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1.
Mol Brain ; 12(1): 70, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399102

RESUMO

Pregnancy and lactation are characterized by dramatic changes in the endocrine system and brain in mammalian females. These changes, with stress before pregnancy, are potential risk factors for the development of postpartum depression (PPD). A valid animal model of PPD is needed to understand the neurobiological basis of the depressive state of females. To explore a mouse model of PPD, we first assessed anxiety-like and depression-related behaviors in nulliparous (virgin), nonlactating primiparous, and lactating primiparous females in four inbred strains of mice (C57BL/6J, C57BL/6JJcl, BALB/cAnNCrlCrlj, and BALB/cAJcl). Pups from the nonlactating female group were removed one day after parturition to examine the effects of physical interaction with pups on the postpartum behaviors. Second, we investigated the additional effects of prepregnancy stress (restraint stress for 6 h/day for 21 days) on postpartum behaviors in the BALB/cAJcl strain. We found that females of the two BALB/c substrains showed decreased locomotor activity and increased anxiety-like and depression-related behaviors compared with females of the two C57BL/6 substrains. Behavioral differences were also observed between the two substrains of each strain. Additionally, pregnancy- and lactation-dependent behavioral differences were found in some strains: lactating BALB/cAJcl females traveled shorter distance than the females of the other reproductive state groups, while nonlactating and lactating BALB/cAJcl and C57BL/6J females showed increased depression-related behavior compared with nulliparous females. Lactating BALB/cAJcl and C57BL/6JJcl females exhibited decreased sucrose preference or anhedonia-like behavior compared with nulliparous and nonlactating females, although these results did not reach statistical significance after correction for multiple testing. An additional independent experiment replicated the marked behavioral changes in lactating BALB/cAJcl females. Moreover, increased anxiety-like behavior was observed in lactating BALB/cAJcl females that experienced prepregnancy stress. These results suggest genetic contributions to the regulation of anxiety-like and depression-related behaviors in female mice. Furthermore, this study suggests that pregnancy and lactation cause decreased locomotor activity and increased depression-related behaviors, which was consistently found in our results, and that prepregnancy stress enhances anxiety-like behavior in the BALB/cAJcl strain. The inbred strain of female mice may be used as a potential model of PPD to further study the genetic and neurobiological mechanisms underlying the development of this disorder.

2.
Mol Brain ; 12(1): 69, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383032

RESUMO

The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (FLX) is widely used to treat depression and anxiety disorders. Chronic FLX treatment reportedly induces cellular responses in the brain, including increased adult hippocampal and cortical neurogenesis and reversal of neuron maturation in the hippocampus, amygdala, and cortex. However, because most previous studies have used rodent models, it remains unclear whether these FLX-induced changes occur in the primate brain. To evaluate the effects of FLX in the primate brain, we used immunohistological methods to assess neurogenesis and the expression of neuronal maturity markers following chronic FLX treatment (3 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks) in adult marmosets (n = 3 per group). We found increased expression of doublecortin and calretinin, markers of immature neurons, in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of FLX-treated marmosets. Further, FLX treatment reduced parvalbumin expression and the number of neurons with perineuronal nets, which indicate mature fast-spiking interneurons, in the hippocampus, but not in the amygdala or cerebral cortex. We also found that FLX treatment increased the generation of cortical interneurons; however, significant up-regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis was not observed in FLX-treated marmosets. These results suggest that dematuration of hippocampal neurons and increased cortical neurogenesis may play roles in FLX-induced effects and/or side effects. Our results are consistent with those of previous studies showing hippocampal dematuration and increased cortical neurogenesis in FLX-treated rodents. In contrast, FLX did not affect hippocampal neurogenesis or dematuration of interneurons in the amygdala and cerebral cortex.

3.
Neuropsychopharmacol Rep ; 39(3): 223-237, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323176

RESUMO

AIMS: Synaptic Ras GTPase-activating protein 1 (SYNGAP1) regulates synaptic plasticity through AMPA receptor trafficking. SYNGAP1 mutations have been found in human patients with intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Almost every individual with SYNGAP1-related ID develops epilepsy, and approximately 50% have ASD. SYNGAP1-related ID is estimated to account for at least 1% of ID cases. In mouse models with Syngap1 mutations, strong cognitive and affective dysfunctions have been reported, yet some findings are inconsistent across studies. To further understand the behavioral significance of the SYNGAP1 gene, we assessed various domains of behavior in Syngap1 heterozygous mutant mice using a behavioral test battery. METHODS: Male mice with a heterozygous mutation in the Syngap1 gene (Syngap1-/+ mice) created by Seth Grant's group were subjected to a battery of comprehensive behavioral tests, which examined general health, and neurological screens, rotarod, hot plate, open field, light/dark transition, elevated plus maze, social interaction, prepulse inhibition, Porsolt forced swim, tail suspension, gait analysis, T-maze, Y-maze, Barnes maze, contextual and cued fear conditioning, and home cage locomotor activity. To control for type I errors due to multiple-hypothesis testing, P-values below the false discovery rate calculated by the Benjamini-Hochberg method were considered as study-wide statistically significant. RESULTS: Syngap1-/+ mice showed increased locomotor activity, decreased prepulse inhibition, and impaired working and reference spatial memory, consistent with preceding studies. Impairment of context fear memory and increased startle reflex in Syngap1 mutant mice could not be reproduced. Significant decreases in sensitivity to painful stimuli and impaired motor function were observed in Syngap1-/+ mice. Decreased anxiety-like behavior and depression-like behavior were noted, although increased locomotor activity is a potential confounding factor of these phenotypes. Increased home cage locomotor activity indicated hyperlocomotor activity not only in specific behavioral test conditions but also in familiar environments. CONCLUSION: In Syngap1-/+ mice, we could reproduce most of the previously reported cognitive and emotional deficits. The decreased sensitivity to painful stimuli and impaired motor function that we found in Syngap1-/+ mice are consistent with the common characteristics of patients with SYNGAP-related ID. We further confirmed that the Syngap1 heterozygote mouse recapitulates the symptoms of ID and ASD patients.

4.
Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 73(9): 566-573, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102310

RESUMO

AIM: Tissue pH and RNA integrity are crucial quality-control indicators of human post-mortem brain tissues in the identification of the pathogeneses of neuropsychiatric disorders, but pH has not been measured as often due to limitations in the amount of tissue available. This study was designed to develop and validate a protocol for tissue pH evaluation using a minimal amount of human post-mortem tissues. METHODS: A procedure that included a proper ratio of brain tissue weight to water for homogenization and the duration of homogenization was designed based on preliminary experiments using mouse brain tissues. The minimal (10 mg) and typical (100 mg) amounts of post-mortem brain tissue from 52 subjects were homogenized in 5 volumes (50 µL/10 mg tissue) and 10 volumes (1000 µL/100 mg tissue) of nuclease-free water and subjected to pH measurements using an InLab Ultra micro pH electrode. RESULTS: The pH values based on the new protocol using a minimal amount of tissue significantly correlated with measurements of the standard protocol (r2 = 0.86). The correlation coefficients of the pH values between gray and white matter of the same brain region, and the values between different brain regions were 0.73 and 0.54, respectively. CONCLUSION: The proposed protocol used one-tenth of the tissue amount of current standard protocol and enabled us to evaluate the exact quality of post-mortem brain tissue subjected to subsequent analyses. The application of this protocol may improve the detection of biological phenomena of interest in post-mortem brain studies by diminishing confounding factors.

5.
Mol Autism ; 10: 15, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962870

RESUMO

Background: Mutations of the SCN2A gene encoding a voltage-gated sodium channel alpha-II subunit Nav1.2 are associated with neurological disorders such as epilepsy, autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disability, and schizophrenia. However, causal relationships and pathogenic mechanisms underlying these neurological defects, especially social and psychiatric features, remain to be elucidated. Methods: We investigated the behavior of mice with a conventional or conditional deletion of Scn2a in a comprehensive test battery including open field, elevated plus maze, light-dark box, three chambers, social dominance tube, resident-intruder, ultrasonic vocalization, and fear conditioning tests. We further monitored the effects of the positive allosteric modulator of AMPA receptors CX516 on these model mice. Results: Conventional heterozygous Scn2a knockout mice (Scn2a KO/+) displayed novelty-induced exploratory hyperactivity and increased rearing. The increased vertical activity was reproduced by heterozygous inactivation of Scn2a in dorsal-telencephalic excitatory neurons but not in inhibitory neurons. Moreover, these phenotypes were rescued by treating Scn2a KO/+ mice with CX516. Additionally, Scn2a KO/+ mice displayed mild social behavior impairment, enhanced fear conditioning, and deficient fear extinction. Neuronal activity was intensified in the medial prefrontal cortex of Scn2a KO/+ mice, with an increase in the gamma band. Conclusions: Scn2a KO/+ mice exhibit a spectrum of phenotypes commonly observed in models of schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. Treatment with the CX516 ampakine, which ameliorates hyperactivity in these mice, could be a potential therapeutic strategy to rescue some of the disease phenotypes.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Memória , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.2/genética , Agitação Psicomotora/genética , Comportamento Social , Animais , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/tratamento farmacológico , Dioxóis/uso terapêutico , Ritmo Gama , Haploinsuficiência , Masculino , Moduladores de Transporte de Membrana/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fenótipo , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Agitação Psicomotora/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Neuropsychopharmacol Rep ; 39(2): 100-118, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816023

RESUMO

AIM: Aging is thought to coincide with gradual and progressive changes in brain function and behavior over the lifetime. Our previous meta-analytic study reported age-related behavioral changes from young to middle age in male C57BL/6J mice. However, the previous study had some limitations that could affect the generalizability of the findings because of the potential influence of genetic and environmental factors on behavior, in addition to a lack of information regarding the behaviors of old-aged mice. Here, to investigate age-related behavioral changes from young to old age in mice, we analyzed the behaviors of male C57BL/6J mice from four different age groups (8, 47, 73, and 99 weeks of age at the beginning of the experiment) from a colony that had been maintained in a genetically controlled condition based on The Jackson Laboratory's Genetic Stability Program in an environmentally controlled animal facility. METHODS: We used a battery of behavioral tests, including the light/dark transition, open field, elevated plus maze, hot plate, social interaction, rotarod, three-chamber social approach, prepulse inhibition, Porsolt forced swim, T-maze, Barnes maze, tail suspension, and fear-conditioning tests. RESULTS: Some behavioral changes occurred between young and middle age, and further changes in various behaviors were observed in old age. Decreased locomotor activity and increased anxiety-like behavior were found in old-aged mice compared to those in young and middle-aged mice in the light/dark transition test. Similarly, an age-dependent decrease in locomotor activity was observed in the open field test and the elevated plus maze test, while there was an age-dependent increase in the time spent in the center area in the open field test and there were no significant differences among age groups in behavioral measures of anxiety in the elevated plus maze test. Decreases in motor performance and the auditory startle response were found in middle-aged mice compared to those in young mice. Similar behavioral changes and increased pain sensitivity, decreased social novelty preference, reduced working and spatial memory, and impaired cued fear memory were observed in old-aged mice compared to those in young mice. Prepulse inhibition was higher in middle-aged mice than in young and old-aged mice. Age-related changes in depression-related behavior were dependent on the type of test and the test time period. CONCLUSIONS: This study generally confirmed our previous report regarding age-related behavioral changes from young to middle age and expanded the previous observations by examining the behaviors of old-aged mice. Our results show age-related changes in a wide range of behaviors in mice from young to old age. Most behaviors showed gradual changes with advancing age, but some types of behaviors, such as vertical activity, prepulse inhibition, and depression-related behavior, did not show unidirectional changes with age. These findings provide basic information about the behavioral characteristics of young, middle-aged, and aged male C57BL/6J mice.

8.
Neuropsychopharmacol Rep ; 39(2): 78-89, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772953

RESUMO

AIMS: The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effects of fluoxetine in the brain are not fully understood. Emerging evidence has led to the hypothesis that chronic fluoxetine treatment induces dematuration of certain types of mature neurons in rodents. These studies have focused on the properties of typical molecular and/or electrophysiological markers for neuronal maturation. Nevertheless, it remains unknown whether dematuration-related phenomena are present at the genome-wide gene expression level. METHODS: Based on the aforementioned hypothesis, we directly compared transcriptome data between fluoxetine-treated adult mice and those of naive infants in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to assess similarities and/or differences. We further investigated whether fluoxetine treatment caused dematuration in these brain regions in a hypothesis-free manner using a weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). RESULTS: Gene expression patterns in fluoxetine-treated mice resembled those in infants in the mPFC and, to a large extent, in the hippocampus. The gene expression patterns of fluoxetine-treated adult mice were more similar to those of approximately 2-week-old infants than those of older mice. WGCNA confirmed that fluoxetine treatment was associated with maturation abnormalities, particularly in the hippocampus, and highlighted respective co-expression modules for maturity and immaturity marker genes in the hippocampus in response to fluoxetine treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results strongly support the hypothesis that chronic fluoxetine treatment induces dematuration in the adult mouse brain from a transcriptomic standpoint. Detection of discrete transcriptomic regulatory networks related to fluoxetine treatment may help to further elucidate the mechanisms of antidepressant action.

9.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 52, 2019 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30705256

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common and disabling psychiatric disorder. A recent mega analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) identified 44 loci associated with MDD, though most of the genetic etiologies of the MDD/psychological distress remain unclear. To further understand the genetic basis of MDD/psychological distress, we conducted a GWAS in East Asia with more than 10,000 participants of Japanese ancestry who had enrolled in a direct-to-consumer genetic test. After quality control on the genotype data, 10,330 subjects with a total of 8,567,708 imputed SNPs were eligible for the analysis. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire on their past medical history and health conditions that included the 6-item Kessler screening scale (K6 scale) for psychological distress (cut-off point of 5) and past medical history of MDD, resulting in 3981 subjects assigned to "psychologically distressed group" [cases], and the remaining 6349 subjects were assigned to the "non-psychologically distressed group" [controls]. In this GWAS, we found an association with genome-wide significance at rs6073833 (P = 7.60 × 10-9) in 20q13.12. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first large-scale GWAS for psychological distress using data from direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic tests in a population of non-European-ancestry, and the present study thus detected a novel locus significantly associated with psychological distress in the Japanese population.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
10.
J Neurosci ; 39(9): 1588-1604, 2019 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30606759

RESUMO

Neurons have high plasticity in developmental and juvenile stages that decreases in adulthood. Mitochondrial dynamics are highly important in neurons to maintain normal function. To compare dependency on mitochondrial dynamics in juvenile and adult stages, we generated a mouse model capable of selective timing of the expression of a mutant of the mitochondrial fusion factor Mitofusin 2 (MFN2). Mutant expression in the juvenile stage had lethal effects. Contrastingly, abnormalities did not manifest until 150 d after mutant expression during adulthood. After this silent 150 d period, progressive neurodegeneration, abnormal behaviors, and learning and memory deficits similar to those seen in human neurodegenerative diseases were observed. This indicates that abnormal neuronal mitochondrial dynamics seriously affect survival during early life stages and can also significantly damage brain function after maturation. Our findings highlight the need to consider the timing of disease onset in mimicking human neurodegenerative diseases.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To compare the dependency on mitochondrial dynamics in neurons in juvenile and adult stages, we generated a mouse model expressing a mutant of the mitochondrial fusion factor MFN2 in an arbitrary timing. Juvenile expression of the mutant showed acute and severe phenotypes and had lethal effects; however, post-adult expression induced delayed but progressive phenotypes resembling those found in human neurodegenerative diseases. Our results indicate that abnormal neuronal mitochondrial dynamics seriously affect survival during early life stages and can also significantly damage brain function after maturation. This strongly suggests that the timing of expression should be considered when establishing an animal model that closely resembles human neurodegenerative diseases.

11.
Neuropsychopharmacol Rep ; 39(1): 67-69, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659767

RESUMO

AIM: We have conducted a series of behavioral tests, which cover a broad range of behavioral domains, on various strains of genetically engineered mice. For the behavioral screening, we have been using Image J plugins that we developed for most of the tests in the battery. Our behavioral analysis system with the plugins enables systematic and automated image analysis of behavior. The plugins are freely available on the "Mouse Phenotype Database" website (http://www.mouse-phenotype.org/software.html). Here, we release the source code of the plugins in a Git repository with the aim of promoting their use and expanding their functionality. METHODS: We published the source code of the Image J plugins for behavioral analysis at Git repository (https://github.com/neuroinformatics). The source code for light/dark transition, elevated plus maze, open filed, T-maze, and fear conditioning tests was made publicly available in the repository. CONCLUSIONS: The source code of the plugins for the behavioral tests as well as the pre-compiled binaries can be freely obtained. The open source code could promote the development and modification of the plugins for additional behavioral indices in these tests and for other behavioral tests.

12.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30531938

RESUMO

Depression is a leading cause of disability. Current pharmacological treatment of depression is insufficient, and development of improved treatments especially for treatment-resistant depression is desired. Understanding the neurobiology of antidepressant actions may lead to development of improved therapeutic approaches. Here, we demonstrate that dopamine D1 receptors in the dentate gyrus act as a pivotal mediator of antidepressant actions in mice. Chronic administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine, increases D1 receptor expression in mature granule cells in the dentate gyrus. The increased D1 receptor signaling, in turn, contributes to the actions of chronic fluoxetine treatment, such as suppression of acute stress-evoked serotonin release, stimulation of adult neurogenesis and behavioral improvement. Importantly, under severely stressed conditions, chronic administration of a D1 receptor agonist in conjunction with fluoxetine restores the efficacy of fluoxetine actions on D1 receptor expression and behavioral responses. Thus, our results suggest that stimulation of D1 receptors in the dentate gyrus is a potential adjunctive approach to improve therapeutic efficacy of SSRI antidepressants.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30472790

RESUMO

AIM: Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2) is a rate-limiting enzyme for the biosynthesis of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin). Previous studies have reported that C1473G polymorphism of the murine Tph2 gene leads to decreased 5-HT levels in the brain and abnormal behavioral phenotypes, such as impaired anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. In this study, to confirm the effect of the C1473G polymorphism on mouse phenotypes, we conducted a comprehensive battery of behavioral tests and measured the amounts of brain free amino acids involved in the production of 5-HT. METHODS: We obtained C57BL/6J congenic mice that were homozygous for the 1473G allele of Tph2 (1473G) and subjected them and their wild-type littermates (1473C) to a battery of behavioral tests. Using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we measured the amounts of free amino acids in the 5-HT and epinephrine synthetic/metabolic pathways in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and midbrain. RESULTS: We failed to detect significant differences between genotypes in depression-like behaviors, anxiety-like behaviors, social behaviors, sensorimotor gaiting, or learning and memory, while 1473G mice exhibited a nominally significant impairment in gait analysis, which failed to reach study-wide significance. In the HPLC analysis, there were no significant differences in the amounts of 5-HT, dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and midbrain. CONCLUSION: Our findings do not support the idea that congenic C57BL/6J mice carrying the 1473G allele may represent an animal model of mood disorder under normal conditions without stress.

14.
Mol Brain ; 11(1): 63, 2018 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30359304

RESUMO

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK)-interacting protein 1 (Caskin1) is a direct binding partner of the synaptic adaptor protein CASK. Because Caskin1 forms homo-multimers and binds not only CASK but also other neuronal proteins in vitro, it is anticipated to have neural functions; but its exact role in mammals remains unclear. Previously, we showed that the concentration of Caskin1 in the spinal dorsal horn increases under chronic pain. To characterize this protein, we generated Caskin1-knockout (Caskin1-KO) mice and specific anti-Caskin1 antibodies. Biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that Caskin1 was broadly distributed in the whole brain and spinal cord, and that it primarily localized at synapses. To elucidate the neural function of Caskin1 in vivo, we subjected Caskin1-KO mice to comprehensive behavioral analysis. The mutant mice exhibited differences in gait, enhanced nociception, and anxiety-like behavior relative to their wild-type littermates. In addition, the knockouts exhibited strong freezing responses, with or without a cue tone, in contextual and cued-fear conditioning tests as well as low memory retention in the Barnes Maze test. Taken together, these results suggest that Caskin1 contributes to a wide spectrum of behavioral phenotypes, including gait, nociception, memory, and stress response, in broad regions of the central nervous system.

15.
Brain Res ; 2018 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30273551

RESUMO

Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a Ca2+-permeable, nonselective cation channel and a member of the TRP channel superfamily that acts as a sensor of intracellular redox states. TRPM2 is widely distributed in many tissues and highly expressed in the brain, but the physiological roles of TRPM2 in the central nervous system remain unclear. In this study, TRPM2-deficient mice were examined in a series of behavioral tests. TRPM2-deficient mice did not significantly differ from wild-type littermates in muscle strength, light/dark transition test, rotarod, elevated plus maze, social interaction, prepulse inhibition, Y-maze, forced swim test, cued and contextual fear conditioning, and tail suspension test. In the Barnes circular maze, TRPM2-deficient mice learned the fixed escape box position at similar extent to wild-type littermates, suggesting normal reference memory. However, performance of the first reversal trial and probe test were significantly impaired in TRPM2-deficient mice. In the T-maze delayed alternation task, TRPM2 deficiency significantly reduced choice accuracy. These results indicate that TRPM2-deficient mice shows behavioral inflexibility. Meanwhile, social avoidance induced by repeated social defeat stress was significantly attenuated in TRPM2-deficient mice, suggesting that TRPM2 deficiency confers stress resiliency. Our findings indicate that TRPM2 plays an essential role in maintaining behavioral flexibility but it increases susceptibility to stress.

16.
Mol Brain ; 11(1): 56, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30285890

RESUMO

The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus has been implicated in the pathophysiological basis of neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. We have identified several mouse models of neuropsychiatric disorders with robust molecular and functional defects in the dentate gyrus. Among them, mice lacking Schnurri-2 (Shn2 or HIVEP2) have been proposed as a model of schizophrenia and intellectual disability. Shn2 knockout mice exhibit behavioral abnormalities resembling symptoms of schizophrenia and HIVEP2-related intellectual disability as well as marked functional alterations in the soma and output synapse of the dentate granule cells (GCs). Although robust abnormalities were also observed in the dendritic spine morphology in the GCs, their functional correlates remain unknown. In the present study, we performed electrophysiological analyses of synaptic transmission at the medial perforant path (MPP) input onto the GCs in Shn2 knockout mice. While the basal synaptic efficacy was preserved, short-term synaptic depression induced by paired-pulse or low-frequency stimulation was reduced in the mutant mice. High-frequency tetanic stimulation induced lasting synaptic potentiation in both wild-type and mutant mice. However, the decaying synaptic potentiation shortly after the tetanic stimulation was significantly reduced in the mutant mice. These results indicate that the Shn2 deficiency attenuates bidirectional short-term synaptic plasticity at the MPP-GC synapse, thereby rendering the synapse more static. Our finding further supports a possible role of the dentate gyrus dysfunction in pathophysiology of schizophrenia and may also provide important information in interpreting morphology changes of the brain synapses in neuropsychiatric disorders.

17.
Neuropsychopharmacol Rep ; 38(3): 133-144, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30175526

RESUMO

AIM: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) metabolizes the essential amino acid tryptophan into kynurenine derivatives, which are involved in neural activity via the kynurenine pathway (KP). IDO1 is an initial rate-limiting enzyme in the KP and is activated by stress and/or inflammation. The perturbation of IDO1 activity, which causes KP imbalance, is associated with psychiatric and neurological disorders. It has been reported that wild-type (WT) mice under inflammatory conditions show increased anxiety-like behavior and decreased novel object recognition, whereas Ido1 knockout (KO) mice do not display these behaviors. However, the behavioral phenotypes of Ido1 KO mice have not yet been fully examined under non-inflammatory conditions. METHODS: We subjected Ido1 KO mice to a comprehensive behavioral test battery under normal conditions. RESULTS: Ido1 KO mice and WT mice showed similar locomotor activity, anxiety-like behavior, social behavior, depression-like behavior, and fear memory. In the T-maze test, Ido1 KO mice exhibited weak but nominally significant impairment in the working memory task of the T-maze, but this result failed to reach study-wide significance. CONCLUSIONS: Ido1 KO mice did not show any clear behavioral abnormalities under normal conditions. Further studies may be necessary to investigate their behavioral phenotype under inflammatory conditions due to their known roles in inflammation.

18.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 2018 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30167817

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The coupled behavior of talocrural joint motion is primarily determined by the morphological features of the talar trochlea and tibiofibular mortise. Features of the radius of curvature of the talocrural joint, however, remain unclear. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the radius of curvature at the mid, medial, and lateral regions of both the talar trochlea and the tibial plafond, and to estimate subject-specific kinematics of the talocrural joint. METHODS: Computed tomography images of 44 subjects with healthy talocrural joints were assessed by creating three-dimensional bone models. The radii of curvature of the anterior and posterior regions at the mid, medial, and lateral regions of both the talar trochlea and the tibial plafond were calculated. Hypothetical dorsiflexion and plantarflexion axes of the talocrural joint were estimated from the shape of the talar trochlea. Orientations and distances of these axes were calculated. RESULTS: At both the talar trochlea and the tibial plafond, the anteromedial and posteromedial radii exhibited the largest coefficients of variation. The anterior-to-posterior radius ratio (APRR) of the medial talar trochlea significantly correlated with the mid APRR, anterior medial-to-lateral radius ratio (MLRR), and posterior MLRR of the trochlea (r = 0.45, 0.52, - 0.60, respectively, and all P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The asymmetric shape of the medial talar trochlea seems to determine a fixed or changing axis of rotation at the talocrural joint. This subject-specific rotational axis of the talocrural joint should be considered in the management of patients with ankle injuries.

19.
Neuropsychopharmacol Rep ; 38(2): 52-60, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30106261

RESUMO

AIMS: Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2) is an initial rate-limiting enzyme of the kynurenine (Kyn) pathway in tryptophan (Trp) metabolism. The Trp-degrading enzymes, TDO2 and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, are activated by stress and/or inflammation. Dysregulation of Trp metabolism, which causes shifts in the balance between Kyn and serotonin (5-HT) pathways, is associated with psychiatric and neurological disorders. In genetic studies, single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the TDO2 gene were shown to be involved in psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and depression. It has been reported that targeted deletion of the Tdo2 gene in mice resulted in reduced anxiety-like behavior, enhanced exploratory activity and cognitive performance, and increased levels of Trp and 5-HT in the hippocampus and midbrain. However, the effect of Tdo2 gene deletion on behavioral phenotypes has not yet been investigated extensively. MATERIALS & METHODS: We conducted tests to further examine the behavioral effects of knockout (KO) of Tdo2 in mice. RESULTS: Deletion of Tdo2 resulted in seemingly lower anxiety-like behavior, higher locomotor activity, and abnormal gait pattern in mice, though none of them reached study-wide statistical significance. Tdo2 deficiency had no significant effects on other behaviors, such as prepulse inhibition, and depression-like and social behaviors. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: He lack of clear phenotypes in Tdo2KO mice in this study might be due to the absence of stress and inflammatory conditions, which could induce expression of Tdo2 mRNA. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the roles of Tdo2 in behavioral phenotypes related to psychiatric disorders.

20.
Neuropsychopharmacol Rep ; 38(1): 18-36, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30106265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aluminum (Al) is considered to be a neurotoxic metal, and excessive exposure to Al has been reported to be a potential risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. Al ammonium sulfate is one of the Al compounds that is widely used as a food additive. However, the effects of the oral administration of Al ammonium sulfate on physical development and behavior remain to be examined. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the effects of the administration of Al ammonium sulfate 12-water dissolved in drinking water (0.075 mg/mL) beginning in adolescence on various types of behavior in adult female C57BL/6J mice through a battery of behavioral tests (low-dose experiment; Experiment 1). We further examined the behavioral effects of the oral administration of a higher dose of the Al compound in drinking water (1 mg/mL) beginning in the prenatal period on behavior in adult male and female mice (high-dose experiment; Experiment 2). RESULTS: In the low-dose experiment, in which females' oral intake of Al was estimated to be 0.97 mg Al/kg/d as adults, Al-treated females exhibited an increase in total arm entries in the elevated plus maze test, an initial decrease and subsequent increase in immobility in the forced swim test, and reduced freezing in the fear conditioning test approximately 1 month after the conditioning session compared with vehicle-treated females (uncorrected P < .05). However, the behavioral differences did not reach a statistically significant level after correction for multiple testing. In the high-dose experiment, in which animals' oral intakes were estimated to be about ten times higher than those in the low-dose experiment, behavioral differences found in the low-dose experiment were not observed in high-dose Al-treated mice, suggesting that the results of the low-dose experiment might be false positives. Additionally, although high-dose Al-treated females exhibited increased social contacts with unfamiliar conspecifics and impaired reference memory performance, and high-dose Al-treated mice exhibited decreases in prepulse inhibition and in correct responses in the working memory task (uncorrected P < .05), the differences in any of the behavioral measures did not reach the significance level after correction for multiple testing. CONCLUSION: Our results show that long-term oral exposure to Al ammonium sulfate at the doses used in this study may have the potential to induce some behavioral changes in C57BL/6J mice. However, the behavioral effects of Al were small and statistically weak, as indicated by the fact that the results failed to reach the study-wide significance level. Thus, further study will be needed to replicate the results and reevaluate the behavioral outcomes of oral intake of Al ammonium sulfate.

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