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1.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; : CIRCINTERVENTIONS120010476, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early bleeding after percutaneous coronary intervention is associated with increased risk of death and myocardial infarction; however, the association between bleeding and subsequent major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) remains unclear in patients with atrial fibrillation and stable coronary artery disease. We thus aimed to investigate this association. METHODS: The AFIRE trial (Atrial Fibrillation and Ischemic Events With Rivaroxaban in Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease) was a multicenter, open-label trial conducted in Japan. This post hoc analysis included 2215 patients with atrial fibrillation and stable coronary artery disease treated with rivaroxaban or rivaroxaban plus an antiplatelet agent. MACCE was defined as a composite of stroke, systemic embolism, myocardial infarction, unstable angina requiring revascularization, or death from any cause. The association of bleeding with subsequent MACCE risk was investigated using time-adjusted Cox multivariate analysis after adjusting for baseline characteristics and time from bleeding. Bleeding events were classified according to the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis criteria. RESULTS: Among the 2215 patients, 386 (17.4%) had bleeding during follow-up, of whom 63 (16.3%) also experienced MACCE; MACCE incidence was higher in patients with bleeding than in those without (8.38% versus 4.20% per patient-year; hazard ratio, 2.01 [95% CI, 1.49-2.70]; P<0.001). The proportion of patients with both bleeding and MACCE (developed after bleeding) was 73.0% (46 of 63); 27.0% (17 of 63) experienced MACCE before bleeding. Time-adjusted Cox multivariate analysis revealed a temporal association between major bleeding and subsequent MACCE, with particularly high MACCE risks within 30 days after major bleeding (hazard ratio, 7.81 [95% CI, 4.20-14.54]). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with atrial fibrillation and stable coronary artery disease, major bleeding was strongly associated with subsequent MACCE. Thus, it is important to prevent major bleeding to avoid cardiovascular events and death. Registration: URL: https://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr; Unique identifier: UMIN000016612. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02642419.

2.
Atherosclerosis ; 333: 9-15, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Little is known about the long-term impact of apolipoprotein E (apoE) on residual cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic coronary syndrome (CCS) receiving statin treatment. METHODS: A total of 1109 consecutive patients (mean age, 67 ± 10 years; 83% men) with CCS who underwent their first intervention between 2000 and 2016 were included in this study. All patients had achieved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) <100 mg/dL on statin treatment and were divided into two groups based on median serum apoE values. We evaluated the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), including cardiovascular death, non-fatal acute coronary syndrome, and target vessel revascularization. RESULTS: A total of 552 and 557 patients were categorized to the higher and lower apoE groups, respectively. There were significant relationships between apoE levels and total cholesterol levels, triglyceride levels, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and estimated remnant cholesterol, except for LDL-C levels. During the median follow-up period of 5.1 years, 195 patients (17.6%) developed MACEs. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the cumulative incidence of MACEs in the higher apoE group was significantly higher than in the lower apoE group (29.5% vs.23.8% log-rank test, p = 0.019). Using multivariable Cox hazard analysis, serum apoE level (1-mg/dL increase) (hazard ratio 1.15; 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.29, p = 0.013) was the strongest independent predictor of MACEs. CONCLUSIONS: Serum apoE level could be a strong predictor of residual cardiovascular risk in patients with CCS long-term, even if LDL-C levels are controlled with statin treatment.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34357673

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to use optical coherence tomography (OCT) to compare vascular healing between bioresorbable polymer (BP) and durable polymer (DP) everolimus-eluting stents (EES) in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). BACKGROUND: Whether BP-EES induce better vascular healing compared to contemporary DP-EES remains controversial, especially for ACS. METHODS: In this prospective, randomized, non-inferiority trial, we used OCT to compare 6-month vascular healing in patients with ACS randomized to BP versus DP-EES: percent strut coverage (primary endpoint, non-inferiority margin of 2.0%) and neointimal thickness and percent neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) volume. As an exploratory analysis, morphological factors related to the endpoints and the effect of underlying lipidic plaque on stent healing were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 104 patients with ACS were randomly assigned to BP-EES (n = 52) versus DP-EES (n = 52). Of these, 86 patients (40 BP-EES and 46 DP-EES) were included in the final OCT analyses. Six-month percent strut coverage of BP-EES (83.6 ± 11.4%) was not non-inferior compared to those of DP-EES (81.6 ± 13.9%), difference 2.0% (lower 95% confidence interval-2.6%), pnon-inferiority  = 0.07. There were no differences in neointimal thickness 70.0 ± 33.9 µm versus 67.2 ± 33.9 µm, p = 0.71; and percent NIH volume 7.5 ± 4.7% versus 7.3 ± 5.3%, p = 0.85. By multivariable linear regression analysis, stent type was not associated with percent strut coverage or percent NIH volume; however, percent baseline embedded struts or stent expansion was positively associated with percent NIH volume. Greater NIH volume was observed in lipidic compared with non-lipidic segments (8.7 ± 5.6% vs. 6.1 ± 5.2%, p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Six-month strut coverage of BP-EES was not non-inferior compared to those of DP-EES in ACS patients. Good stent apposition and expansion were independently associated with better vascular healing.

4.
Int Heart J ; 62(4): 872-878, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34276016

RESUMO

Little is known about the association between limb prognosis in peripheral artery disease and apolipoprotein E (apoE). We evaluated the long-term impact of apoE on adverse limb events in patients with intermittent claudication receiving statin treatment.A total of 218 consecutive patients (mean age, 73 ± 8 years; 81% men) with intermittent claudication who underwent their first intervention between 2009 and 2020 were included in this study. All patients had achieved LDL-C < 100 mg/dL on statin treatment and were divided into two groups based on the apoE value (≥ 4.7 or < 4.7 mg/dL). We evaluated the incidence of major adverse limb events (MALEs), including vessel revascularization and limb ischemia development.A total of 39 and 179 patients were allocated to the higher and lower apoE groups, respectively. Compared to the lower apoE group, the higher apoE group had a significantly higher total cholesterol level, triglyceride level, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. During the median follow-up period of 3.6 years, 30 patients (13.8%) developed MALEs. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the cumulative incidence of MALEs in the higher apoE group was significantly higher than that in the lower apoE group (44.0% versus 21.6%, log-rank test, P = 0.002). During multivariable Cox hazard analysis, higher apoE level (≥ 4.7 mg/dL) (hazard ratio, 2.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-5.70, P = 0.019) was the only strong independent predictor of MALEs.ApoE levels could be a strong predictor and residual risk for long-term limb prognosis in patients with intermittent claudication and achieving LDL-C < 100 mg/dL with statin treatment.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas E/sangue , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Extremidades/irrigação sanguínea , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Claudicação Intermitente/complicações , Doença Arterial Periférica/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Claudicação Intermitente/sangue , Masculino , Doença Arterial Periférica/sangue , Doença Arterial Periférica/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Heart ; 107(21): 1731-1738, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261738

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and atrial fibrillation (AF) can be treated with multiple antithrombotic therapies including antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapies; however, this has the potential to increase bleeding risk. Here, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of P2Y12 inhibitors and aspirin in patients also receiving anticoagulant therapy. METHODS: We evaluated patients from the Atrial Fibrillation and Ischaemic Events with Rivaroxaban in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease (AFIRE) trial who received rivaroxaban plus an antiplatelet agent; the choice of antiplatelet agent was left to the physician's discretion. The primary efficacy and safety end points, consistent with those of the AFIRE trial, were compared between P2Y12 inhibitors and aspirin groups. The primary efficacy end point was a composite of stroke, systemic embolism, myocardial infarction, unstable angina requiring revascularisation or death from any cause. The primary safety end point was major bleeding according to the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis criteria. RESULTS: A total of 1075 patients were included (P2Y12 inhibitor group, n=297; aspirin group, n=778). Approximately 60% of patients were administered proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and there was no significant difference in PPI use in the groups. There were no significant differences in the primary end points between the groups (efficacy: HR 1.31; 95% CI 0.88 to 1.94; p=0.178; safety: HR 0.79; 95% CI 0.43 to 1.47; p=0.456). CONCLUSIONS: There were no significant differences in cardiovascular and bleeding events in patients with AF and stable CAD taking rivaroxaban with P2Y12 inhibitors or aspirin in the chronic phase. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: UMIN000016612; NCT02642419.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224098

RESUMO

In-stent restenosis (ISR) remains the primary concern after a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and is considered to be associated with worse clinical outcomes. However, comparative data on ISR and de novo lesions are rare. Therefore, we aimed to compare PCI-related clinical outcomes between patients with de novo lesions and those with ISR lesions. We undertook a retrospective analysis of patients who had undergone a PCI between 2013 and 2020. The incidences of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) and all-cause death over a 2-year follow-up period were evaluated. In total, 1538 patients were enrolled and divided into two groups: a de novo lesions group (n = 1258, 81.8%) and an ISR lesions group (n = 280, 18.2%). Patients in the ISR lesions group were significantly older, with a higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and chronic kidney disease than those in the de novo lesions group. Kaplan-Meier curves showed no significant between-group differences in the incidence of MACCE (log-rank, p = 0.93) and all-cause death (p = 0.09). After adjustment for other covariates, PCIs for ISR lesions were not found to be significantly associated with MACCE (hazard ratio [HR], 1.10; 95% confidential interval [CI] 0.49-2.49; p = 0.81) and all-cause death (HR, 0.58; 95% CI 0.26-1.31; p = 0.19). PCIs for ISR lesions were not associated with worse clinical outcomes compared with PCIs for de novo lesions.

7.
Am Heart J ; 240: 89-100, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has not yet been established whether higher-dose statins have beneficial effects on cardiovascular events in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and renal dysfunction. METHODS: The REAL-CAD study is a prospective, multicenter, open-label trial. As a substudy, we categorized patients by an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as follows: eGFR ≥60 (n = 7,768); eGFR ≥45 and <60 (n = 3,176); and eGFR <45 mL/Min/1.73 m2 (n = 1,164), who were randomized to pitavastatin 4mg or 1mg therapy. The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal ischemic stroke, or unstable angina, and was assessed by the log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: The baseline characteristics and medications were largely well-balanced between two groups. The magnitude of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction at 6 months in high- and low-dose pitavastatin groups was comparable among all eGFR categories. During a median follow-up of 3.9 years, high- compared with low-dose pitavastatin significantly reduced cardiovascular events in patients with eGFR ≥60 (hazard ratio (HR) 0.73; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.58-0.91; P = .006), and reduced but not significant for patients with eGFR ≥45 and <60 (HR 0.85; 95% CI, 0.63-1.14; P = .27) or eGFR <45 mL/Min/1.73 m2 (HR 0.90; 95% CI 0.62-1.33; P = .61). An interaction test of treatment by eGFR category was not significant (P value for interaction = .30). CONCLUSION: Higher-dose pitavastatin therapy reduced LDL levels and cardiovascular events in stable CAD patients irrespective of eGFR level, although the effect on events appeared to be numerically lower in patients with lower eGFR.

8.
Heart Vessels ; 36(11): 1670-1678, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956183

RESUMO

Little is known about the prognostic impact of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels on causes of death during long-term follow-up. We, therefore, investigated the associations between hs-CRP and clinical outcomes in the patients with intermittent claudication. Three hundred thirty-five consecutive patients (mean age, 72 ± 8 years, 82% men) undergoing first intervention for de novo iliac and/or femoropopliteal artery lesions from 2009 to 2020 were studied. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on the optimal cutoff value of hs-CRP (> or ≤ 0.15 mg/dL). The median follow-up duration was 3.6 years (interquartile range, 1.0-6.2 years). Although the cumulative incidence rate of major adverse cardiovascular limb events was not significantly different between the higher and lower hs-CRP groups (29.0 and 22.1%, respectively; log-rank test, p = 0.410), that of all-cause death was significantly higher in the higher hs-CRP group than in the lower hs-CRP group (18.7 vs. 5.8%, log-rank test, p = 0.007), even in cardiovascular-related death and malignancy-related death (log-rank test, p = 0.030 and 0.046, respectively). Higher hs-CRP levels at the time of intervention were significantly associated with higher frequency of all-cause death, even after adjusting for other risk factors (hazard ratio 2.79; 95% confidence interval 1.66-7.17, p = 0.024). In addition, malignancy-related death was most frequent as high as 60% (21/35 deaths), and elevated hs-CRP levels and the Brinkman index were strongly independent predictors of malignancy-related death. In conclusion, elevated hs-CRP levels were significantly associated with cardiovascular-related and malignancy-related deaths in patients with intermittent claudication. Furthermore, the result that cancer mortality exceeds cardiovascular mortality is different from previous reports, so the present findings warrant further investigation.

9.
Int Heart J ; 62(3): 487-492, 2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33994497

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death among travelers, but the clinical characteristics and clinical outcomes of patients who develop acute coronary syndrome (ACS) while traveling have not been assessed. We evaluated 2548 patients with ACS who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) between 1999 and 2015 and compared the incidences of all-cause and cardiac death during follow-up between travelers and locals. We assessed 192 (7.5%) patients who developed ACS while traveling. These patients were younger and had a higher prevalence of ST-elevation myocardial infarction than local patients. During a median follow-up period of 5.3 years, 632 (24.8%) all-cause deaths were identified, including 310 cardiac deaths (12.2%). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the cumulative incidence of all-cause death was significantly lower among the travelers than locals (P = 0.001, log-rank test). Multivariate Cox hazard analysis revealed that travel was significantly associated with a lower rate of all cause death (hazard ratio, 0.53; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.80; P = 0.002). Cardiac mortality did not significantly differ between travelers and locals (P = 0.29). Patients with ACS treated with primary PCI while traveling had more favorable long-term clinical outcomes than local patients. Appropriate initial treatments and secondary preventions might improve the prognosis of travelers.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Am Heart J ; 236: 59-68, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the AFIRE trial, rivaroxaban monotherapy was noninferior to combination therapy with rivaroxaban and an antiplatelet agent for thromboembolic events or death, and superior for major bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and stable coronary artery disease. Little is known about impacts of stroke and bleeding risks on the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban monotherapy. METHODS: In this subanalysis of the AFIRE trial, we assessed the risk of stroke and bleeding by the CHADS2, CHA2DS2-VASc, and HAS-BLED scores. The primary efficacy end point was the composite of stroke, systemic embolism, myocardial infarction (MI), unstable angina requiring revascularization, or death from any cause. The primary safety end point was major bleeding defined by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. RESULTS: Rivaroxaban monotherapy significantly reduced the primary efficacy and safety end points with no evidence of differential effects by stroke risk (CHADS2, p for interaction = 0.727 for efficacy, 0.395 for safety; CHA2DS2-VASc, p for interaction = 0.740 for efficacy, 0.265 for safety) or bleeding risk (HAS-BLED, p for interaction = 0.581 for efficacy, 0.225 for safety). There was also no evidence of statistical heterogeneity across patient risk categories for other end points; stroke or systemic embolism, ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, MI, MI or unstable angina, death from any cause, any bleeding, or net adverse clinical events. CONCLUSIONS: The advantages of rivaroxaban monotherapy compared with those of combination therapy with respect to all prespecified end points, including thromboembolism, bleeding, and mortality were similar across patients with AF and stable coronary artery disease, irrespective of their risk for stroke and bleeding. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN Clinical Trials Registry number, UMIN000016612, and ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02642419.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Hemorragia , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária , Rivaroxabana , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Clopidogrel/administração & dosagem , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/administração & dosagem , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/efeitos adversos , Risco Ajustado/métodos , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
11.
Heart Vessels ; 36(8): 1117-1124, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606067

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and anemia are each individually associated with worse clinical outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the prognostic impact of both CKD and anemia on clinical outcomes, when they coexist, remains unclear in CAD patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We studied 2484 CAD patients who underwent their first PCI and had available date on preprocedural hemoglobin between 2000 and 2016. The patients were divided into four groups according to the presence of CKD and/or anemia. We evaluated the incidences of all-cause death and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs), including cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and stroke. Among the patients, 310 patients (12.5%) had both CKD and anemia (CKD with anemia group), 309 (12.4%) had CKD only, 461(18.6%) had anemia only, and 1404 (56.5%) had neither CKD nor anemia. Patients in the CKD with anemia group were older and had a higher incidence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. During a median follow-up period of 3.7 years, Kaplan-Meier curves showed that patients in the CKD with anemia group had significantly higher incidences of MACCE and all-cause death than the CKD only and anemia only group (both log-rank p < 0.001). Using patients with the no CKD or anemia group as a reference, the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs), 95% confidence interval for MACCE were 1.51 (0.92-2.47) for the CKD only, 1.48 (0.94-2.32) for the anemia only and 2.00 (1.18-3.38) for the CKD with anemia group. Moreover, the adjusted HR for all-cause death were 1.42 (0.96-2.10) for the CKD only, 1.79 (1.28-2.51) for the anemia only, and 1.92 (1.30-2.84) for the CKD with anemia group. In conclusion, the combined effects of both CKD and anemia on outcomes after PCI were worse than either of their individual effects.

12.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431716

RESUMO

AIM: The association between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level after statin therapy and cardiovascular events in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) remains unclear. Thus, in this study, we sought to determine how HDL-C level after statin therapy is associated with cardiovascular events in stable CAD patients. METHODS: From the REAL-CAD study which had shown the favorable prognostic effect of high-dose pitavastatin in stable CAD patients with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) <120 mg/dL, 9,221 patients with HDL-C data at baseline and 6 months, no occurrence of primary outcome at 6 months, and reported non-adherence for pitavastatin, were examined. The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal ischemic stroke, or unstable angina requiring emergent admission after 6 months of randomization. Absolute difference and ratio of HDL-C levels were defined as (those at 6 months-at baseline) and (absolute difference/baseline)×100, respectively. RESULTS: During a median follow-up period of 4.0 (IQR 3.2-4.7) years, the primary outcome occurred in 417 (4.5%) patients. The adjusted risk of all HDL-C-related variables (baseline value, 6-month value, absolute, and relative changes) for the primary outcome was not significant (hazard ratio [HR] 0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.91-1.08, HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.94-1.12, HR 1.05, 95% CI 0.98-1.12, and HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.94-1.24, respectively). Furthermore, adjusted HRs of all HDL-C-related variables remained non-significant for the primary outcome regardless of on-treatment LDL-C level at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: After statin therapy with modestly controlled LDL-C, HDL-C level has little prognostic value in patients with stable CAD.

13.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 36, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the difference in effects of beta-blockers on long-term clinical outcomes between ischemic heart disease (IHD) patients with mid-range ejection fraction (mrEF) and those with reduced ejection fraction (rEF). METHODS: Data were assessed of 3508 consecutive IHD patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) between 1997 and 2011. Among them, 316 patients with mrEF (EF = 40-49%) and 201 patients with rEF (EF < 40%) were identified. They were assigned to groups according to users and non-users of beta-blockers and effects of beta-blockers were assessed between mrEF and rEF patients, separately. The primary outcome was a composite of all-cause death and non-fatal acute coronary syndrome. RESULTS: The median follow-up period was 5.5 years in mrEF patients and 4.3 years in rEF patients. Cumulative event-free survival was significantly lower in the group with beta-blockers than in the group without beta-blockers in rEF (p = 0.003), whereas no difference was observed in mrEF (p = 0.137) between those with and without beta-blockers. In the multivariate analysis, use of beta-blockers was associated with reduction in clinical outcomes in patients with rEF (hazard ratio (HR), 0.59; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.36-0.97; p = 0.036), whereas no association was observed among those with mrEF (HR 0.74; 95% CI 0.49-1.10; p = 0.137). CONCLUSIONS: Our observational study showed that use of beta-blockers was not associated with long-term clinical outcomes in IHD patients with mrEF, whereas a significant association was observed in those with rEF.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Isquemia Miocárdica/terapia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
14.
J Cardiol ; 77(3): 313-319, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is an established method for assessing functional myocardial ischemia. Recently, the resting full-cycle ratio (RFR) has been introduced as a non-hyperemic index of functional coronary stenosis. However, the effects of clinical characteristics on discordance between RFR and FFR have not been fully evaluated. We aimed to identify clinical characteristics that influence FFR-RFR concordance. METHODS: We included 410 patients with 573 intermediate coronary lesions who underwent clinically indicated invasive coronary angiography, as well as assessments of FFR and RFR. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were created to assess the optimal cut-off values of RFR for predicting FFR ≤0.80. RESULTS: RFR exhibited a strong correlation with FFR (r = 0.66, p < 0.0001). ROC analysis identified an optimal RFR cut-off value of 0.92 for categorization based on an FFR cut-off value of 0.8. The discordance of FFR >0.8 and RFR ≤0.92 (high FFR/low RFR) was observed in 112 lesions (20.9%), whereas the discordance of FFR ≤0.8 and RFR >0.92 (low FFR/high RFR) was observed in 35 lesions (6.5%). Higher rate of hemodialysis and lower hemoglobin levels were observed in the high FFR/low RFR group. Multivariate analyses identified female sex, left anterior descending artery (LAD) lesions, and hemodialysis as significant predictors of high FFR/low RFR. Conversely, body surface area and non-LAD lesions were significantly associated with low FFR/high RFR. Hemodialysis [odds ratio (OR): 2.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.31-4.41; p = 0.005] and LAD lesions (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.25-2.79; p = 0.002) were identified as independent predictors of overall FFR-RFR discordance. CONCLUSIONS: RFR exhibited good diagnostic performance in the identification of functionally significant stenosis. However, RFR may overestimate functional severity in patients undergoing hemodialysis or in those with LAD lesions. Further prospective trials are required to demonstrate the non-inferiority of RFR to FFR.

15.
J Cardiol ; 77(4): 417-423, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endovascular treatment (EVT) for femoropopliteal artery disease is common in clinical practice. However, little is known about its prognostic factors, causes of death, and long-term clinical outcomes. METHODS: Two hundred eighty-five consecutive patients (mean age, 72±8 years, 73% men) undergoing their first EVT for de-novo femoropopliteal artery disease from 2009 to 2018 were studied. Patients were divided in two groups according to the presence of critical limb ischemia (CLI). We evaluated the incidence of major adverse limb events (MALE) including clinically driven target vessel revascularization and target limb major amputation, and all-cause death. RESULTS: The procedure was successful in 97.9% of cases. The non-CLI group comprised 205 patients (72%), and the CLI group comprised 80 patients (28%). The CLI group exhibited higher high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels and a higher rate of hemodialysis than the non-CLI group. During the median follow-up period of 3.5 years, there were 62 deaths (21.8%) including cardiovascular (32.3%), infection (32,3%), and malignancy-related (22.6%) deaths. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the CLI group had a significantly higher incidence of MALE and all-cause death (log-rank, both p<0.001, respectively). The leading causes of death in the CLI group were cardiovascular- and infection-related death; the leading cause of death in the non-CLI group was malignancy-related. On multivariate Cox hazard analysis, hemodialysis, TASC II classification C/D lesions, and CLI were significant predictors of MALE (p<0.001, p=0.005, and p=0.012, respectively). Hemodialysis, age, higher hs-CRP levels, and CLI were significant predictors of all-cause death (p<0.001, p=0.003, p=0.009, and p=0.021, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Although EVT for femoropopliteal artery disease appears feasible with a high rate of procedural success, a high incidence of MALE and all-cause death was observed. Further studies are needed to improve the outcomes in patients with CLI.

16.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241195, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a nuclear receptor that has key roles of lipid metabolism and inflammation. The PPARα may affects the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis by reducing inflammatory responses. Pemafibrate (K-877) is a novel selective PPARα modulator (SPPARMα), which was designed to possess higher PPARα potency and selectivity than existing PPARα agonists. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of pemafibrate on vascular response in coronary atherosclerosis model using low density lipoprotein receptor knock-out (LDLR-KO) pigs with balloon injury. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ten LDLR-KO pigs were randomly allocated to two groups [pemafibrate (n = 5) and control (n = 5)] and fed with a diet containing 2.0% cholesterol and 20% lard throughout the study. Balloon injury was created in 40 coronary segments two weeks after starting the oral administration of pemafibrate or placebo. Necropsy was conducted 8 weeks later. Coronary artery sections were reviewed to evaluate lesion progression and the mRNA expression levels for C-Jun, NFκ B, CCL2, CCR7, CD163 and MMP9 determined using real-time RT-PCR. LDL cholesterol at baseline was about 700 mg/dL. The mean ratio of macrophages to plaque area was significantly lower in pemafibrate group compared with control one (7.63±1.16 vs 14.04±4.51, P = 0.02) whereas no differences were observed in intimal area between groups. The mRNA levels of C-Jun, NFκB and MMP9 were significantly decreased in pemafibrate group. CONCLUSIONS: Pemafibrate was associated with inhibition of inflammatory responses in coronary artery atherosclerosis model using LDLR-KO swine with balloon injury.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Benzoxazóis/farmacologia , Butiratos/farmacologia , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , Receptores de LDL/metabolismo , Animais , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos
17.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055462

RESUMO

AIM: Pneumococcal and influenza infections can cause serious morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of simultaneous inoculations of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) and trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled study. A total of 40 patients with CAD were randomly assigned to the TIV+PPSV23 (simultaneous inoculations of TIV and PPSV23) and TIV+Placebo (inoculations of TIV and placebo) groups. Primary outcomes were the safety of simultaneous vaccinations and the changing of circulating cardiovascular biomarkers before, at 4-, and at 12-weeks after vaccinations. RESULTS: The baseline characteristics between the two groups were identical. The prevalence of injection-site pain, swelling, and reddening were 47%, 37%, and 37% in the TIV+PPSV23 group, and 10%, 5%, and 0% in the TIV+Placebo group, respectively. All reactions were self-limited. Body temperature >37.0℃ or serious injection-related reaction was not observed. The levels of white blood cells, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, pentraxin-3, and malondialdehide-modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL), were not significantly different between the two groups before and after vaccinations. The levels of anti-oxidized LDL were significantly and step-wisely decreased from baseline, to 4-, and 12-weeks vaccinations in the both groups. No significant changes of other markers were observed in both groups at each time point. CONCLUSION: Simultaneous inoculations of TIV and PPSV23 were safety in patients with CAD, suggesting that dual vaccinations can be considered even in patients with CAD.

18.
Circ J ; 84(9): 1511-1518, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Characteristics and treatment outcomes of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients have been studied; however, those of recent myocardial infarction (RMI) patients remain unclear. This study aimed to clarify characteristics, treatment strategy, and in-hospital outcomes of RMI patients in the Tokyo CCU network database.Methods and Results:In total, 1,853 RMI and 12,494 AMI patients from the Tokyo CCU network database during 2013-2016 were compared. Both RMI and AMI were redefined by onset times of 2-28 days and ≤24 h, respectively. The RMI group had a higher average age (70.4±12.9 vs. 68.0±13.4 years, P<0.001), more women (27.6% vs. 23.6%, P<0.001), lower proportion of patients with chest pain as the chief complaint (75.2% vs. 83.6%, P<0.001), higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus (35.9% vs. 31.0%, P<0.001), and higher mechanical complication incidence (3.0% vs. 1.5%, P<0.001) than did the AMI group. Thirty-day mortality was comparable (5.3% vs. 5.8%, P=0.360); major causes of death were cardiogenic shock and mechanical complications in the AMI and RMI groups, respectively. Death from mechanical complications (not onset time) in the AMI group plateaued almost 1 week after hospitalization, whereas it continued to increase in the RMI group. CONCLUSIONS: Both RMI and AMI patients have distinctive clinical features, sequelae, and causes of death. Although treatment of RMI patients adhered to guidelines, it was insufficient, and death from mechanical complications continues to increase.

19.
Int Heart J ; 61(3): 470-475, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350212

RESUMO

Cardiovascular events still occur despite statin-based lipid-lowering therapy in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). LR11, a member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family, is a novel marker for the proliferation of intimal smooth muscle cells, which are critical to atherosclerotic plaque formation. We evaluated the impact of LR11 on long-term clinical outcomes in CAD patients treated with statins after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).This study included 223 consecutive CAD patients (age, 64.5 ± 9.6 years; male, 81.2%) treated with statin after first PCI between March 2003 and December 2004 at our institution. Patients were stratified to two groups according to LR11 levels (median). Composite cardiovascular disease (CVD) endpoints that included cardiovascular death, non-fatal acute coronary syndrome and non-fatal stroke were compared between groups.The rate of CVD endpoints was significantly higher in the high LR11 group (log-rank, P = 0.0029) during the median follow-up period of 2844 days. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that a higher LR11 level was significantly associated with adverse clinical outcomes (adjusted hazard ratio for composite CVD endpoints, 2.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-4.92; P = 0.006).Elevated levels of LR11 were significantly associated with long-term clinical outcomes among CAD patients treated with statins after first PCI.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Relacionadas a Receptor de LDL/sangue , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/etiologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
20.
J Clin Med ; 9(5)2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32455937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated the combined effects of physical activity (PA) and aggressive low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction on the changes in coronary plaque volume (PV) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) using volumetric intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) analysis. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from two different prospective clinical trials that involved 101 ACS patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and assessed the non-culprit sites of PCI lesions using IVUS at baseline and at the follow-up. After PCI, all the patients participated in early phase II comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation. Patients were divided into four groups based on whether the average daily step count, measured using a pedometer, was 7000 steps of more and whether the follow-up LDL-C level was <70 mg/dL. At the time of follow-up, we examined the correlation of changes in the PV with LDL-C and PA. RESULTS: The baseline characteristics of the four study groups were comparable. At the follow-up, plaque regression in both the achievement group (PA and LDL-C reduction) was higher than that in the other three groups. In addition, plaque reduction independently correlated with increased PA and reduction in LDL-C level. CONCLUSIONS: Combined therapy of intensive PA and achievement of LDL-C target retarded coronary PV in patients with ACS.

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