is high. The use of BAP1/MTAP immunohistochemistry (IHC) is recommended to separate benign and malignant mesothelial proliferations. We determined how ancillary techniques can be used for the cytological diagnosis of MM with effusion. METHODS: Cell blocks from effusions from cases with MM, reactive mesothelial cells (RMCs), and carcinomas were analyzed by IHC with HEG1, BAP1, and MTAP and with homozygous deletion (HD) of CDKN2A by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Staining scores were calculated for IHC by adding the number of categories for the staining intensity and the staining extension. RESULTS: HEG1 was positive in all (41/41) MMs, but negative in carcinomas, except for ovarian carcinomas. Overall 76.9% (20/26) of RMCs and 28.6% (6/21) of ovarian carcinomas expressed HEG1. BAP1 loss was found in 71.1% of MMs, but none was found in RMCs. MTAP loss was found in 76.2% of MMs, but none was found in RMCs. 73.9% of MMs harbored HD of CDKN2A. There was concordance between loss of MTAP and HD of CDKN2A in 95% of MMs. CONCLUSION: HEG1 is a good marker for mesothelial differentiation in effusion cytology. HD of CDKN2A is frequently observed in cell blocks from effusions of MMs, and MTAP IHC may act as a surrogate for HD of CDKN2A. Cell block analysis is recommended for effusions of unknown origins with the following methods: IHC with HEG1 and claudin 4 to validate the mesothelial origin, followed by BAP1 and MTAP IHC to confirm malignancy.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...