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1.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(1): 70-75, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950393

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The symptoms of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vary among patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical manifestation and disease duration in young versus elderly patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 187 patients (87 elderly and 100 young patients) with confirmed COVID-19. The clinical characteristics and chest computed tomography (CT) extent as defined by a score were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The numbers of asymptomatic cases and severe cases were significantly higher in the elderly group (elderly group vs. young group; asymptomatic cases, 31 [35.6%] vs. 10 [10%], p < 0.0001; severe cases, 25 [28.7%] vs. 8 [8.0%], p = 0.0002). The proportion of asymptomatic patients and severe patients increased across the 10-year age groups. There was no significant difference in the total CT score and number of abnormal cases. A significant positive correlation between the disease duration and patient age was observed in asymptomatic patients (ρ = 0.4570, 95% CI 0.1198-0.6491, p = 0.0034). CONCLUSIONS: Although the extent of lung involvement did not have a significant difference between the young and elderly patients, elderly patients were more likely to have severe clinical manifestations. Elderly patients were also more likely to be asymptomatic and a source of COVID-19 viral shedding.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
2.
Cancer ; 126(15): 3552-3559, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role and impact of radiation therapy (RT) on the development of herpes zoster (HZ) has not been well studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between RT and HZ. METHODS: A propensity score-matched, retrospective cohort study was conducted using institutional cancer registry data and medical records from 2011 to 2015. The risk of developing HZ in the RT and non-RT groups was compared using a Cox proportional hazards model. Associations also were explored between the RT field and the anatomic location of HZ in patients who developed HZ after RT. The expected number of HZ events within the radiation field was calculated according to the RT received by each patient; then, this number was compared with the observed number of in-field events. RESULTS: Of 17,655 patients, propensity score matching yielded 4350 pairs; of these, 3891 pairs were eligible for comparison. The cumulative incidence of HZ in the RT group (vs the non-RT group) during the first 5 years after the index date was 2.1% (vs 0.7%) at 1 year, 3.0% (vs 1.0%) at 2 years, 3.4% (vs 1.3%) at 3 years, 4.1% vs 1.7% at 4 years, and 4.4% vs 1.8% at 5 years. The RT group showed a significantly higher risk of HZ than the non-RT group (hazard ratio, 2.59, 95% CI, 1.84-3.66). In the 120 patients who developed HZ after RT, HZ events were observed significantly more frequently within the RT field than expected (74 vs 43.8 events; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with cancer who received RT showed a significantly higher risk of HZ, which was commonly observed within the radiation field.

3.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 34(1): 16-21, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27606613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of preoperative rehydration on the action of rocuronium has not yet been investigated. OBJECTIVE: The objective is to evaluate the hypothesis that preoperative rehydration lowers arterial rocuronium plasma concentrations and changes its associated neuromuscular blocking effects during induction of anaesthesia. DESIGN: Randomised, single-blinded study. SETTING: A secondary hospital from October 2013 to July 2014. PATIENTS: In total, 46 men undergoing elective surgery were eligible to participate and were randomly allocated into two groups. Exclusion criteria were severe hepatic, renal or cardiovascular disorder; neuromuscular disease; history of allergy to rocuronium; BMI more than 30 kg m; receiving medication known to influence neuromuscular function. INTERVENTION: Participants received 1500 ml of oral rehydration solution (rehydration group) or none (control group) until 2 hours before anaesthesia. Arterial blood samples were obtained 60, 90 and 120 s and 30 min after rocuronium (0.6 mg kg) administration during total intravenous anaesthesia. Responses to 0.1-Hz twitch stimuli were measured at the adductor pollicis muscle using acceleromyography. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Arterial plasma rocuronium concentrations. RESULTS: Arterial plasma rocuronium concentrations at 60, 90 and 120 s in the rehydration and control groups were 9.9 and 13.7, 6.8 and 9.5 and 6.2 and 8.1 µg ml, respectively (P = 0.02, 0.003 and 0.02, respectively); the onset times in the rehydration and control groups were 92.0 and 69.5 s (P = 0.01), and the times to twitch re-appearance were 25.3 and 30.4 min (P = 0.004), respectively. CONCLUSION: Preoperative rehydration significantly reduces arterial plasma rocuronium concentrations in the first 2 minutes after administration, prolonging the onset time and shortening the duration of effect. A higher dose or earlier administration should be considered for patients who receive preoperative rehydration. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Umin identifier: UMIN000011981.


Assuntos
Androstanóis/sangue , Anestesia Intravenosa/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Hidratação/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Neuromusculares não Despolarizantes/sangue , Adulto , Androstanóis/administração & dosagem , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Anestesia Intravenosa/métodos , Desidratação/etiologia , Desidratação/terapia , Jejum/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Fármacos Neuromusculares não Despolarizantes/administração & dosagem , Período Pré-Operatório , Rocurônio , Método Simples-Cego , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
4.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 14(2): 185-91, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21425902

RESUMO

We analyzed whether motor development in early life is different between singletons and triplets in Japan. The motor development was reported by mothers by postal questionnaire for 1,121 triplet children and in regular health check-ups for 13,906 singleton children. Children who were suspected of having neurological abnormality or disability were excluded from the analysis. The ages of milestone achievements were significantly higher in triplets for each outcome compared to singletons. Further, after adjustment for gestational age, birthweight, and birth length, the differences were significant for maintaining head, sitting alone and standing holding on. In children with birthweight of 2 kg or more, the ages of milestone achievements were significantly higher in triplets for each outcome compared to singletons, except walking holding on. Moreover, after adjustment for the confounding factors, the differences were significant for sitting alone and walking independently. On the contrary, singletons attained motor development facilitating crawling, walking holding on, and walking independently slower than triplets among those children with birthweight of 2 kg or less after adjustment for gestational age. In conclusion, triplets are overall at higher risk for the delay of gross motor milestones as compared to singletons independently of birth-related factors. In contrast, among children with a birthweight of less than 2 kg, singletons showed slower motor development than triplets after adjusting for gestational age. There is an obvious need to apply developmental standards that consider at least both multiple birth status (singleton, twin or triplet) and birthweight.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento , Destreza Motora , Trigêmeos/fisiologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Japão , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
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