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1.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 117(2): 309-316, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although maximal and submaximal walking are recommended for patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD), performing these exercises may induce different physiological responses. OBJECTIVES: To compare the acute effects of maximal and submaximal walking on post-exercise cardiovascular function, regulation, and associated pathophysiological processes in patients with symptomatic PAD. METHODS: Thirty male patients underwent 2 sessions: maximal walking (Gardner's protocol) and submaximal walking (15 bouts of 2 minutes of walking separated by 2 minutes of upright rest). In each session, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), cardiac autonomic modulation (HR variability), forearm and calf blood flows (BF), vasodilatory capacity (reactive hyperemia), nitric oxide (NO), oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation), and inflammation (four markers) were measured pre- and post-walking. ANOVAs were employed, and p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Systolic and mean BP decreased after the submaximal session, but they increased after the maximal session (interactions, p < 0.001 for both). Diastolic BP did not change after the submaximal session (p > 0.05), and it increased after maximal walking (interaction, p < 0.001). HR, sympathovagal balance, and BF increased similarly after both sessions (moment, p < 0.001, p = 0.04, and p < 0.001, respectively), while vasodilatory capacity, NO, and oxidative stress remained unchanged (p > 0.05). Vascular and intercellular adhesion molecules increased similarly after both maximal and submaximal walking sessions (moment, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with symptomatic PAD, submaximal, but not maximal walking reduced post-exercise BP, while maximal walking maintained elevated cardiac overload during the recovery period. On the other hand, maximal and submaximal walking sessions similarly increased post-exercise HR, cardiac sympathovagal balance, and inflammation, while they did not change post-exercise NO bioavailability and oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Doença Arterial Periférica , Caminhada , Pressão Sanguínea , Teste de Esforço , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Claudicação Intermitente , Masculino
2.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 61(6): 954-963, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875324

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the impact of submaximal walking training (WT) on local and systemic nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, inflammation, and oxidative stress in patients with intermittent claudication (IC). METHODS: The study employed a randomised, controlled, parallel group design and was performed in a single centre. Thirty-two men with IC were randomly allocated to two groups: WT (n = 16, two sessions/week, 15 cycles of two minutes walking at an intensity corresponding to the heart rate obtained at the pain threshold interspersed by two minutes of upright rest) and control (CO, n = 16, two sessions/week, 30 minutes of stretching). NO bioavailability (blood NO and muscle nitric oxide synthase [eNOS]), redox homeostasis (catalase [CAT], superoxide dismutase [SOD], lipid peroxidation [LPO] measured in blood and muscle), and inflammation (interleukin-6 [IL-6], C-reactive protein [CRP], tumour necrosis factor α [TNF-α], intercellular adhesion molecules [ICAM], vascular adhesion molecules [VCAM] measured in blood and muscle) were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. RESULTS: WT statistically significantly increased blood NO, muscle eNOS, blood SOD and CAT, and muscle SOD and abolished the increase in circulating and muscle LPO observed in the CO group. WT decreased blood CRP, ICAM, and VCAM and muscle IL-6 and CRP and eliminated the increase in blood TNF-α and muscle TNF-α, ICAM and VCAM observed in the CO group. CONCLUSION: WT at an intensity of pain threshold improved NO bioavailability and decreased systemic and local oxidative stress and inflammation in patients with IC. The proposed WT protocol provides physiological adaptations that may contribute to cardiovascular health in these patients.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Inflamação , Claudicação Intermitente , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Claudicação Intermitente/sangue , Claudicação Intermitente/fisiopatologia , Claudicação Intermitente/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Superóxido Dismutase/análise , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/análise
3.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 19: eAO5940, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886934

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of resistance training on metabolic and cardiovascular responses during maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing in patients with Parkinson's disease. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with Parkinson's disease (modified Hoehn and Yahr stages 2 to 3) were randomly assigned to one of two groups: Control or Resistance Training. Patients in the Resistance Training Group completed an exercise program consisting of five resistance exercises (two to four sets of six to 12 repetitions maximum per set) twice a week. Patients in the Control Group maintained their usual lifestyle. Oxygen uptake, systolic blood pressure and heart rate were assessed at rest and during cycle ergometer-based maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing at baseline and at 12 weeks. Assessments during exercise were conducted at absolute submaximal intensity (slope of the linear regression line between physiological variables and absolute workloads), at relative submaximal intensity (anaerobic threshold and respiratory compensation point) and at maximal intensity (maximal exercise). Muscle strength was also evaluated. RESULTS: Both groups had similar increase in peak oxygen uptake after 12 weeks of training. Heart rate and systolic blood pressure measured at absolute and relative submaximal intensities and at maximal exercise intensity did not change in any of the groups. Muscle strength increased in the Resistance Training but not in the Control Group after 12 weeks. CONCLUSION: Resistance training increases muscle strength but does not change metabolic and cardiovascular responses during maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing in patients with Parkinson's disease without cardiovascular comorbidities.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Treinamento de Força , Limiar Anaeróbio , Teste de Esforço , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/terapia
4.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 71: 9-18, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Walking is recommended for patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). It has been shown that patients with PAD present sharper increases in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) during maximal walking when compared with healthy subjects. Additionally, women with PAD present a worse physiological profile, and it is possible that they may present higher cardiovascular load during and after a bout of maximal walking than men. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare cardiovascular and autonomic responses during and after maximal walking between men and women with PAD and intermittent claudication (IC). METHODS: Forty patients with PAD and IC (20 men and 20 women) underwent, in random order, 2 sessions: control (standing on treadmill) and exercise (maximal treadmill walking test with Gardner's protocol). During the exercise, HR and BP were measured. Before and after the sessions, cardiovascular variables (BP HR, cardiac output, peripheral vascular resistance, and stroke volume) and autonomic modulation (HR and BP variabilities and baroreflex sensitivity) were assessed. In addition, an ambulatory BP monitoring was recorded after each session. RESULTS: Men and women presented similar maximal walking capacity. During the walking test, HR and systolic BP increased similarly in men and women. After the maximal walking, cardiovascular and autonomic responses did not differ between the genders. In addition, postintervention ambulatory BP parameters were also similar in men and women. Therefore, in men and women, maximal walking similarly reduced clinic systolic BP and stroke volume, and increased HR and total power of HR variability during the recovery period. CONCLUSIONS: Men and women with PAD and IC present similar cardiovascular and autonomic responses during and after maximal walking.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/inervação , Hemodinâmica , Claudicação Intermitente/fisiopatologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/fisiopatologia , Caminhada , Idoso , Barorreflexo , Pressão Sanguínea , Débito Cardíaco , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Claudicação Intermitente/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Resistência Vascular
5.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eAO5940, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286296

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the effects of resistance training on metabolic and cardiovascular responses during maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing in patients with Parkinson's disease. Methods: Twenty-four patients with Parkinson's disease (modified Hoehn and Yahr stages 2 to 3) were randomly assigned to one of two groups: Control or Resistance Training. Patients in the Resistance Training Group completed an exercise program consisting of five resistance exercises (two to four sets of six to 12 repetitions maximum per set) twice a week. Patients in the Control Group maintained their usual lifestyle. Oxygen uptake, systolic blood pressure and heart rate were assessed at rest and during cycle ergometer-based maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing at baseline and at 12 weeks. Assessments during exercise were conducted at absolute submaximal intensity (slope of the linear regression line between physiological variables and absolute workloads), at relative submaximal intensity (anaerobic threshold and respiratory compensation point) and at maximal intensity (maximal exercise). Muscle strength was also evaluated. Results: Both groups had similar increase in peak oxygen uptake after 12 weeks of training. Heart rate and systolic blood pressure measured at absolute and relative submaximal intensities and at maximal exercise intensity did not change in any of the groups. Muscle strength increased in the Resistance Training but not in the Control Group after 12 weeks. Conclusion: Resistance training increases muscle strength but does not change metabolic and cardiovascular responses during maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing in patients with Parkinson's disease without cardiovascular comorbidities.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos do treinamento resistido nas respostas metabólicas e cardiovasculares ao teste de esforço cardiopulmonar máximo em pacientes com doença de Parkinson. Métodos: Vinte e quarto pacientes com doença de Parkinson (estágios 2 a 3 de Hoehn e Yahr modificado) foram aleatoriamente randomizados em dois grupos: Controle e Treinamento Resistido. O Grupo Treinamento Resistido realizou, duas vezes por semana, cinco exercícios resistidos, duas a quatro séries, seis a 12 repetições máximas por série. O Grupo Controle manteve seu estilo de vida. No início e após 12 semanas, consumo de oxigênio, pressão arterial sistólica e frequência cardíaca foram avaliados em repouso e durante um teste de esforço cardiopulmonar máximo realizado em um cicloergômetro. As avaliações durante o exercício foram realizadas nas intensidades submáximas (a inclinação da regressão linear entre as variáveis fisiológicas e as cargas absolutas), nas intensidades submáximas relativas (limiar anaeróbico e ponto de compensação respiratória) e na intensidade máxima (pico do exercício). Adicionalmente, foi avaliada a força muscular. Resultados: Comparado com o início, o consumo de oxigênio pico aumentou, de forma semelhante, em ambos os grupos após 12 semanas. A frequência cardíaca e a pressão arterial sistólica avaliadas nas intensidades submáximas absolutas e relativas, assim como no pico do exercício, não se modificaram em nenhum dos grupos. Finalmente, diferente do Grupo Controle, a força muscular aumentou no Grupo Treinamento Resistido após 12 semanas. Conclusão: Em pacientes com doença de Parkinson sem comorbidades cardiovasculares, o treinamento resistido aumenta a força muscular, mas não modifica as respostas metabólicas e cardiovasculares ao teste de esforço cardiopulmonar máximo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Treinamento de Força , Limiar Anaeróbio , Teste de Esforço , Frequência Cardíaca
6.
J Cardiovasc Nurs ; 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427794

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a single bout of maximal walking on blood and muscle nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, oxidative stress, and inflammation in symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients. METHODS: A total of 35 men with symptomatic PAD performed a graded maximal exercise test on a treadmill (3.2 km/h, 2% increase in grade every 2 minutes). Plasma samples and gastrocnemius muscle biopsies were collected preexercise and postexercise for assessment of NO bioavailability (plasma NO and muscle, endothelial NO synthase), oxidative stress and antioxidant function (lipid peroxidation [LPO], catalase [CAT], and superoxide dismutase), and inflammation (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, intercellular adhesion molecules, and vascular adhesion molecules). The effects of the walking exercise were assessed using paired t tests or Wilcoxon tests. RESULTS: After maximal walking, plasma NO and LPO were unchanged (P > .05), plasma CAT decreased, and all blood inflammatory markers increased (all P ≤ .05). In the disease-affected skeletal muscle, endothelial NO synthase, CAT, LPO, and all inflammatory markers increased, whereas superoxide dismutase decreased (all P ≤ .05). CONCLUSION: In patients with symptomatic PAD, maximal exercise induces local and systemic impairments, which may play a key role in atherogenesis. Exercise strategies that avoid maximal effort may be important to reduce local and systemic damage and enhance clinical benefits.

7.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 57: 144-151, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to identify, in patients with peripheral artery disease and intermittent claudication (IC), the reproducibility of heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), rate pressure product, heart rate variability (HRV), and forearm and calf blood flow (BF) and vasodilatory assessments. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with IC underwent test and retest sessions, 8-12 days apart. During each session, HR, BP, HRV, BF, and vasodilatory responses were measured by electrocardiogram, auscultation, spectral analysis of HRV (low frequency, LFR-R; high frequency, HFR-R), and strain gauge plethysmography (baseline BF, post-occlusion BF, post-occlusion area under the curve). Reproducibility was determined by intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), typical error, coefficient of variation (CV), and limits of agreement. RESULTS: The ICC for HR and BP was >0.8 with CV <9%. For most HRV measures, ICC was >0.9 while CV was <7%, except for LF/HF (ICC = 0.737, CV = 93.8%). The ICC for forearm and calf baseline BF assessments was >0.9 while CV was <19%; variable ICC and CV for vasodilatory responses were exhibited for calf (0.653-0.770, 35.2-37.7%) and forearm (0.169-0.265, 46.2-55.5%). CONCLUSIONS: In male patients with IC, systemic hemodynamics (HR and BP), cardiac autonomic modulation (LFR-R and HFR-R), and forearm and calf baseline BF assessments exhibited excellent reproducibility, whereas the level of reproducibility for vasodilatory responses were moderate to poor. Assessment reproducibility has highlighted appropriate clinical tools for the regular monitoring of disease/intervention progression in patients with IC.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Eletrocardiografia , Antebraço/irrigação sanguínea , Coração/inervação , Hemodinâmica , Claudicação Intermitente/diagnóstico , Perna (Membro)/irrigação sanguínea , Pletismografia , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Claudicação Intermitente/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Vasodilatação
8.
PM R ; 10(11): 1145-1152, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29753113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with Parkinson disease (PD) present cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction that impairs blood pressure control. However, cardiovascular responses during resistance exercise are unknown in these patients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate cardiovascular responses during resistance exercise performed with different muscle masses in patients with PD. DESIGN: Prospective, repeated-measures. SETTING: Exercise Hemodynamic Laboratory, School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo. PARTICIPANTS: Thirteen patients with PD (4 women, 62.7 ± 1.3 years, stages 2-3 of the modified Hoehn and Yahr scale; "on" state of medication) and 13 paired control patients without PD (7 women, 66.2 ± 2.0 years). INTERVENTIONS: Both groups performed, in a random order, bilateral and unilateral knee extension exercises (2 sets, 10-12 maximal repetition, 2-minute intervals). MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) were assessed before (pre) and during the exercises. RESULTS: Independent of set and exercise type, SBP and HR increases were significantly lower in PD than the control group (combined values: +45 ± 2 versus +73 ± 4 mm Hg and +18 ± 1 versus +31 ± 2 bpm, P = .003 and .007, respectively). Independently of group and set, the SBP increase was greater in the bilateral than the unilateral exercise (combined values: +63 ± 4 versus +54 ± 3 mm Hg, P = .002), whereas the HR increase was similar. In addition, independently of group and exercise type, the SBP increase was greater in the second than the first set (combined values: +56 ± 4 versus +61 ± 4 mm Hg, P = .04), whereas the HR increases were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with PD present attenuated increases in SBP and HR during resistance exercise in comparison with healthy subjects. These results support that resistance exercise is safe and well tolerated for patients with PD from a cardiovascular point of view supporting its recommendation for this population. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Treinamento de Força , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
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