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1.
J Viral Hepat ; 22(2): 94-102, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24750410

RESUMO

The short-term prognosis of patients with severe acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) leading to acute liver failure is extremely poor. We have reported the efficacy of corticosteroid in combination with nucleoside analogue in the early stages, but virological efficacy has not been documented. Our aim was to elucidate the virological efficacy of this approach. Thirteen patients defined as severe acute exacerbation of CHB by our uniform criteria were prospectively examined for virological responses to treatment. Nucleoside analogue and sufficient dose of corticosteroids were introduced as soon as possible after the diagnosis of severe disease. Of the 13 patients, 7 (54%) survived, 5 (38%) died and 1 (8%) received liver transplantation. The decline of HBV DNA was significant between the first 2 weeks (P = 0.02) and 4 weeks (P < 0.01). Mean reduction in HBV DNA during the first 2 weeks was 1.7 ± 0.9 log copies per mL in overall patients, 2.1 ± 0.8 in survived patients and 1.2 ± 0.9 in dead/transplanted patients. The decline of HBV DNA was significant between the first 2 weeks (P = 0.03) and 4 weeks (P = 0.02) in survived patients, but not in dead/transplanted patients. Our study shows that corticosteroid treatment in combination with nucleotide analogue has sufficient virological effect against severe acute exacerbation of CHB, and a rapid decline of HBV DNA is conspicuous in survived patients.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Nucleosídeos/uso terapêutico , Carga Viral , Adulto , Idoso , DNA Viral/sangue , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Leukemia ; 29(2): 290-6, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24888273

RESUMO

Sixty-two infants with MLL gene-rearrangement-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (MLL-r ALL) were treated with the MLL03 protocol of the Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group: short-course intensive chemotherapy followed by early allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) within 4 months of the initial induction. The 4-year event-free survival and overall survival rates were 43.2% (95% confidence interval (CI)=30.7-55.1%) and 67.2% (53.8-77.4%), respectively. A univariate analysis showed younger age (<90 days at diagnosis), central nervous system disease and poor response to initial prednisolone therapy significantly associated with poor prognosis (P<0.05). In a multivariate analysis, younger age at diagnosis tended to be associated with poor outcome (hazard ratio=1.969; 95% CI=0.903-4.291; P=0.088). Although the strategy of early use of HSCT effectively prevented early relapse and was feasible for infants with MLL-r ALL, the fact that substantial number of patients still relapsed even though transplanted in their first remission indicates the limited efficacy of allogeneic HSCT for infants with MLL-r ALL. Considering the risk of severe late effects, indications for HSCT should be restricted to specific subgroups with poor risk factors. An alternative approach incorporating molecular-targeted drugs should be established.


Assuntos
Rearranjo Gênico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Proteína de Leucina Linfoide-Mieloide/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Pré-Escolar , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Neoplasia Residual , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
J Clin Pharm Ther ; 37(1): 117-21, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21128990

RESUMO

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-blocking agents are increasingly used in the management of refractory rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although effective, they are associated with rare but potentially fatal adverse effects, including interstitial lung disease (ILD). In patients with pre-existing ILD, eternacept (ETN) monotherapy is often regarded as a suitable choice. Other anti-TNF-α blockers such as infliximab and adalimumab, are used in combination therapy with methotrexate (MTX) in most of the cases. We report on a case of fatal exacerbation of ILD in a patient given ETN monotherapy and review the literature on ETN-associated ILD. METHODS: We report on a case of a 75-year-old male with RA who developed severe ILD after the introduction of ETN, and we undertook a literature search to identify other reports of similar cases. We then critically assessed those reports. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: In addition to our case, 11 other patients have been reported to have developed ILD in association with the use of ETN. Six patients had pre-existing ILD. Although four patients received MTX, eight patients developed severe ILD without MTX. Ten patients recovered after termination of ETN, although two patients died. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: Although ETN is often regarded as safe for patients with ILD, our case and the literature reports suggest that caution is still required.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoglobulina G/uso terapêutico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/complicações , Receptores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Etanercepte , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/efeitos adversos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etiologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
4.
Arch Virol ; 152(7): 1375-81, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17431737

RESUMO

We examined 976 sika deer serum samples, 159 liver tissue samples and 88 stool samples collected from 16 prefectures in Japan, and performed ELISA and RT-PCR assays to detect antibodies to HEV and HEV RNA, respectively. Although 25 (2.6%) of 976 samples were positive for anti-HEV IgG, the antibody titers were very low. The OD values ranged between 0.018 and 0.486, forming a single distribution rather than a bimodal distribution, suggesting that the antibody detected in this study was not induced by HEV infection, or that deer have low sensitivity to HEV. HEV RNA was not detected in these samples, also suggesting that deer may not play a role as an HEV reservoir.


Assuntos
Cervos/imunologia , Cervos/virologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/análise , Vírus da Hepatite E/imunologia , Hepatite Viral Animal/imunologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Primers do DNA/genética , DNA Viral/genética , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/sangue , Hepatite Viral Animal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Especificidade da Espécie , Suínos/virologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
5.
Arch Virol ; 151(7): 1319-27, 2006 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16463123

RESUMO

Noroviruses are a major health burden and are responsible for the majority of outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the world. Human noroviruses can be genetically divided into two main genogroups (GI and GII) and subdivided into many genotypes. In this study, stool specimens collected from 12 outbreaks of gastroenteritis in Taiwan were screened for viral agents between the 23rd of November 2004 and 9th of March 2005. Noroviruses were detected in all outbreaks. We detected six different norovirus genotypes: GI/11, GI/14, GII/3, GII/4, GII/6, and GII/18. Noroviruses belonging to GII/4 were dominant, 50 of 60 (83%) sequences, and were detected in 10 of 12 outbreaks. Furthermore, the norovirus GII/4 strains were detected throughout Taiwan, demonstrating their widespread distribution. We also found that three outbreaks had noroviruses from multiple genotypes. Our results have shown for the first time that noroviruses are an important cause of gastroenteritis in Taiwan.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Variação Genética , Norovirus/classificação , Norovirus/genética , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Fezes/virologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Homologia de Sequência , Taiwan/epidemiologia
6.
Arch Virol ; 151(2): 399-404, 2006 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16132181

RESUMO

Sapovirus (SaV) is an etiological agent of acute gastroenteritis in human and swine. SaV can be divided into five genogroups, GI to GV. Virus-like particles (VLPs) morphologically similar to native SaV have been expressed for GI, GII, GIII and GV strains in insect cells, although only low expression levels were observed for GII strains. In this study, we report the successful expression of SaV GII VLPs using cultured mammalian COS-7 and 293T cells. Our results demonstrated that this mammalian expression system was able to express and form SaV VLPs.


Assuntos
Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Sapovirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sapovirus/genética , Replicação Viral , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humanos , Sapovirus/classificação , Sapovirus/metabolismo
7.
Arch Virol ; 150(12): 2539-48, 2005 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16052286

RESUMO

We recently determined the ORF1 cleavage map of Mc10, a human sapovirus (SaV) strain, as follows: NH2-p11-p28-p35(NTPase)-p32-p14(VPg)-p70(Pro-Pol)-p60(VP1)-COOH. This cleavage was dependent on the viral encoded 3C-like protease. To identify the cleavage site of SaV ORF1, putative p70 (Pro-Pol) and p14-p70 (VPg-Pro-Pol) were expressed as N-terminal GST and C-terminal 6 x His-tag fusion proteins in Escherichia coli, and the expressed products were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Our results indicated that the efficient proteolytic cleavage occurred between p14 (VPg) and p70 (Pro-Pol), and N-terminal amino acid sequencing revealed that the cleavage site was between E(1055) and A(1056). In contrast, the p70 (Pro-Pol) was not further cleaved. We also found that SaV protease cleaved the Q/G site within the rhinovirus 3C protease recognition site. Site-directed mutagenesis in a conserved GDCG motif of the protease completely abolished these proteolytic activities. This is the first report to identify the cleavage site of the SaV ORF1 polyprotein.


Assuntos
Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Sapovirus/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Western Blotting , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Sapovirus/enzimologia , Sapovirus/genética , Análise de Sequência de Proteína , Especificidade por Substrato , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/isolamento & purificação
8.
J Viral Hepat ; 12(4): 439-42, 2005 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15985017

RESUMO

We investigated the presence of antibodies to hepatitis E virus (anti-HEV) and hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) by enzyme immunoassays in sera from 1015 individuals collected in 1974, 1984 and 1994. Age-specific profiles of anti-HEV remained unchanged with a peak at 40-49 years, while those of anti-HAV started to increase in individuals aged 20-29 years in 1974, 30-39 years in 1984 and 40-49 years in 1994. These results suggest that a silent HEV infection has been taking place in the last 20 years or so in Japan, while HAV infection has been terminated at least since 1974.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite E/imunologia , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Hepatite A/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite A/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/imunologia , Hepatite E/imunologia , Humanos , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Fatores Sexuais
9.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 36(4): 307-13, 2005 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15968285

RESUMO

In all, 100 unrelated donor bone marrow transplantations (UD-BMT) were performed in our institute between October 1993 and January 2003. Of 93 evaluable patients, 73 patients had hematological malignancy, 13 had nonmalignancy and seven had lymphoproliferative disease. The estimated 9-year event-free survival (EFS) rate was 57.1+/-5.5% in all patients. In the following analyses of the patients with hematological malignancy, the standard group had significantly better EFS than the high-risk group (61.5+/-7.0 vs 35.6+/-9.7%, P=0.02), and the EFS rate of the tacrolimus (FK-506)+methotrexate (MTX)+/-methylprednisolone prophylactic group for graft-versus-host disease was superior to that of the FK-506 without MTX group (75.7+/-8.0 vs 55.8+/-7.6%, P=0.02). When we compared the EFS rates of the FK506+MTX+/-methylprednisolone (mPSL) group and the HLA-matched related donor BMT group in our institute, these were almost similar (75.7+/-8.1 vs 68.4+/-9.3%). Therefore, UD-BMT using FK-506+MTX+/-mPSL is a safe and useful method for children with hematological malignancy who require allogeneic BMT.


Assuntos
Transplante de Medula Óssea/métodos , Doadores de Tecidos , Adolescente , Adulto , Transplante de Medula Óssea/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Medula Óssea/imunologia , Transplante de Medula Óssea/mortalidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Rejeição de Enxerto/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/induzido quimicamente , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Doenças Hematológicas/complicações , Doenças Hematológicas/mortalidade , Doenças Hematológicas/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Japão , Masculino , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Pré-Medicação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tacrolimo/uso terapêutico , Tacrolimo/toxicidade
10.
Gene Ther ; 11(7): 628-35, 2004 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14973544

RESUMO

Delivery of foreign genes to the digestive tract mucosa by oral administration of nonreplicating gene transfer vectors would be a very useful method for vaccination and gene therapy. However, there have been few reports on suitable vectors. In the present study, we found that plasmid DNA can be packaged in vitro into a virus-like particle (VLP) composed of open reading frame 2 of hepatitis E virus, which is an orally transmissible virus, and that these VLPs can deliver this foreign DNA to the intestinal mucosa in vivo. The delivery of plasmid DNA to the mucosa of the small intestine was confirmed by the results of immunohistochemical analyses using an expression plasmid encoding human immunodeficiency virus env (HIV env) gp120. After oral administration of VLPs loaded with HIV env cDNA, significant levels of specific IgG and IgA to HIV env in fecal extracts and sera were found. Moreover, mice used in this study exhibited cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses specific to HIV env in the spleen, Payer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes. These findings suggest that VLPs derived from orally transmissible viruses can be used as vectors for delivery of genes to mucosal tissue by oral administration for the purpose of DNA vaccination and gene therapy.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS/genética , Terapia Genética/métodos , Vetores Genéticos/administração & dosagem , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Administração Oral , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia
11.
Arch Virol ; 149(1): 61-74, 2004 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14689276

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the major causes of chronic liver disease with the potential for development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The core protein of HCV has been shown to modulate expression of various cellular genes and to influence a number of cellular functions. We investigated the effect of constitutively expressed HCV core protein on cell cycle progression in HepG2 cell line, which is derived from a differentiated human hepatoblastoma and shows biosynthetic features similar to human hepatocytes. The results indicated that stable expression of the core protein in unsynchronized HepG2 cells induced a perturbation of the cell cycle with reduced cell doubling meantime and increased S phase fraction. Increase of c-myc protein above the basal expression level was demonstrated with a significant increase of c-myc stability, as revealed by its prolonged intracellular half-life, in HepG2 expressing HCV core protein. In contrast, p53 and p21 levels were unchanged. These results suggest that HCV core protein may promote cell cycle progression in HepG2 cells possibly through increasing stability of c-myc oncoprotein. These results are in support of important role played by HCV core protein in virus-mediated pathogenesis in persistently infected hosts and in hepatocarcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Hepatoblastoma/virologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Proteínas do Core Viral/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular , Divisão Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Hepatoblastoma/metabolismo , Hepatoblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo
12.
Arch Virol ; 148(9): 1659-70, 2003 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14505080

RESUMO

Viral infection is usually initiated by the binding of virus particles to specific receptor molecule(s) on the host cell surface. Blocking of this step prevents the following step, penetration into the cell. In the present study, we investigated the virus-cell interactions of virions of Norwalk virus (NV), a major etiological agent for viral diarrhea. We found that histone was an extremely strong NV-binding protein. Histone H1, a heterologous histone molecule, appeared to be able to interact not only with NV particles, but also with the cell surface. Histone H1 appeared capable of effectively preventing the attachment of NV to intestinal cells, but not of other viruses. No cytotoxic effects of histone were observed under the assay conditions. These results indicate that nonsecretory histone molecules may inhibit the attachment of viruses to cells like lactoferrins. Our results suggest that by searching virus-binding molecules, we might find antiviral agents, even for new viruses.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Histonas/farmacologia , Vírus Norwalk/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírion/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Células CHO , Cricetinae , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Vírus Norwalk/fisiologia , Vírion/fisiologia
13.
Arch Virol ; 148(2): 253-63, 2003 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12556991

RESUMO

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is known as one of the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouse disease (HFMD) and is also associated with neurological manifestations such as aseptic meningitis, polio-like paralysis and encephalitis. Recently, large HFMD outbreaks, involving severe neurological complications, have been experienced in Malaysia, Taiwan and some other countries in the Western-Pacific region. To investigate the genetic diversity of EV71 isolates in a single community in Japan, nucleotide sequences of the VP4 region of 52 EV71 isolates in Yokohama City from 1982 to 2000 were determined and the phylogenetic relationship was compared with other referential EV71 strains in Japan and in the world. There were two major genotypes of EV71 in Yokohama City through the 1980's and 1990's. Six EV71 isolates in the early 1980's in Yokohama City were closely related to those from HFMD outbreaks in Japan and from outbreaks of polio-like paralysis in Europe in the 1970's. During recent HFMD outbreaks in 1997 and 2000, two distinct genotypes of EV71 were co-circulating in Yokohama City as in HFMD outbreaks in Malaysia and Taiwan. However, the genetic diversity of EV71 in Yokohama City was not directly correlated with the severity of HFMD. The results confirmed the circulation of two distinct genotypes of EV71 over the past 20 years in Japan.


Assuntos
Enterovirus/genética , Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Variação Genética/genética , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/virologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Enterovirus/classificação , Evolução Molecular , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Mod Rheumatol ; 12(4): 333-7, 2002 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24384002

RESUMO

Abstract We investigated human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)-associated sicca syndrome. The average saliva production in HIV-infected patients was 15.9 ± 6.3 ml, and the average tear production was 9.8 ± 4.5 mm. In particular, 6 patients (42.9%) showed a significant decrease in tear production. This sicca syndrome mimicked autoimmune Sjögren's syndrome (SS) because of the presence of dry eye, dry mouth, hyperamylasemia, and hypergammaglobulinemia; however, no antinuclear antibodies, anti-SS-A, or anti-SS-B were detected in sera from HIV-1-infected patients. In addition, no relationship was observed between saliva and tear production and CD4, HIV-RNA. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human T-lymphotrophic virus (HTLV-1) are considered to be possible causative agents of SS. However, coinfection with HCV did not affect the decrease of saliva and tear production, and only one patient was coinfected with HTLV-1. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) are also potential causative agents of SS, and they are sometimes detected in the saliva of HIV-1-infected patients. However, the detection of EBV and CMV in the saliva was not related to the decrease in saliva production. Furthermore, HIV therapy (highly active anti-retroviral therapy; HAART) did not affect the state of sicca syndrome. The pathogenesis of sicca syndrome in HIV-1-infected patients is not clear, but we did find some infiltration of CD8 lymphocytes in salivary gland biopsy. Usually, CD8 lymphocytosis is found in peripheral blood in HIV-infected patients. Diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome by predominant CD8 lymphocytes is occasionally found in HIV-infected patients. Such CD8 infiltration may induce the destruction of both the salivary and lacrimal glands.

15.
Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi ; 38(5): 674-7, 2001 Sep.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11605217

RESUMO

Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone structure are very important indices for prevention of fracture. However, it is very difficult to quantify bone structure, and only a few indices for structural quantification of bone have been reported. The purpose of this research was to investigate a new index for bone structure. The subjects were 52 women aged from 20 to 85 years. Directivity index (DI) is a new index of bone structure calculated by directivity of power spectrum from radiographs of metacarpal bone using fast Fourier transform (FFT). DI was obtained by subtracting the integral power value at 0 and 90 degree directions on the x-y plane of the two-dimensional power spectrum of bone from the integral power value at a direction of 45 degrees. A significant relationship between BMD and DI was indicated by correlation coefficient. However, no significant relationship between BMD and the first moment of the Fourier power spectrum or the fractal dimension was found. There is a possibility that DI estimates a slight deformation of bone structure. In the future, we will apply DI to the prevention of fractures and osteoarthritis.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Densidade Óssea , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiografia
16.
Nihon Rinsho ; 59(7): 1379-83, 2001 Jul.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11494555

RESUMO

After isolation of a hepatitis C virus genome in 1989, all donated blood samples have been analyzed by a sensitive screening system, which brought us 'safety transfusion' (free from HCV). However it is likely that about 170 million people around the world, more than 2 million people in Japan have already infected with HCV. Despite the numerous efforts, the lack of efficient cell culture system makes it difficult to develop HCV vaccine. Some novel strategies are engineered day by day that might be useful tools. Hereafter we must clarify the mechanisms of replication and infection in depth, to develop a vaccine that clear HCV from carrier.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus/imunologia , Vacinas contra Hepatite Viral , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Genes Virais , Hepacivirus/genética , Humanos , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia
17.
Virology ; 286(2): 263-75, 2001 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11485395

RESUMO

The genome of hepatitis C virus (HCV) encodes two envelope glycoproteins (E1 and E2), which are thought to be responsible for receptor binding and membrane fusion resulting in virus penetration. To investigate cell surface determinants important for HCV infection, we used a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in which the glycoprotein gene was replaced with a reporter gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) and produced HCV-VSV pseudotypes possessing chimeric HCV E1 or E2 glycoproteins, either individually or together. The infectivity of the pseudotypes was determined by quantifying the number of cells expressing the GFP reporter gene. Pseudotypes that contained both of the chimeric E1 and E2 proteins exhibited 10--20 times higher infectivity on HepG2 cells than the viruses possessing either of the glycoproteins individually. These results indicated that both E1 and E2 envelope proteins are required for maximal infection by HCV. The infectivity of the pseudotype virus was not neutralized by anti-VSV polyclonal antibodies. Bovine lactoferrin specifically inhibited the infection of the pseudotype virus. Treatment of HepG2 cells with Pronase, heparinase, and heparitinase but not with phospholipase C and sodium periodate reduced the infectivity. Therefore, cell surface proteins and some glycosaminoglycans play an important role in binding or entry of HCV into susceptible cells. The pseudotype VSV possessing the chimeric HCV glycoproteins might offer an efficient tool for future research on cellular receptors for HCV and for the development of prophylactics and therapeutics for hepatitis C.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus/metabolismo , Vírus da Estomatite Vesicular Indiana/genética , Vírus da Estomatite Vesicular Indiana/metabolismo , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/metabolismo , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Animais , Células CHO , Linhagem Celular , Cricetinae , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepacivirus/patogenicidade , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Vírus da Estomatite Vesicular Indiana/patogenicidade , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/genética
18.
J Gastroenterol ; 36(5): 317-21, 2001 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11388394

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A seroepidemiological study of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection was conducted in Japan, where HEV infection is not considered endemic. METHODS: IgG and IgM class antibodies to HEV were measured with a newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in which recombinant virus-like particles were used as an antigen. A total of 1253 individuals (401 males and 852 females; age range, 6-89 years) were enrolled from two different areas: area 1 (n = 478), in which hepatitis C was endemic; and area 2 (n = 775), in which it was not endemic. RESULTS: The HEV antibody (IgG class) positive rate was 6.7% in area 1 and 4.6% in area 2. Similarly, the HAV antibody (IgG class) positive rates were 65.3% and 72.3%. The age- and sex-specific prevalence of both HAV and HEV antibodies was quite similar in the two areas, and the HAV antibody positive rate clearly increased with age in both males and females. On the other hand, the HEV antibody positive rate showed a slight tendency to increase with age in males, but not in females. None of the 32 individuals with the HEV antibody who were interviewed had a history of visiting countries in which hepatitis E was endemic. In both areas, the mean age, percentage of males, and HAV antibody positive rate were significantly higher in the group of individuals with the HEV antibody than in the group of those without it, according to conventional statistical analyses. Of the three factors age, male sex, presence of HAV antibody, and the area factor, only male sex was statistically significant (P < 0.001) on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Two (0.2%) of the total of 1253 individuals were positive for the IgM class antibody to HEV. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest the possibility that HEV infection is circulating in Japan at a low level. HEV infection was associated with male sex, but not with HAV infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Vírus da Hepatite E/imunologia , Hepatite E/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Imunoglobulina M/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estatística como Assunto
19.
Hepatology ; 33(6): 1533-43, 2001 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11391544

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of liver cell injury and viral clearance in HCV infection. Because HCV does not efficiently infect human cells in vitro and primary infected hepatocytes cannot be used as stimulator/target cells for CTL analysis, development of efficient systems to activate and expand CTL in vitro, reproducing antigen presentation to CTL occurring during natural infection, is mandatory to study CTL activity and to define the hierarchy of immunodominance of CTL epitopes. To achieve this goal, 5 different defective adenoviruses carrying structural and nonstructural HCV genes (core, core-E1-E2, E2, NS3-NS4A, NS3-NS5A) were used to induce the endogenous synthesis of HCV proteins in human adherent mononuclear cells in vitro and to allow their entry into the HLA class I cytosolic pathway of antigen processing. The cytolytic activity of peripheral blood lympho-mononuclear cells (PBMC) from HLA-A2(+) HCV-infected patients stimulated with recombinant adenovirus-infected cells was tested against target cells either pulsed with a panel of synthetic peptides containing the HLA-A2 binding motif or infected with recombinant vaccinia viruses carrying HCV genes. Our study defines a reproducible system to stimulate and expand HCV-specific CTL in vitro that mimics the conditions of antigen encounter in vivo. By this approach, we have identified several HLA-A2-restricted epitopes that should correspond to immunodominant HCV sequences recognized by CTL during natural infection. Therefore, these amino acid sequences represent ideal candidates for the design of therapeutic vaccines for chronic HCV infection.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus/imunologia , Antígenos da Hepatite C/imunologia , Epitopos Imunodominantes/análise , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Adenoviridae/genética , Infecções por Adenoviridae/genética , Adulto , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Genes Virais , Hepacivirus/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Monócitos/fisiologia , Recombinação Genética
20.
J Virol ; 75(14): 6249-55, 2001 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11413290

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a positive-strand RNA virus, is an important causative agent of waterborne hepatitis. Expression of cDNA (encoding amino acids 1 to 979 of HEV nonstructural open reading frame 1) in insect cells resulted in synthesis of a 110-kDa protein (P110), a fraction of which was proteolytically processed to an 80-kDa protein. P110 was tightly bound to cytoplasmic membranes, from which it could be released by detergents. Immunopurified P110 catalyzed transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) to GTP and GDP to yield m(7)GTP or m(7)GDP. GMP, GpppG, and GpppA were poor substrates for the P110 methyltransferase. There was no evidence for further methylation of m(7)GTP when it was used as a substrate for the methyltransferase. P110 was also a guanylyltransferase, which formed a covalent complex, P110-m(7)GMP, in the presence of AdoMet and GTP, because radioactivity from both [alpha-(32)P]GTP and [(3)H-methyl]AdoMet was found in the covalent guanylate complex. Since both methyltransferase and guanylyltransferase reactions are strictly virus specific, they should offer optimal targets for development of antiviral drugs. Cap analogs such as m(7)GTP, m(7)GDP, et(2)m(7)GMP, and m(2)et(7)GMP inhibited the methyltransferase reaction. HEV P110 capping enzyme has similar properties to the methyltransferase and guanylyltransferase of alphavirus nsP1, tobacco mosaic virus P126, brome mosaic virus replicase protein 1a, and bamboo mosaic virus (a potexvirus) nonstructural protein, indicating there is a common evolutionary origin of these distantly related plant and animal virus families.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/biossíntese , Linhagem Celular , Clonagem Molecular , Detergentes , Guanosina Difosfato/metabolismo , Guanosina Trifosfato/metabolismo , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Metiltransferases/biossíntese , Metiltransferases/genética , Metiltransferases/isolamento & purificação , Nucleotidiltransferases/biossíntese , Nucleotidiltransferases/genética , Nucleotidiltransferases/isolamento & purificação , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Análogos de Capuz de RNA/farmacologia , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , S-Adenosilmetionina/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/isolamento & purificação , Replicação Viral
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