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1.
Br J Haematol ; 2020 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386081

RESUMO

Previous genomic studies have revealed the genomic landscape of myeloma cells. Although some of the genomic abnormalities shown are believed to be correlated to the molecular pathogenesis of multiple myeloma and/or clinical outcome, these correlations are not fully understood. The aim of this study is to elucidate the correlation between genomic abnormalities and clinical characteristics by targeted capture sequencing in the Japanese multiple myeloma cohort. We analysed 154 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. The analysis revealed that the study cohort consisted of a less frequent hyperdiploid subtype (37·0%) with relatively high frequencies of KRAS mutation (36·4%) and IGH-CCND1 translocation (26·6%) compared with previous reports. Moreover, our targeted capture sequencing strategy was able to detect rare IGH-associated chromosomal translocations, such as IGH-CCND2 and IGH-MAFA. Interestingly, all 10 patients harboured MAX mutations accompanied by 14q23 deletion. The patients with del(17p) exhibited an unfavourable clinical outcome, and the presence of KRAS mutation was associated with shorter survival in patients with multiple myeloma, harbouring IGH-CCND1. Thus, our study provides a detailed landscape of genomic abnormalities, which may have potential clinical application for patients with multiple myeloma.

2.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(Suppl 3): 136, 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nanopore sequencing is a rapidly developing third-generation sequencing technology, which can generate long nucleotide reads of molecules within a portable device in real-time. Through detecting the change of ion currency signals during a DNA/RNA fragment's pass through a nanopore, genotypes are determined. Currently, the accuracy of nanopore basecalling has a higher error rate than the basecalling of short-read sequencing. Through utilizing deep neural networks, the-state-of-the art nanopore basecallers achieve basecalling accuracy in a range from 85% to 95%. RESULT: In this work, we proposed a novel basecalling approach from a perspective of instance segmentation. Different from previous approaches of doing typical sequence labeling, we formulated the basecalling problem as a multi-label segmentation task. Meanwhile, we proposed a refined U-net model which we call UR-net that can model sequential dependencies for a one-dimensional segmentation task. The experiment results show that the proposed basecaller URnano achieves competitive results on the in-species data, compared to the recently proposed CTC-featured basecallers. CONCLUSION: Our results show that formulating the basecalling problem as a one-dimensional segmentation task is a promising approach, which does basecalling and segmentation jointly.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento por Nanoporos/métodos , DNA/genética , Redes Neurais de Computação , RNA/genética
3.
Cancer Discov ; 2020 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249213

RESUMO

STAG2 encodes a cohesin component and is frequently mutated in myeloid neoplasms, showing highly significant comutation patterns with other drivers, including RUNX1. However, the molecular basis of cohesin-mutated leukemogenesis remains poorly understood. Here we show a critical role of an interplay between STAG2 and RUNX1 in the regulation of enhancer-promoter looping and transcription in hematopoiesis. Combined loss of STAG2 and RUNX1, which colocalize at enhancer-rich, CTCF-deficient sites, synergistically attenuates enhancer-promoter loops, particularly at sites enriched for RNA polymerase II and Mediator, and deregulates gene expression, leading to myeloid-skewed expansion of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) in mice. Attenuated enhancer-promoter loops in STAG2/RUNX1-deficient cells are associated with downregulation of genes with high basal transcriptional pausing, which are important for regulation of HSPCs. Downregulation of high-pausing genes is also confirmed in STAG2-cohesin-mutated primary leukemia samples. Our results highlight a unique STAG2-RUNX1 interplay in gene regulation and provide insights into cohesin-mutated leukemogenesis. SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate a critical role of an interplay between STAG2 and a master transcription factor of hematopoiesis, RUNX1, in MDS development, and further reveal their contribution to regulation of high-order chromatin structures, particularly enhancer-promoter looping, and the link between transcriptional pausing and selective gene dysregulation caused by cohesin deficiency.

5.
EBioMedicine ; 53: 102659, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The tumor microenvironment can be classified into immunologically active "inflamed" tumors and inactive "non-inflamed" tumors based on the infiltration of cytotoxic immune cells. Previous studies on liver cancer have reported a superior prognosis for inflamed tumors compared to non-inflamed tumors. However, liver cancer is highly heterogeneous immunologically and genetically, and a finer classification of the liver cancer microenvironment may improve our understanding of its immunological diversity and response to immune therapy. METHODS: We characterized the immune gene signatures of 234 primary liver cancers, mainly virus-related, from a Japanese population using RNA-Seq of tumors and matched non-tumorous hepatitis livers. We then compared them with the somatic alterations detected using the whole-genome sequencing. FINDINGS: Liver cancers expressed lower levels of immune marker genes than non-tumorous hepatitis livers, indicating immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment. Several immunosuppression mechanisms functioned actively and mutually exclusively, resulting in four immune subclasses of liver cancer: tumor-associated macrophage (TAM), CTNNB1, cytolytic activity (CYT), and regulatory T cell (Treg). The CYT and Treg subclasses represented inflamed tumors, while the TAM and CTNNB1 subclasses represented non-inflamed tumors. The TAM subclass, which comprised 31% of liver cancers, showed a poor survival, expressed elevated levels of extracellular matrix genes, and was associated with somatic mutations of chromatin regulator ARID2. The results of cell line experiments suggested a functional link between ARID2 and chemokine production by liver cancer cells. INTERPRETATION: Primary liver cancer was classified into four subclasses based on mutually exclusive mechanisms for immunosuppression. This classification indicate the importance of immunosuppression mechanisms, such as TAM and Treg, as therapeutic targets for liver cancer. FUNDING: The Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED).

6.
Genome Res ; 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209592

RESUMO

Microsatellites are repeats of 1- to 6-bp units, and approximately 10 million microsatellites have been identified across the human genome. Microsatellites are vulnerable to DNA mismatch errors and have thus been used to detect cancers with mismatch repair deficiency. To reveal the mutational landscape of microsatellite repeat regions at the genome level, we analyzed approximately 20.1 billion microsatellites in 2717 whole genomes of pan-cancer samples across 21 tissue types. First, we developed a new insertion and deletion caller (MIMcall) that takes into consideration the error patterns of different types of microsatellites. Among the 2717 pan-cancer samples, our analysis identified 31 samples, including colorectal, uterus, and stomach cancers, with a higher proportion of mutated microsatellite (≥0.03), which we defined as microsatellite instability (MSI) cancers of genome-wide level. Next, we found 20 highly mutated microsatellites that can be used to detect MSI cancers with high sensitivity. Third, we found that replication timing and DNA shape were significantly associated with mutation rates of microsatellites. Last, analysis of mutations in mismatch repair genes showed that somatic SNVs and short indels had larger functional impacts than germline mutations and structural variations. Our analysis provides a comprehensive picture of mutations in the microsatellite regions and reveals possible causes of mutations, as well as provides a useful marker set for MSI detection.

7.
Blood Adv ; 4(5): 845-854, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126143

RESUMO

Loss-of-function mutations in ten-eleven translocation-2 (TET2) are recurrent events in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) as well as in preleukemic hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) of age-related clonal hematopoiesis. TET3 mutations are infrequent in AML, but the level of TET3 expression in HSCs has been found to decline with age. We examined the impact of gradual decrease of TET function in AML development by generating mice with Tet deficiency at various degrees. Tet2f/f and Tet3f/f mice were crossed with mice expressing Mx1-Cre to generate Tet2f/wtTet3f/fMx-Cre+ (T2ΔT3), Tet2f/fTet3f/wtMx-Cre+ (ΔT2T3), and Tet2f/fTet3f/fMx-Cre+ (ΔT2ΔT3) mice. All ΔT2ΔT3 mice died of aggressive AML at a median survival of 10.7 weeks. By comparison, T2ΔT3 and ΔT2T3 mice developed AML at longer latencies, with a median survival of ∼27 weeks. Remarkably, all 9 T2ΔT3 and 8 ΔT2T3 mice with AML showed inactivation of the remaining nontargeted Tet2 or Tet3 allele, respectively, owing to exonic loss in either gene or stop-gain mutations in Tet3. Recurrent mutations other than Tet3 were not noted in any mice by whole-exome sequencing. Spontaneous inactivation of residual Tet2 or Tet3 alleles is a recurrent genetic event during the development of AML with Tet insufficiency.

8.
Complement Ther Med ; 49: 102353, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147085

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to extract important patient questionnaire items by creating random forest models for predicting pattern diagnosis considering an interaction between deficiency-excess and cold-heat patterns. DESIGN: A multi-centre prospective observational study. SETTING: Participants visiting six Kampo speciality clinics in Japan from 2012 to 2015. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Deficiency-excess pattern diagnosis made by board-certified Kampo experts. METHODS: We used 153 items as independent variables including, age, sex, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and 148 subjective symptoms recorded through a questionnaire. We sampled training data with an equal number of the different patterns from a 2 × 2 factorial combination of deficiency-excess and cold-heat patterns. We constructed the prediction models of deficiency-excess and cold-heat patterns using the random forest algorithm, extracted the top 10 essential items, and calculated the discriminant ratio using this prediction model. RESULTS: BMI and blood pressure, and subjective symptoms of cold or heat sensations were the most important items in the prediction models of deficiency-excess pattern and of cold-heat patterns, respectively. The discriminant ratio was not inferior compared with the result ignoring the interaction between the diagnoses. CONCLUSIONS: We revised deficiency-excess and cold-heat pattern prediction models, based on balanced training sample data obtained from six Kampo speciality clinics in Japan. The revised important items for diagnosing a deficiency-excess pattern and cold-heat pattern were compatible with the definition in the 11th version of international classification of diseases.

10.
Oncol Rep ; 43(3): 943-952, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020225

RESUMO

There are regional and/or ethnic differences in tumorigenic pathways among several types of cancer, including prostate cancer (PCa). However, information on genome­wide gene alterations and the transcriptome is currently only available for PCa patients from Western countries. In order to profile the genetic alterations in Japanese patients with PCa, new panels were created to examine nucleotide sequence variations in 71 selected PCa­related genes (KCC71) and to detect all fusion RNA transcripts known in PCa (PCaFusion). An analysis of 21 Japanese PCa cases identified 33 different somatic variants in 24 genes in the KCC71 panel, including 2 in SPOP (F102V and F133L), 2 in BRCA2 (I1859fs and R2318ter, resulting in premature termination of the polypeptide), and 1 each in BRAF (K601E), CDH1 (E880K) and RB1 (R621S), as pathogenic alterations. Unexpectedly, the TMPRSS2­ERG fusion transcript was detected in only 1 case, although the SLC45A3­ELK4 and USP9Y­TTTY15 fusion transcripts, known as transcription­mediated chimeric RNAs, were detected in all examined cases. A new pathway analysis with The Cancer Network Galaxy (TCNG), a cancer gene regulatory network database, was also applied in an attempt to predict molecular pathways implicated in PCa in the Japanese population. Based on the 24 genes having somatic variants identified by the panel analysis as initial seed genes, a putative core network was finally established, including 5 identified genes, namely TNK2, SOX9, CDH1, FOXA1 and TP53, with high commonality from TCNG datasets. These genes are expected to be involved in tumor development, as revealed by the results of an enrichment analysis with Gene Ontology terms. This analysis must be further extended to include more cases in order to verify this method and also to elucidate the characteristics of PCa in Japanese patients.

11.
Haematologica ; 105(2): 358-365, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101757

RESUMO

Ionizing radiation is a risk factor for myeloid neoplasms including myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), and atomic bomb survivors have been shown to have a significantly higher risk of MDS. Our previous analyses demonstrated that MDS among these survivors had a significantly higher frequency of complex karyotypes and structural alterations of chromosomes 3, 8, and 11. However, there was no difference in the median survival time between MDS among survivors compared with those of de novo origin. This suggested that a different pathophysiology may underlie the causative genetic aberrations for those among survivors. In this study, we performed genome analyses of MDS among survivors and found that proximally exposed patients had significantly fewer mutations in genes such as TET2 along the DNA methylation pathways, and they had a significantly higher rate of 11q deletions. Among the genes located in the deleted portion of chromosome 11, alterations of ATM were significantly more frequent in proximally exposed group with mutations identified on the remaining allele in 2 out of 5 cases. TP53, which is frequently mutated in therapy-related myeloid neoplasms, was equally affected between proximally and distally exposed patients. These results suggested that the genetic aberration profiles in MDS among atomic bomb survivors differed from those in therapy-related and de novo origin. Considering the role of ATM in DNA damage response after radiation exposure, further studies are warranted to elucidate how 11q deletion and aberrations of ATM contribute to the pathogenesis of MDS after radiation exposure.

12.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(Suppl 16): 591, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Supercomputers have become indispensable infrastructures in science and industries. In particular, most state-of-the-art scientific results utilize massively parallel supercomputers ranked in TOP500. However, their use is still limited in the bioinformatics field due to the fundamental fact that the asynchronous parallel processing service of Grid Engine is not provided on them. To encourage the use of massively parallel supercomputers in bioinformatics, we developed middleware called Virtual Grid Engine, which enables software pipelines to automatically perform their tasks as MPI programs. RESULT: We conducted basic tests to check the time required to assign jobs to workers by VGE. The results showed that the overhead of the employed algorithm was 246 microseconds and our software can manage thousands of jobs smoothly on the K computer. We also tried a practical test in the bioinformatics field. This test included two tasks, the split and BWA alignment of input FASTQ data. 25,055 nodes (2,000,440 cores) were used for this calculation and accomplished it in three hours. CONCLUSION: We considered that there were four important requirements for this kind of software, non-privilege server program, multiple job handling, dependency control, and usability. We carefully designed and checked all requirements. And this software fulfilled all the requirements and achieved good performance in a large scale analysis.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Simulação por Computador , Sistemas Computacionais , Interface Usuário-Computador , Humanos , Software
13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5683, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831742

RESUMO

The genomic characteristics of dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) that are associated with clinical features remain to be identified. Here, we conduct integrated whole exome and RNA sequencing analysis in 115 DDLPS tumors and perform comparative genomic analysis of well-differentiated and dedifferentiated components from eight DDLPS samples. Several somatic copy-number alterations (SCNAs), including the gain of 12q15, are identified as frequent genomic alterations. CTDSP1/2-DNM3OS fusion genes are identified in a subset of DDLPS tumors. Based on the association of SCNAs with clinical features, the DDLPS tumors are clustered into three groups. This clustering can predict the clinical outcome independently. The comparative analysis between well-differentiated and dedifferentiated components identify two categories of genomic alterations: shared alterations, associated with tumorigenesis, and dedifferentiated-specific alterations, associated with malignant transformation. This large-scale genomic analysis reveals the mechanisms underlying the development and progression of DDLPS and provides insights that could contribute to the refinement of DDLPS management.


Assuntos
Exoma/genética , Lipossarcoma/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Idoso , Carcinogênese/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Rearranjo Gênico , Genes Neoplásicos/genética , Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/genética , Análise de Regressão , Sarcoma/genética
14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5386, 2019 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772163

RESUMO

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) arise in older adults through stepwise acquisitions of multiple somatic mutations. Here, analyzing 1809 MDS patients, we infer clonal architecture by using a stringent, the single-cell sequencing validated PyClone bioanalytic pipeline, and assess the position of the mutations within the clonal architecture. All 3,971 mutations are grouped based on their rank in the deduced clonal hierarchy (dominant and secondary). We evaluated how they affect the resultant morphology, progression, survival and response to therapies. Mutations of SF3B1, U2AF1, and TP53 are more likely to be dominant, those of ASXL1, CBL, and KRAS are secondary. Among distinct combinations of dominant/secondary mutations we identified 37 significant relationships, of which 12 affect clinical phenotypes, 5 cooperatively associate with poor prognosis. They also predict response to hypomethylating therapies. The clonal hierarchy has distinct ranking and the resultant invariant combinations of dominant/secondary mutations yield novel insights into the specific clinical phenotype of MDS.

16.
Cell Rep ; 29(1): 89-103.e7, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577958

RESUMO

Tolerance to severe tumor microenvironments, including hypoxia and nutrient starvation, is a common feature of aggressive cancer cells and can be targeted. However, metabolic alterations that support cancer cells upon nutrient starvation are not well understood. Here, by comprehensive metabolome analyses, we show that glutamine deprivation leads to phosphoethanolamine (PEtn) accumulation in cancer cells via the downregulation of PEtn cytidylyltransferase (PCYT2), a rate-limiting enzyme of phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis. PEtn accumulation correlated with tumor growth under nutrient starvation. PCYT2 suppression was partially mediated by downregulation of the transcription factor ELF3. Furthermore, PCYT2 overexpression reduced PEtn levels and tumor growth. In addition, PEtn accumulation and PCYT2 downregulation in human breast tumors correlated with poor prognosis. Thus, we show that glutamine deprivation leads to tumor progression by regulating PE biosynthesis via the ELF3-PCYT2 axis. Furthermore, manipulating glutamine-responsive genes could be a therapeutic approach to limit cancer progression.

17.
Blood Adv ; 3(20): 3157-3169, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648321

RESUMO

Recent advances in the genetic understanding of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have improved clinical outcomes in pediatric patients. However, ∼40% of patients with pediatric AML relapse, resulting in a relatively low overall survival rate of ∼70%. The objective of this study was to reveal the comprehensive genetic background of pediatric AML. We performed transcriptome analysis (RNA sequencing [RNA-seq]) in 139 of the 369 patients with de novo pediatric AML who were enrolled in the Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group AML-05 trial and investigated correlations between genetic aberrations and clinical information. Using RNA-seq, we identified 54 in-frame gene fusions and 1 RUNX1 out-of-frame fusion in 53 of 139 patients. Moreover, we found at least 258 gene fusions in 369 patients (70%) through reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and RNA-seq. Five gene rearrangements were newly identified, namely, NPM1-CCDC28A, TRIP12-NPM1, MLLT10-DNAJC1, TBL1XR1-RARB, and RUNX1-FNBP1. In addition, we found rare gene rearrangements, namely, MYB-GATA1, NPM1-MLF1, ETV6-NCOA2, ETV6-MECOM, ETV6-CTNNB1, RUNX1-PRDM16, RUNX1-CBFA2T2, and RUNX1-CBFA2T3. Among the remaining 111 patients, KMT2A-PTD, biallelic CEBPA, and NPM1 gene mutations were found in 11, 23, and 17 patients, respectively. These mutations were completely mutually exclusive with any gene fusions. RNA-seq unmasked the complexity of gene rearrangements and mutations in pediatric AML. We identified potentially disease-causing alterations in nearly all patients with AML, including novel gene fusions. Our results indicated that a subset of patients with pediatric AML represent a distinct entity that may be discriminated from their adult counterparts. Based on these results, risk stratification should be reconsidered.

18.
Case Rep Hematol ; 2019: 4532434, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662917

RESUMO

Therapy-related myeloid neoplasm (t-MN) is a late and lethal complication induced by chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. Hematological malignancy is one of the most common primary diseases in patients with t-MN. However, the occurrence of t-MN in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) patients is rarely reported, possibly due to the dismal prognosis of ATL per se. Here, we report a 62-year-old female who developed t-MN only three months after the completion of conventional chemotherapy and anti-CCR4 antibody for ATL acute type. The patient presented with persistent fever and monocytosis without any evidence of infectious diseases. Bone marrow examinations revealed chronic myelomonocytic leukemia-like disease with a chromosomal translocation of t(11;22)(q23;q13) as a solo cytogenetic abnormality, resulting in the diagnosis of t-MN. Next-generation sequencing analysis identified a rare chimeric transcript, MLL-EP300, without any additional somatic mutations. Although the patient underwent allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, she died of viral encephalomyelitis at 7 months after diagnosis of t-MN. Since recent therapeutic advances have extended the survival of patients with ATL, further evaluation of the long-term risks of developing t-MN in these patients is warranted.

19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3925, 2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477700

RESUMO

Mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient cancers are characterized by microsatellite instability (MSI) and hypermutation. However, it remains unclear how MSI and hypermutation arise and contribute to cancer development. Here, we show that MSI and hypermutation are triggered by replication stress in an MMR-deficient background, enabling clonal expansion of cells harboring ARF/p53-module mutations and cells that are resistant to the anti-cancer drug camptothecin. While replication stress-associated DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) caused chromosomal instability (CIN) in an MMR-proficient background, they induced MSI with concomitant suppression of CIN via a PARP-mediated repair pathway in an MMR-deficient background. This was associated with the induction of mutations, including cancer-driver mutations in the ARF/p53 module, via chromosomal deletions and base substitutions. Immortalization of MMR-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) in association with ARF/p53-module mutations was ~60-fold more efficient than that of wild-type MEFs. Thus, replication stress-triggered MSI and hypermutation efficiently lead to clonal expansion of cells with abrogated defense systems.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/genética , Replicação do DNA/genética , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Mutação , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Instabilidade Cromossômica , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Embrião de Mamíferos/citologia , Fibroblastos/citologia , Células HCT116 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Camundongos Knockout
20.
Cancer Sci ; 110(10): 3358-3367, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385395

RESUMO

Children with Down syndrome (DS) are at a 20-fold increased risk for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Compared to children with ALL and no DS (non-DS-ALL), those with DS and ALL (DS-ALL) harbor uncommon genetic alterations, suggesting DS-ALL could have distinct biological features. Recent studies have implicated several genes on chromosome 21 in DS-ALL, but the precise mechanisms predisposing children with DS to ALL remain unknown. Our integrated genetic/epigenetic analysis revealed that DS-ALL was highly heterogeneous with many subtypes. Although each subtype had genetic/epigenetic profiles similar to those found in non-DS-ALL, the subtype distribution differed significantly between groups. The Philadelphia chromosome-like subtype, a high-risk B-cell lineage variant relatively rare among the entire pediatric ALL population, was the most common form in DS-ALL. Hypermethylation of RUNX1 on chromosome 21 was also found in DS-ALL, but not non-DS-ALL. RUNX1 is essential for differentiation of blood cells, especially B cells; thus, hypermethylation of the RUNX1 promoter in B-cell precursors might be associated with increased incidence of B-cell precursor ALL in DS patients.


Assuntos
Subunidade alfa 2 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Metilação de DNA , Síndrome de Down/complicações , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Diferenciação Celular , Criança , Cromossomos Humanos Par 21/genética , Síndrome de Down/genética , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Cromossomo Filadélfia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Análise de Sequência de RNA
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