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2.
Gastric Cancer ; 2021 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The National Clinical Database (NCD) nationwide registry program of gastric cancer started in 2018. The purpose of this study was to report the treatment results of the NCD registry in the form of treatment results of the real world in Japan. METHODS: Patients' characteristics, tumor features, treatments, and outcomes were collected using a web-based data entry system. We analyzed the initial NCD database for data on surgically treated gastric cancer patients in 2011. RESULTS: A total of 30,257 patients with malignant gastric tumors were enrolled by the NCD registry program from 501 hospitals in all 47 prefectures. Of these, the status of data entry was not approved in 8.8% of the registered data, and follow-up information was missing in 1.2% of the approved cases. Excluding 1777 cases, which were not resected for primary gastric cancer, 25,306 resected cases included 44.4% of stomach surgeries recorded in the NCD. The 5 year survival rate of the resected cases was 71.3% and the operative mortality rate was 0.41%. The stage-specific 5 year survival rates were as follows: 89.6% for stage IA, 83.8% for stage IB, 77.3% for stage IIA, 69.1% for stage IIB, 58.7% for stage IIIA, 44.1% for stage IIIB, 30.1% for stage IIIC, and 13.4% for stage IV. CONCLUSIONS: The NCD gastric cancer registry program demonstrated validity for database construction. The gastric cancer registry is expected to become a nationwide registry with the dissemination of data entry system and method in the NCD.

3.
Surg Today ; 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660105

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study compared the quality of healthcare before and after implementation of a policy restructuring the healthcare delivery system and estimated the impact of centralization. METHODS: We used the National Clinical Database to study patients undergoing esophagectomies from 2011 to 2016. We compared the effect of centralization based on the patient background, surgical mortality, and year of surgery. Difference-in-difference methods based on the generalized estimating equation logistic regression model were used for before-and-after comparisons after adjusting for patient-level expected surgical mortality. RESULTS: In total, 34,640 cases were identified. More cases with risk factors were noted in ultra-low-volume hospitals, where 38.4% of cases in underpopulated areas were treated, than in higher volume facilities, and the operative mortality, readmission within 30 days and length of stay were worse among patients treated in these hospitals. In centralized prefectures, the number of cases per hospital increased over time (7.2 in 2011 to 9.5 in 2016) while the crude operative mortality tended to decrease (3.4% in 2011 to 1.8% in 2016). The difference-in-difference estimator was 0.856 (95% confidence interval: 0.639-1.147, p = 0.298). CONCLUSION: The centralization of ultra-low-volume hospitals did not lead to a deterioration in the quality of care but rather an improving trend.

4.
Circ J ; 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, identification of independent risk factors for ischemic stroke in Japanese non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients was made by analyzing the 5 major Japanese registries: J-RHYTHM Registry, Fushimi AF Registry, Shinken Database, Keio interhospital Cardiovascular Studies, and the Hokuriku-Plus AF Registry.Methods and Results:The predictive value of the risk scheme in Japanese NVAF patients was assessed. Of 16,918 patients, 12,289 NVAF patients were analyzed (mean follow up, 649±181 days). Hazard ratios (HRs) of each significant, independent risk factor were determined by using adjusted Cox-hazard proportional analysis. Scoring system for ischemic stroke was created by transforming HR logarithmically and was estimated by c-statistic. During the 21,820 person-years follow up, 241 ischemic stroke events occurred. Significant risk factors were: being elderly (aged 75-84 years [E], HR=1.74), extreme elderly (≥85 years [EE], HR=2.41), having hypertension (H, HR=1.60), previous stroke (S, HR=2.75), type of AF (persistent/permanent) (T, HR=1.59), and low body mass index <18.5 kg/m2(L, HR=1.55) after adjusting for oral anticoagulant treatment. The score was assigned as follows: 1 point to H, E, L, and T, and 2 points to EE and S (HELT-E2S2score). The C-statistic, using this score, was 0.681 (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.647-0.714), which was significantly higher than those using CHADS2(0.647; 95% CI=0.614-0.681, P=0.027 for comparison) and CHA2DS2-VASc scores (0.641; 95% CI=0.608-0.673, P=0.008). CONCLUSIONS: The HELT-E2S2score may be useful for identifying Japanese NVAF patients at risk of ischemic stroke.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The high operative mortality rate after hepatopancreatoduodenectomy (HPD) is still a major issue. The present study explored why operative mortality differs significantly due to hospital volume. METHOD: Surgical case data were extracted from the National Clinical Database (NCD) in Japan from 2011 to 2014. Surgical procedures were categorized as major (≥2 sections) and minor (<2 sections) hepatectomy. Hospitals were categorized according to the certification system by the Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery (JSHBPS) based on the number of major hepato-biliary-pancreatic surgeries performed per year. The FTR rate was defined as death in a patient with at least one postoperative complication. RESULTS: A total of 422 patients who underwent HPD were analyzed. The operative mortality rates in board-certified A training institutions, board-certified B training institutions, and non-certified institution were 7.2%, 11.6%, and 21.4%, respectively. Multiple logistic regression showed that certified A institutions, major hepatectomy, and blood transfusion were the predictors of operative mortality. Failure to rescue rates were lowest in certified A institutions (9.3%, 17.0%, and 33.3% in certified A, certified B, and non-certified, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: To reduce operative mortality after HPD, further centralization of this procedure is desirable. Future studies should clarify specific ways to improve the failure-to-rescue rates in certified institutions.

6.
Circ J ; 85(4): 333-342, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)-targeted therapy in patients with pulmonary hypertension associated with respiratory disease (R-PH). Therefore, we conducted a multicenter prospective study of patients with R-PH to examine real-world characteristics of responders by evaluating demographics, treatment backgrounds, and prognosis.Methods and Results:Among the 281 patients with R-PH included in this study, there was a treatment-naïve cohort of 183 patients with normal pulmonary arterial wedge pressure and 1 of 4 major diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, interstitial pneumonia [IP], IP with connective tissue disease, or combined pulmonary fibrosis with emphysema); 43% of patients had mild ventilatory impairment (MVI), whereas 52% had a severe form of PH. 68% received PAH-targeted therapies (mainly phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors). Among patients with MVI, those treated initially (i.e., within 2 months of the first right heart catheterization) had better survival than patients not treated initially (3-year survival 70.6% vs. 34.2%; P=0.01); there was no significant difference in survival in the group with severe ventilatory impairment (49.6% vs. 32.1%; P=0.38). Responders to PAH-targeted therapy were more prevalent in the group with MVI. CONCLUSIONS: This first Japanese registry of R-PH showed that a high proportion of patients with MVI (PAH phenotype) had better survival if they received initial treatment with PAH-targeted therapies. Responders were predominant in the group with MVI.

7.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e042002, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589454

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: On 7 April 2020, the Japanese government declared a state of emergency in response to the novel coronavirus outbreak. To estimate the impact of the declaration on regional cities with low numbers of COVID-19 cases, large-scale surveillance to capture the current epidemiological situation of COVID-19 was urgently conducted in this study. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Social networking service (SNS)-based online survey conducted in five prefectures of Japan: Tottori, Kagawa, Shimane, Tokushima and Okayama. PARTICIPANTS: 127 121 participants from the five prefectures surveyed between 24 March and 5 May 2020. INTERVENTIONS: An SNS-based healthcare system named COOPERA (COvid-19: Operation for Personalized Empowerment to Render smart prevention And care seeking) was launched. It asks questions regarding postcode, personal information, preventive actions, and current and past symptoms related to COVID-19. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Empirical Bayes estimates of age-sex-standardised incidence rate (EBSIR) of symptoms and the spatial correlation between the number of those who reported having symptoms and the number of COVID-19 cases were examined to identify the geographical distribution of symptoms in the five prefectures. RESULTS: 97.8% of participants had no subjective symptoms. We identified several geographical clusters of fever with significant spatial correlation (r=0.67) with the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases, especially in the urban centres of prefectural capital cities. CONCLUSIONS: Given that there are still several high-risk areas measured by EBSIR, careful discussion on which areas should be reopened at the end of the state of emergency is urgently required using real-time SNS system to monitor the nationwide epidemic.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Rede Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos de Coortes , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
8.
Esophagus ; 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Because cancers of hollow organs such as the esophagus are hard to detect even by the expert physician, it is important to establish diagnostic systems to support physicians and increase the accuracy of diagnosis. In recent years, deep learning-based artificial intelligence (AI) technology has been employed for medical image recognition. However, no optimal CT diagnostic system employing deep learning technology has been attempted and established for esophageal cancer so far. PURPOSE: To establish an AI-based diagnostic system for esophageal cancer from CT images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this single-center, retrospective cohort study, 457 patients with primary esophageal cancer referred to our division between 2005 and 2018 were enrolled. We fine-tuned VGG16, an image recognition model of deep learning convolutional neural network (CNN), for the detection of esophageal cancer. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the CNN using a test data set including 46 cancerous CT images and 100 non-cancerous images and compared it to that of two radiologists. RESULTS: Pre-treatment esophageal cancer stages of the patients included in the test data set were clinical T1 (12 patients), clinical T2 (9 patients), clinical T3 (20 patients), and clinical T4 (5 patients). The CNN-based system showed a diagnostic accuracy of 84.2%, F value of 0.742, sensitivity of 71.7%, and specificity of 90.0%. CONCLUSIONS: Our AI-based diagnostic system succeeded in detecting esophageal cancer with high accuracy. More training with vast datasets collected from multiples centers would lead to even higher diagnostic accuracy and aid better decision making.

9.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking is a known risk factor for postoperative mortality and morbidity. However, the significance of cumulative smoking dose in preoperative risk assessment has not been established. We examined the influence of preoperative cumulative smoking dose on surgical outcomes after lobectomy for primary lung cancer. METHODS: A total of 80,989 patients with primary lung cancer undergoing lobectomy from 2014 to 2016 were enrolled. Preoperative cumulative smoking dose was categorized by pack-years (PY): Non-smokers, PY = 0; Light smokers, 0 < PY < 10; Moderate smokers, 10 ≤ PY < 30; and Heavy smokers, 30 ≤ PY. The risk of short-term outcomes was assessed according to PY by multivariable analysis adjusted for other covariates. RESULTS: Postoperative 30-day mortality, as well as pulmonary, cardiovascular, and infectious complications, increased with preoperative PY. Multivariable analysis revealed the odds ratios (ORs) for postoperative mortality compared with non-smokers were 1.76 for light smokers (p=0.044), 1.60 for moderate smokers (p=0.026), and 1.73 for heavy smokers (p=0.003). The ORs for pulmonary complications compared with non-smokers were 1.20 for light smokers (p= 0.022), 1.40 for moderate smokers (p<0.001), and 1.72 for heavy smokers (p<0.001). Heavy smokers had a significantly increased risk of postoperative cardiovascular (OR, 1.26; p=0.002) and infectious complications (OR, 1.39; p=0.007) compared with non-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of mortality and morbidity after lung resection could be predicted according to preoperative cumulative smoking dose. These findings contribute to the development of strategies in perioperative management of lung resection patients.

10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3109, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542248

RESUMO

The international spread of COVID-19 infection has attracted global attention, but the impact of local or domestic travel restriction on public transportation network remains unclear. Passenger volume data for the domestic public transportation network in Japan and the time at which the first confirmed COVID-19 case was observed in each prefecture were extracted from public data sources. A survival approach in which a hazard was modeled as a function of the closeness centrality on the network was utilized to estimate the risk of importation of COVID-19 in each prefecture. A total of 46 prefectures with imported cases were identified. Hypothetical scenario analyses indicated that both strategies of locking down the metropolitan areas and restricting domestic airline travel would be equally effective in reducing the risk of importation of COVID-19. While caution is necessary that the data were limited to June 2020 when the pandemic was in its initial stage and that no other virus spreading routes have been considered, domestic travel restrictions were effective to prevent the spread of COVID-19 on public transportation network in Japan. Instead of lockdown that might seriously damage the economy, milder travel restrictions could have the similar impact on controlling the domestic transmission of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , /epidemiologia , Humanos , Japão , Pandemias , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606891

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the risk of urinary tract infection (UTI) occurrence associated with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor use relative to biguanide use in diabetes in a population-based cohort study using a target trial emulation framework. METHODS: Using a Japanese nationwide administrative claims database, we constructed a cohort of patients aged ≥40 years who were dispensed SGLT2 inhibitors, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors or biguanides between April 2014 and March 2015. For computational ease, we randomly sampled 100% of SGLT2 inhibitor users, 3% of DPP-4 inhibitor users, and 20% of biguanide users; new antidiabetic drug initiators were analysed. We estimated the intention-to-treat (ITT) hazard ratios (HRs) of UTI with inverse probability of treatment (IPT)-weighted Cox's proportional hazards models that ignored subsequent treatment changes. Treatment weights were computed using patient sex, age, medications, medical history and hospitalization history. We also estimated per-protocol (PP) HRs using IPT- and inverse probability of censoring-weighted Cox's models that adjusted for nonrandom treatment changes. RESULTS: We analysed 11 364 SGLT2 inhibitor initiators, 9035 DPP-4 inhibitor initiators, and 10 359 biguanide initiators. When compared with biguanide initiators, SGLT2 inhibitor initiators had a crude HR of 1.14 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.24), an ITT HR of 0.94 (95% CI 0.86-1.03), and a PP HR of 0.90 (95% CI 0.78-1.03); and DPP-4 inhibitor initiators had a crude HR of 1.13 (95% CI 1.04-1.23), an ITT HR of 0.85 (95% CI 0.77-0.94), and a PP HR of 0.83 (95% CI 0.71-0.95). CONCLUSION: Use of SGLT2 inhibitors or DPP-4 inhibitors did not increase the risk of UTI compared with biguanide use. Accounting for treatment changes did not substantially influence the estimated effects.

12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(3): 789-795, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622468

RESUMO

To provide insight into the mortality burden of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Japan, we estimated the excess all-cause deaths for each week during the pandemic, January-May 2020, by prefecture and age group. We applied quasi-Poisson regression models to vital statistics data. Excess deaths were expressed as the range of differences between the observed and expected number of all-cause deaths and the 95% upper bound of the 1-sided prediction interval. A total of 208-4,322 all-cause excess deaths at the national level indicated a 0.03%-0.72% excess in the observed number of deaths. Prefecture and age structure consistency between the reported COVID-19 deaths and our estimates was weak, suggesting the need to use cause-specific analyses to distinguish between direct and indirect consequences of COVID-19.


Assuntos
/mortalidade , /diagnóstico , Causas de Morte , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Mortalidade
13.
Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann ; : 218492320981459, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33426897

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to present data regarding the current status and trends of valvular heart surgeries in Japan from the Japan Cardiovascular Surgery Database for the 2017-2018. METHODS: We extracted data on cardiac valve surgeries performed in 2017 and 2018 from the Japan Cardiovascular Surgery Database. We determined the trend in the number of aortic valve replacement procedures from 2013 to 2018. The operative mortality rates were calculated for representative valve procedures stratified by age group. Data regarding minimally invasive procedures and transcatheter aortic valve replacement in the Japan Cardiovascular Surgery Database are also presented. RESULTS: In conjunction with the dramatic increase in the number of transcatheter aortic valve replacements in 2017 and 2018, surgical aortic valve replacement also increased from 26,054 to 28,202. The operative mortality rate in first-time valve procedures was 1.8% in isolated aortic valve replacement, 0.9% in isolated mitral valve repair, and 8.2% and 4.6% in mitral valve replacement with biological prostheses and with mechanical prostheses, respectively. Regarding minimally invasive procedures, 30.8% of first-time isolated mitral valve plasty procedures were performed by a right thoracotomy. Although patients who underwent surgery by a right thoracotomy had better clinical outcomes, it was also apparent that patients who underwent surgery by a right thoracotomy had lower operative risk profiles. The overall mortality rates after transcatheter aortic valve replacement and surgical aortic valve replacement were 1.5% and 1.8%, respectively. CONCLUSION: We have reported benchmark data on heart valve surgery in 2017 and 2018 from the Japan Cardiovascular Surgery Database.

14.
Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann ; : 218492320981499, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33426898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical outcomes (as national clinical data) of isolated coronary artery bypass grafting have been successively reported, based on data registered in the Japan Cardiovascular Surgery Database, since 2013. In this study, we analysed the clinical results of isolated coronary artery bypass from 2017 to 2018 as a biannual report. METHODS: Data from the Japan Cardiovascular Surgery Database on isolated coronary artery bypass performed in 2017 and 2018 were reviewed for preoperative characteristics, postoperative outcomes, and choice of graft material for the left anterior descending artery. RESULTS: Isolated off-pump coronary artery bypass was performed in 54.6% (n = 14,684) of all coronary artery bypass cases (n = 26,913), and graft material for the left anterior descending artery was the left internal thoracic artery in 76.4% of cases and the right internal thoracic artery in 19.0% of cases. Operative mortality was 1.5% in elective cases (on-pump coronary artery bypass 1.9% and off-pump 1.2%, p < 0.001), 7.4% in emergency cases (on-pump 10.2% and off-pump 4.3%, p < 0.001), and 2.5% overall. Postoperative morbidity was generally lower in off-pump coronary artery bypass. The severity of surgery with expected mortality, evaluated using JapanSCORE II, is increasing every year. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that short-term operative results for isolated coronary artery bypass are stable, and operative candidates are shifting to higher-risk patients.

15.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 28, 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since there was no previous report, we analyzed the relationship between French Risk Stratification parameters in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and mean pulmonary arterial pressures (mPAP) using Japan PH Registry (JAPHR) national-wide cohort. METHODS: We enrolled 108 patients with PAH from JAPHR from previous reported cohort and analyzed the relations between French Risk Stratification scores and hemodynamic improvements. RESULTS: The ratio meeting 0 to 4 French Risk Stratification score was 21.3%, 31.5%, 32.4%, 13.0%, and 1.9% at baseline, and 6.5%, 23.2%, 33.3%, 23.2%, 13.9% at follow-up, respectively. The improvements in the number of criteria met were associated both with mPAP at follow-up (p = 0.03) and with the improvements in mPAP (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The improvements in French Risk Stratification may become a marker of improved hemodynamics including mPAP.

16.
Surg Today ; 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515364

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated the association between the number of certified general thoracic surgeons (GTSs) and the mortality after lung cancer surgery, based on the data from the National Clinical Database (NCD). METHODS: We analyzed the characteristics and operative and postoperative data of 120,946 patients who underwent lung cancer surgery in one of the 905 hospitals in Japan. The number of GTSs in each hospital was categorized as 0, 1-2, or 3 or more. Multivariable analysis was applied to adjust the patients' preoperative risk factors, as identified in a previous study. We calculated 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the mortality rate based on the odds ratios (ORs). RESULTS: The patients' characteristics were distributed almost uniformly regardless of the number of GTSs. Crude mortality according to the number of GTSs of 0, 1-2, or 3 or more was 0.9%, 0.8%, and 0.7%, respectively (p = 0.03). However, after adjustment, the ORs for 1-2 and 3 or more GTSs (reference: 0) were 0.86 (p = 0.23, 95% CI: 0.67-1.10) and 0.84 (p = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.64-1.09), respectively. The number of GTSs did not have a significant association with mortality. Similar results were observed for patients in the lobectomy cohort. CONCLUSION: Low surgical mortality was consistent, regardless of the number of GTSs in each hospital.

17.
Am Heart J ; 235: 113-124, 2021 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bleeding avoidance strategies (BASs) are increasingly adopted for patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) due to bleeding complications. However, their association with bleeding events outside of Western countries remains unclear. In collaboration with the National Cardiovascular Data Registry (NCDR) CathPCI registry, we aimed to assess the time trend and impact of BAS utilization among Japanese patients. METHODS: Our study included 19,656 consecutive PCI patients registered over 10 years. These patients were divided into 4-time frame groups (T1: 2008-2011, T2: 2012-2013, T3: 2014-2015, and T4: 2016-2018). BAS was defined as the use of transradial approach or vascular closure device (VCD) use after transfemoral approach (TFA). Model performance of the NCDR CathPCI bleeding model was evaluated. The degree of bleeding reduction associated with BAS adoption was estimated via multilevel mixed-effects multivariable logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The NCDR CathPCI bleeding risk score demonstrated good discrimination in the Japanese population (C-statistics 0.79-0.81). The BAS adoption rate increased from 43% (T1) to 91% (T4), whereas the crude CathPCI-defined bleeding rate decreased from 10% (T1) to 7% (T4). Adjusted odds ratios for bleeding events were 0.25 (95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.45, P< .001) for those undergoing TFA with VCD in T4 and 0.26 (95% confidence interval 0.20-0.35, P< .001) for transradial approach in T4 compared to patients that received TFA without VCD in T1. CONCLUSIONS: BAS use over the studied time frames was associated with lower risk of bleeding complications among Japanese. Nonetheless, observed bleeding rates remained higher compared to the US population.

18.
Hepatol Res ; 51(4): 355-405, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382910

RESUMO

In the 21st Nationwide Follow-up Survey of Primary Liver Cancer in Japan, data from 22,134 new patients and 41,956 previously followed patients were compiled from 546 institutions over a 2-year period from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2011. Basic statistics compiled for patients newly registered in the 21st survey were cause of death, medical history, clinical diagnosis, imaging diagnosis, treatment-related factors, pathological diagnosis, recurrence status, and autopsy findings. Compared with the previous 20th survey, the population of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was older at the time of clinical diagnosis, had more female patients, had more patients with non-B non-C HCC, had smaller tumor diameter, and was more frequently treated with hepatectomy and with radiofrequency ablation. Cumulative survival rates were calculated for HCC, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and combined hepatocellular cholangiocarcinoma (combined HCC and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma) by treatment type and background characteristics for patients newly registered between 1998 and 2011 whose final outcome was survival or death (excluding unknown). Cumulative survival rates for HCC were calculated by dividing patients by combinations of background factors (number of tumors, tumor diameter, and Child-Pugh grade) and by treatment type (hepatectomy, local ablation therapy, transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, and hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy). The same values were also calculated according to registration date by dividing patients newly registered between 1978 and 2011 into four time-period groups. The data obtained from this nationwide follow-up survey are expected to contribute to advancing clinical research and treatment of primary liver cancer.

19.
Nutr Rev ; 78(Supplement_3): 46-48, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259613

RESUMO

Japan's aging population and increasing medical costs threaten the sustainability of its healthcare system. Society 5.0, Japan's growth strategy, calls for a paradigm shift in healthcare based on digital technology. Health is a topic of great public concern, and diet and nutrition are at the heart of health. Many different values are used to define health, and Society 5.0 focuses on creating personalized values for different styles of eating and health. Health is already at the core of global business, and Japan, which is ahead of the rest of the world in its super-aging society, has a unique opportunity to be the first to create new business solutions for diet and nutrition.

20.
Glob Health Action ; 13(1): 1859822, 2020 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334272

RESUMO

The Group of 20 Summit (G20) in Osaka, which Japan chaired for the first time in June 2019 has created a tailwind for achieving universal health coverage (UHC) globally. In response to the rapid digitalization, the G20 leaders commenced negotiations for the Osaka Track framework to formulate international rules on data flow across borders and systematize the concept of 'Data Free Flow with Trust (DFFT).' The strategic harnessing of the power of data to strengthen the healthcare system can allow for rapid and affordable progress toward achieving UHC. However, world leaders have yet to discuss what data governance approaches the Osaka Track will follow, or even on what values it will seek to create and maximize. In this paper, we propose a people-centered, trust-oriented approach as the key principle of data governance toward achieving UHC, using Japan's experience as an example. We believe that this approach is compatible with other prevailing approaches (e.g. the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in the European Union), and can serve as a bridge to their conceptual differences. We hope that our proposed principles will be fully discussed in post-G20 Osaka Summit meetings.

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